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1.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776297

ABSTRACT

Stress caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may lead to emotional eating which may have a negative impact on the weight status. This study aimed to analyze the association between emotional eating and body mass, as well as changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic, within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. A total of 1126 Polish adolescents, aged 15-20, were included. A random quota sampling was performed within a national sample, and emotional eating was assessed using Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ). Based on the declared height and weight before and during the pandemic, the respondents were categorized according to their body mass (malnourished, normal weight, overweight, obese) and changes in body mass during the COVID-19 pandemic (lost weight, no body mass change, gained weight). Higher EEQ scores were achieved by female respondents compared with males (p < 0.0001), respondents who stated that they gained weight during the pandemic compared with those who stated either weight loss or no body mass change (p < 0.0001), and overweight and obese respondents compared with those who had normal weight and who were malnourished (p < 0.0001). A higher share of emotional eaters and very emotional eaters was found among female respondents, respondents stating weight gain during the pandemic, and overweight and obese respondents, compared with the other ones (p < 0.0001). Based on the findings, it may be concluded that among Polish adolescents gender, body mass, and body mass change during the COVID-19 pandemic are the major determinants of emotional eating behaviors and that female individuals, obese individuals, and those gaining weight are especially vulnerable to emotional eating behaviors. The results of the study suggest that the issue of emotional eating should be addressed in general public health policy and appropriate education should be provided to vulnerable groups such as female and obese adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765539

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 related lockdown made it much more difficult for people to control their eating behaviours and body weight with the methods and means they had used before. This is reflected in reports that show that eating behaviours deteriorated significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic (including in Poland). Therefore, it is important to determine what factors may be conducive to healthy eating behaviours among people with different BMI. As previous studies show, the use of healthy eating related-apps and training programs may be a protective factor against the development of unhealthy eating behaviours. Therefore, it is worth checking whether their action will be a protective factor during COVID-19. The aim of this cross sectional study was to analyse whether the current use of healthy eating-related apps and previous participation in training in this field (educational activities) as well as body mass index may play a role in eating motives and behaviours among women during COVID-19. Our final sample included 1,447 women (age: M = 31.34 ± 11.05). Participants completed: the Eating Motivation Survey, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Mindful Eating Questionnaire, socio-demographic survey and questions about healthy eating-related apps and training (educational activities). Referring to the selected significant results, our study shows that during COVID-19, the use of healthy eating-related apps alone, as well as the use of apps and prior training participation promote healthy eating motives and behaviours. It suggests that promoting the use of healthy eating applications and the acquisition of knowledge and skills in this field could be one way of shaping resources that can be effectively used to deal with crisis situations.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Mobile Applications , Motivation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Education , Health Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing epidemic among university students, and the high levels of stress reported by this population could contribute to this issue. Singular relationships between perceived stress; engagement in restrained, uncontrolled, and emotional eating; sleep; dietary risk; and body mass index (BMI) have been reported in the current body of literature; however, these constructs interact with each other, and the complex relationships among them are infrequently examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the complex relationships between these constructs using mediation and moderation analyses stratified by gender. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, enrolling university students from the United States (U.S.), the Netherlands, South Korea, Malaysia, Ireland, Ghana, and China, was conducted between October 2020 and January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived stress; maladaptive eating behaviors including restrained, uncontrolled, and emotional eating; sleep duration and quality; dietary risk; and BMI were assessed using validated questionnaires, which were distributed through an online platform. RESULTS: A total of 1392 students completed the online survey (379 male, 973 female, and 40 who self-identified as "other"). Uncontrolled and emotional eating mediated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary risk for both males and females; higher sleep quality weakened this relationship among female students but not males. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between perceived stress and BMI for both males and females, but higher sleep quality weakened this relationship only among females. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that students in higher education are likely to benefit from interventions to reduce uncontrolled and emotional eating. Programs that improve sleep quality, especially during highly stressful periods, may be helpful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Sleep , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States , Universities
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686801

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, on eating and physical activity behavior, in a university population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables, can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. We conducted a cross-sectional study and data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary behavior and physical activity; the Mediterranean Diet questionnaire (MEDAS-14) and the Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ). A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire: 66.7% were women, 79.2% were from Spain, 76.8% were students, 76.2% lived in their family home and 66.1% were of normal weight. During lockdown our population shopped for groceries 1 time or less per week (76.8%); maintained the same consumption of fruits (45.2%), vegetables (50.6%), dairy products (61.9%), pulses (64.9%), fish/seafood (57.7%), white meat (77.4%), red and processed meat (71.4%), pastries and snacks (48.2%), rice/pasta/potatoes (70.2%) and nuts (62.5%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%). Cooking time increased (73.2%) and the consumption decreased of low alcohol drinks (60.1%), spirits (75%) and sugary drinks (57.1%), and physical activity also diminished (49.4%). University Employees (UE) gained more weight (1.01 ± 0.02) than students (0.99 ± 0.03) (p < 0.05) during the confinement period. A total of 79.8% of the participants obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD during lockdown. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in the female group (p < 0.01). In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the female and UE groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
5.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595434

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships of food safety knowledge, attitude and eating behavior of consumers during national lockdowns in the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 157 respondents completed the online survey using a structured questionnaire worldwide. Overall, the respondents exhibited good attitude and good knowledge towards public health including food safety especially on the importance of social distancing, mask wearing, well-balanced diet, physical exercise and personal hygiene, such as hand washing during the pandemic lockdowns. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among food safety knowledge, attitude and behavior under the pandemic conditions. Results showed that attitude towards food safety under the coronavirus pandemic and lockdowns positively affected the eating behavior of the respondents, which exhibited a high ß (0.686) among the variables tested (p<0.05). Food safety knowledge was apparently not affected by the food safety behavior of the respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Global Health , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 258-268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially increased the risk for adolescent depression. Even pre-pandemic, <50% of youth with depression accessed care, highlighting needs for accessible interventions. Accordingly, this randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04634903 ) tested online single-session interventions (SSIs) during COVID-19 in adolescents with elevated depression symptoms (N = 2,452, ages 13-16). Adolescents from all 50 US states, recruited via social media, were randomized to one of three SSIs: a behavioural activation SSI, an SSI teaching that traits are malleable and a supportive control. We tested each SSI's effects on post-intervention outcomes (hopelessness and agency) and three-month outcomes (depression, hopelessness, agency, generalized anxiety, COVID-19-related trauma and restrictive eating). Compared with the control, both active SSIs reduced three-month depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.18), decreased post-intervention and three-month hopelessness (d = 0.16-0.28), increased post-intervention agency (d = 0.15-0.31) and reduced three-month restrictive eating (d = 0.12-17). Several differences between active SSIs emerged. These results confirm the utility of free-of-charge, online SSIs for high-symptom adolescents, even in the high-stress COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/therapy , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3947 outpatients, from 14 February to 2 March 2020, at nine health facilities in Vietnam. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, healthy eating behavior (using the healthy eating score (HES) questionnaire), physical activity (using the short form international physