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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 829716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776031

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the relationship of advanced human capital structure with public health applying the panel threshold regression model in China. The empirical results highlight that the advanced human capital structure has a non-linear single threshold effect on population health indicators. The health-promoting effect of advanced human capital structure is significantly weaker when exceeding the threshold. These asymmetric effects are strongly related to the response of China's health policies. The promotion effect of the advanced human capital structure on public health has significant heterogeneity in different regions. There is a single threshold value in the eastern and central regions, but the threshold value and facilitation effect are different. However, the western region has no threshold. The heterogeneity effects are caused by the different levels of advanced human capital structure. Governments should adopt appropriate public health policies according to the development characteristics of different regions.


Subject(s)
Public Health , China , Feedback , Health Policy , Humans
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058247, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We explored use and usability of general practitioner (GP) online services. SETTING: Devon and Cornwall, England. DESIGN: Mixed-methods sequential study based on qualitative interviews, analysis of routine eConsult usage and feedback data, and assessment of GP websites. METHODS: First, we interviewed 32 staff and 18 patients from seven practices in June 2018. Second, we used routinely collected consultation meta-data and, third, patient feedback data for all practices using eConsult from June 2018 to March 2021. Lastly, we examined GP websites' usability in January 2020 and September 2021. RESULTS: Interviews suggested practices infrequently involved patients in eConsult implementation. Some patients 'gamed' the system to achieve what they wanted. Usage data showed a major increase in eConsult resulting from COVID-19. Women used eConsult twice as much as men. Older had similar eConsult consultation rates to younger patients. Patient feedback forms were completed for fewer than 3% of consultations. Patients were mostly satisfied with eConsult but some had concerns about its length and repetitiveness, lack of continuity over time and between eConsult and medical records. We did not find clear evidence that patients' suggested improvements were acted on. Finally, few GP websites met accessibility guidelines and may hinder access to online national services such as eConsult. CONCLUSION: Given that, face to face, older people consult more, usage data suggest that older people have reduced online access. That the female-to-male ratio of eConsult use use was even greater than 'traditional' face-to-face ratio was unexpected and needs further research. Although eConsult collects and uses routine patient feedback to improve the system, more open systems for patient feedback, such as Care Opinion, may be more effective in helping online systems evolve. Lastly, we question the need for GP websites and suggest that national or regional services are better placed to maintain accessible services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , England , Feedback , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Primary Health Care/methods , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 206: 114163, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719388

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of the pandemic prevention and control. A rapid and sensitive antigen assay is crucial in diagnosing and curbing pandemic. Here, we report a novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on laser heterodyne feedback interferometry for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen, which is achieved by detecting the tiny difference in refractive index between different antigen concentrations. The biosensor converts the refractive index changes at the sensing unit into the intensity changes of light through surface plasmon resonance, achieving label-free and real-time detection of biological samples. Moreover, the gain amplification effect of the laser heterodyne feedback interferometry further improved the sensitivity of this biosensor. The biosensor can rapidly respond to continuous and periodic changes in the refractive index with a high resolution of 3.75 × 10-8 RIU, demonstrating the repeatability of the biosensor. Afterwards, the biosensor is immobilized by the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibodies, thus realizing the specific recognition of the antigen. The biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity towards the concentration of the antigen with a linear dynamic range of five orders of magnitude and a resolution of 0.08 pg/mL. These results indicate that this principle can be used as a rapid diagnostic method for COVID-19 antigens without sample labelling.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feedback , Humans , Lasers , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e049462, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706581

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Clinical education has moved to a 'competency-based' model with an emphasis on workplace-based learning and assessment which, in turn, depends on feedback to be effective. Further, the understanding of feedback has changed from information about a performance directed to the learner performing the task, to a dialogue, which enables the learner to act and develop.In health professional education, feedback is a complex interaction between trainee, supervisor and the healthcare system. Most published research on feedback in health professional education originates in Europe and North America. Our interest is on the impact of Culture on this process, particularly in the context of Asian cultures.The (scientific) realist approach of Pawson and Tilley provides a means to examine complex interventions in social situations, and thus is an appropriate lens to use for this study. This is a protocol for a realist synthesis which asks how, why and in what circumstances do Asian Cultures influence health professional trainees to seek, respond to and use feedback given in the clinical environment, if at all. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An initial search was performed to help define the scope of the review question and develop our initial programme theory. The formal electronic search was carried out in February 2020 and included: CINAHL, ERIC, Medline and PsycInfo, and repeated in October 2020. Retrieved articles were imported into Covidence for screening and data extraction, after which components of the Context-Mechanisms-Outcomes configurations will be sought to refine the initial programme theory. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this study is a literature review, ethics approval is not required.The findings will be documented in line with the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) publications standards for Realist syntheses, and we plan to disseminate the findings by means of a peer-reviewed journal article and conference presentation(s).


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Feedback , Health Occupations , Health Personnel , Humans , Review Literature as Topic
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686943

ABSTRACT

One of the main concerns of the last century is regarding the air pollution and its effects caused on human health. Its impact is particularly evident in cities and urban areas where governments are trying to mitigate its effects. Although different solutions have been already proposed, citizens continue to report bad conditions in the areas in which they live. This paper proposes a solution to support governments in monitoring the city pollution through the combination of user feedbacks/reports and real-time data acquired through dedicated mobile IoT sensors dynamically re-located by government officials to verify the reported conditions of specific areas. The mobile devices leverage on dedicated sensors to monitor the air quality and capture main roads traffic conditions through machine learning techniques. The system exposes a mobile application and a website to support the collection of citizens' reports and show gathered data to both institutions and end-users. A proof-of-concept of the proposed solution has been prototyped in a medium-sized university campus. Both the performance and functional validation have demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the system and allowed the definition of some lessons learned, as well as future works.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Environmental Monitoring , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Cities , Feedback , Government , Humans
6.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114366, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654860

ABSTRACT

This communication described how the Coris BioConcept COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip test (Coris-Ag) was implemented in the workflow of our clinical microbiology laboratory for COVID-19 diagnosis. The diagnostic performance statistics (sensitivity, specificity) of the Coris-Ag were evaluated against a gold standard, the RealStar SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR kit 1.0. Additionally, the effect of reading the Coris-Ag results at 30 min was compared to reading at 15 min. The Coris-Ag was performed on a total of 294 patients during two periods; 158 patients were tested during period 1 at the peak of the pandemic (April 6th to April 10th 2020) which returned a positivity rate of 17.1 %, and 136 patients during period 2 (April 12th to April 16th 2020) which returned a positivity rate of 11 %. Compared to the RT-PCR, the 15-minute Coris-Ag readings resulted in a sensitivity of 59.3 % with a 100 % specificity for the period 1 patients (n = 158) while the sensitivity decreased to 20 % for the period 2 patients (n = 136). The overall sensitivity was 38.1 % for both periods (n = 294). The corresponding 30-minute readings produced a 7 % increase in sensitivity with a specificity of 100 % (n = 294). The sensitivity of the strip test (15-min reading) for high viral loads (Ct <25) was 84.6 %.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Feedback , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592135

ABSTRACT

Regular physical exercise is essential for overall health; however, it is also crucial to mitigate the probability of injuries due to incorrect exercise executions. Existing health or fitness applications often neglect accurate full-body motion recognition and focus on a single body part. Furthermore, they often detect only specific errors or provide feedback first after the execution. This lack raises the necessity for the automated detection of full-body execution errors in real-time to assist users in correcting motor skills. To address this challenge, we propose a method for movement assessment using a full-body haptic motion capture suit. We train probabilistic movement models using the data of 10 inertial sensors to detect exercise execution errors. Additionally, we provide haptic feedback, employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation immediately, as soon as an error occurs, to correct the movements. The results based on a dataset collected from 15 subjects show that our approach can detect severe movement execution errors directly during the workout and provide haptic feedback at respective body locations. These results suggest that a haptic full-body motion capture suit, such as the Teslasuit, is promising for movement assessment and can give appropriate haptic feedback to the users so that they can improve their movements.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Movement , Feedback , Humans , Motion , Motor Skills
8.
Nephrol Ther ; 18(1): 21-28, 2022 Feb.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586942

ABSTRACT

At the start of the COVID crisis, NephroCare operated 40 dialysis units in 7 regions, with 2,740 hemodialysis patients. The national COVID-19 crisis team implemented early the necessary measures to ensure the safety of dialysis patients and caregivers in the context of the pandemic. These measures were mostly traditional, but some were specific to our organization. They were modified during the 3 successive waves. The first wave mainly impacted NephroCare Ile-de-France which recorded 75% of the contaminations with an impact on the dialysis parameters of non-COVID patients which was not found during the second wave due to reduced stress (34% of contaminations) and a better management of COVID+ patients. The effectiveness of the measures put in place is suggested by the absence of PCR+ in asymptomatic patients and the perfect adequacy of the anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies with the diagnosis of COVID in one severely impacted Ile-de-France unit, opposite to literature reporting significant rates of positive PCR or serology in asymptomatic patients. In addition, the contamination rate was calculated below the national rate reported by the Biomedicine Agency. The third wave was marked by the implementation of the anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccination with a proportion of vaccinated patients not different from national data and a decrease in COVID cases at the end of the third wave while the national incidence remained stable on the period. In conclusion, this experience of facing an unprecedented serious situation showed the responsiveness of the organization, significant innovations and the efficacy of the implemented measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feedback , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(7): Doc117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533613

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Digital teaching formats have seen increased use, and not just since the beginning of the pandemic. They can also be used to teach cognitive, practical and communicative learning objectives effectively. We describe the implementation of an online-only course on alcohol/smoking counselling in the COVID-19 summer semester (SS) 2020 and an inverted classroom (IC) concept in the winter semester (WS) 2020/21 at the University Hospital of Würzburg. Methodology: The interdisciplinary subject of "prevention" teaches students about high-risk alcohol consumption/smoking and how to conduct a brief verbal intervention. All 143 (SS) and 131 (WS) 6th-semester medical students completed a 90-minute course: module 1 included a Prezi® presentation on alcohol/smoking basics. Module 2 introduced a counselling concept (alcohol or smoking) online or classroom-based (WS only), depending on the participants' choice. In the online practical component, each student created a counselling video and reflections at home, and later received written feedback from lecturers/tutors. Supervised role-playing was used in the classroom-based format in the WS. There were 2 exam questions on module 1 at the end of each semester. Results: The students surveyed (11%) were satisfied with module 1. Practical exercises and feedback received praise in the evaluation of the classroom-based format (response: 97%). It was not possible for all students to perform counselling due to time constraints. A majority of participants filmed live role-playing in the online practical component. The exam questions were answered correctly by 31% (SS) and 36% (WS) respectively. Conclusions: Counselling can also be taught digitally: creating one's own videos with delayed written feedback is an innovative form of teaching. We are now aiming for a mix of both aspects as an IC with 90 minutes of classroom-based practical exercises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Counseling , Feedback , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking
12.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(4): Doc81, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523662

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the pandemic-related restrictions in classroom teaching at the medical faculties of the LMU Munich and the University of Basel, teaching methods with standardized patients (SPs), were shifted to a digital, web-based format at short notice as of April 2020. We report on our experiences with the WebEncounter program, which was used for the first time in German-speaking countries. The program enables one-to-one encounters between SPs and students. Students receive an invitational email with brief instructions and background information on the case. SPs use case-specific criteria that are compliant with the learning objectives for digital evaluation during the encounter. A feedback session takes place immediately following the encounter. The SPs address the didactically relevant sections and can illustrate them with the corresponding video sequences. Finally, the students receive the links to the video recordings of the encounter and the feedback unit by email. Project description: The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the practicability of the program and its acceptance by students and SPs. In addition, we examined whether the operationalization of the learning objectives in the form of assessment items has an impact on the content and thematic development of courses in the area of doctor-patient communication. Methods: To implement the program, patient cases previously tested in communication seminars in Munich and Basel were rewritten and case-specific evaluation criteria were developed. SPs were trained to use the program, to present their patient figure online and to give feedback. The experience of those involved (faculty, SPs and SP trainers, students) in implementing the program was documented at various levels. The frequency and causes of technical problems were described. Student results on the patient cases and on the feedback items were collected quantitatively and, where possible, supplemented by free-text statements. Results: Data from 218/220 students in Basel and 120/127 students in Munich were collected and evaluated. Students were very satisfied with the patient cases, the encounter with the SPs and their feedback: 3.81±0.42. SPs experienced the training as an increase in their competence and the structured feedback as particularly positive. The training effort per SP was between 2.5 and 4 hours. The results show predominantly normally-distributed, case-specific sum scores of the evaluation criteria. The analysis of the individual assessment items refers to learning objectives that students find difficult to achieve (e.g. explicitly structuring the conversation). Problems in the technical implementation (<10 percent of the encounters) were due mainly to the use of insufficient hardware or internet connection problems. The need to define case-specific evaluation criteria triggered a discussion in the group of study directors about learning objectives and their operationalization. Summary: Web-based encounters can be built into the ongoing communication curriculum with reasonable effort. Training the SPs and heeding the technical requirements are of central importance. Practicing the virtual consultation was evaluated very positively by the students - in particular, the immediate feedback in the protected dialogue was appreciated by all involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Physician-Patient Relations , Remote Consultation , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Feedback , Germany , Humans , Internet , Pilot Projects , Remote Consultation/standards , Switzerland
14.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(11): 2888-2901, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490673

ABSTRACT

Demonstrators spend significant time with students on a weekly basis in instructional laboratories and are well poised to offer students meaningful learning. Most often, effective demonstrator training is neglected due to time and resource restraints and it is clear more attention is needed. We hypothesized that students' learning experience in laboratories would improve if demonstrators were well trained particularly across three overlapping learning domains: subject-specific knowledge (cognitive and psychomotor), problem solving (cognitive) and group management including personalized student learning strategies (affective). We assessed both students and demonstrators on the impact of this extensive demonstrator training in 1st- and 2nd-year bioscience practical courses over two years. The results show that all students rated the demonstrators' performance higher after the extensive training. Students from both years valued the provision of problem-solving skills; however, 1st-year students placed greater value on the demonstrator's ability to address student inclusivity, whereas 2nd-year students preferred the provision of strong subject knowledge. Interestingly, demonstrators' own perception of their teaching ability was different from student feedback on their performance, which may be due to lack of reflective practice. We propose a multimodal training framework that includes inclusivity/approachability and reflection as an integral part of training. This study further suggests that demonstrator training needs to be tailored to the changing needs of students as they progress through the different levels of their degree. Our proposed framework is particularly relevant to the current pandemic which has affected young people's mental health, confidence and openness to new experiences.


Subject(s)
Education/methods , Students/psychology , Teacher Training/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Curriculum , Feedback , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Learning , Male
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 505, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Progress feedback provides therapists with progress notes on a regular basis through the continuous assessment of participants throughout their treatment (e.g., symptoms, therapeutic alliance). While for adults the evidence base has increased over the years, progress feedback in the therapy of children and adolescents has not been sufficiently investigated. This manuscript describes the trial protocol of the OPTIE study: a randomized trial that tests the efficacy of a progress feedback system in children and adolescents under conditions of routine care. METHODS: The study is based on a randomized parallel-group trial with two treatment groups (routine, feedback) at an outpatient unit of a university hospital. The target sample size is 439 families consisting of children and adolescents aged 6 to17 years old with internalizing and/or externalizing symptoms. Both the patients and the therapists are independently assigned to the treatment groups by stratified block randomization. In both treatment groups patients receive routine care behavioral therapy for a study-related 12 months; additionally, in the feedback group, a progress feedback system with three components is applied (monitoring, report, and supervision). For three informants (caregiver, child [≥ 11 years], therapist) surveys are conducted every 6 weeks (e.g., symptoms, goals, motivation). For both treatment groups, comparison data is collected at baseline and at six and 12 months after the beginning of the intervention (pre, inter, post), and includes five informants (blinded clinician, therapist, caregiver, child [≥ 11 years], teacher). DISCUSSION: The OPTIE study will contribute to the evidence base of progress feedback in children and adolescents and has the potential to uncover treatments' effects in the small to medium range. Noteworthy features are the inclusion of children younger than 10 years old and the consideration of a blinded clinician rating. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00016737 ( https://www.drks.de/DRKS00016737 ). Registered 17 September, 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Feedback , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
16.
Br Dent J ; 231(8): 503-511, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479805

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSEng) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (RCPSG) offer the bi-collegiate Membership in Orthodontics (MOrth) examination, a summative assessment of specialist knowledge, skill and behaviour in orthodontics. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound global effect on almost every facet of normal life, including the conduct of face-to-face examinations. We highlight development, implementation and feedback for the bi-collegiate MOrth Part 2 examination delivered remotely to a cohort of candidates in September 2020 by RCSEng/RCPSG.Methods Two anonymised online surveys (Google Forms) were distributed via electronic mail following completion of the examination diet. Forty-two candidates were sent a survey covering four domains and comprising a total of 31 questions. The 20 examiners were sent a survey containing eight questions. In both surveys, free-text responses were also collected. A rating system was used to categorise responses. All survey responses were summarised in an online data collection sheet.Results The response rate was 78.5% (33/42) and 75% (15/20) for candidates and examiners, respectively. Overall, favourable responses in relation to all sections of the assessment were elicited from candidates with the majority (mean 79.8%; 75.8-81.9%) reporting that the online examination format worked well. Equally, favourable responses were reported by examiners. Notably, 80% of examiners felt that the online exam style did not affect the mark a candidate would receive, and 100% were confident that the marks the candidates received were a reflection of their ability and were not affected by the online delivery of the assessment.Conclusions The feedback from both candidates and examiners relating to an online remote assessment of the bi-collegiate MOrth Part 2 was generally positive. Based on the survey responses, this format of a high-stakes examination was acceptable to all stakeholders, and demonstrated a high level of perceived validity and reliability in terms of content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Educational Measurement , Feedback , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 164-169, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477743

ABSTRACT

In the latter half of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began spreading worldwide. To prevent COVID-19 infection, all teaching at Suzuka University of Medical Sciences from April to June 2020 took place as remote lectures, not in the face-to-face format. This study analyzed postlecture questionnaire responses regarding face-to-face and remote teaching on the subject of nuclear medicine technology examinations. We examined the educational effect of using remote lectures. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey among students by means of a 5-point evaluation scale about satisfaction, comprehension, concentration, preparation, reviewing, and the question environment for face-to-face and remote lectures. Results: We present the results as means and SDs. Satisfaction results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.30 ± 0.72 and 3.36 ± 0.88, respectively. Comprehension results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.30 ± 0.71 and 3.30 ± 0.83, respectively. Concentration results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 3.50 ± 0.69 and 3.05 ± 0.90, respectively. The preparation results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 2.57 ± 0.88 and 2.67 ± 0.94, respectively. The reviewing results for face-to-face and remote lectures were 2.84 ± 0.85 and 3.39 ± 0.89, respectively. The question environment results for face-to-face and remote lectures lessons were 2.94 ± 0.90 and 3.43 ± 0.84, respectively. There were no significant differences between face-to-face and remote lectures in terms of satisfaction, comprehension, or preparation. There were significant differences between face-to-face and remote lectures in terms of concentration, reviewing, and the questioning environment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This comparative analysis of the postlecture questionnaire responses for face-to-face and remote formats in nuclear medicine technology examinations showed that remote lectures have a strong educational effect. We believe that, in future, remote lectures should be considered a tool in student education.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Nuclear Medicine/education , Curriculum , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement , Feedback , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Lasers Surg Med ; 53(3): 370-376, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Temperature-controlled radiofrequency inferior turbinate ablation (TCRFA) uses a feedback system to control thermal injury and achieve precise volumetric heating to induce specific scar formation. However, it requires costly single-use proprietary consumables. Comparable volumetric tissue heating may be achieved for a fraction of the cost by adjusting the power settings on traditional monopolar electrosurgery devices that use low-cost needle tips. This pre-clinical study aims to determine the optimized power parameters to achieve electrosurgical coagulum volume similar to that of TCRFA. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electrosurgery submucosal diathermy (SMD) system (cut mode, 4-32 W, 5-120 seconds) and a temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation system (standard clinical parameters for treating inferior turbinate hypertrophy) were used to coagulate egg white and chicken breast. Coagulum major and minor axis were measured, and lesion volume was approximated as prolate spheroid. RESULTS: No significant difference in volume was found between the temperature-controlled system and the electrosurgery system at 8 W for 30 seconds, 8 W for 60 seconds, 16 W for 30 seconds, 32 W for 5 seconds, and 32 W for 15 seconds. The time to achieve equivalent lesion size was significantly less in the SMD system when compared to the temperature-controlled system (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Electrosurgery handpieces may achieve similar lesion volume effects as the temperature feedback-controlled, single-use handpieces when set to the optimized parameters. SMD handpieces are significantly more cost and time effective than proprietary devices, and they are easily used in the office. SMD devices may be a more affordable alternative to temperature-controlled systems with comparable lesion volume effect and may be valuable for office-based therapy. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Diathermy , Electrosurgery , Feedback , Heating , Turbinates/surgery
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19463, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447325

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing behavior turned out to be key to mitigating the virus spread. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand how we can successfully alter our behavior and promote physical distancing. We present a framework to systematically assess the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to stimulate physical distancing. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of this framework in a large-scale natural experiment (N = 639) conducted during an art fair. In an experimental design, we varied interventions to evaluate the effect of face masks, walking directions, and immediate feedback on visitors' contacts. We represent visitors as nodes, and their contacts as links in a contact network. Subsequently, we used network modelling to test for differences in these contact networks. We find no evidence that face masks influence physical distancing, while unidirectional walking directions and buzzer feedback do positively impact physical distancing. This study offers a feasible way to optimize physical distancing interventions through scientific research. As such, the presented framework provides society with the means to directly evaluate interventions, so that policy can be based on evidence rather than conjecture.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Adult , Feedback , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Public Policy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Health Econ ; 30(12): 3123-3137, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437045

ABSTRACT

In response to an emerging pandemic, there is urgent need for information regarding individual evaluation of risk and preferences toward mitigation strategies such as vaccinations. However, with social distancing policies and financial stress during an outbreak, traditional robust survey methodologies of face-to-face, probabilistic sampling, may not be feasible to deploy quickly, especially in developing countries. We recommend a protocol that calls for a sensitive survey design, acceptance of a web-based approach and adjustments for uncertainty of respondents, to deliver urgently needed information to policymakers as the public health crisis unfolds, rather than in its aftermath. This information is critical to tailor comprehensive vaccination campaigns that reach critical immunity thresholds. We apply our recommendations in a regional study of 16 Latin American countries in the month following index cases of COVID-19. We use a split-sample, contingent valuation approach to evaluate the effects of cost, duration of immunity and effectiveness of the vaccine. Our results show that cost and duration of immunity are significant factors in the decision to vaccinate, while the degree of effectiveness is insignificant, unless the vaccine is 100% effective. Income as well as perceived risk and severity of the virus are important determinants also.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Feedback , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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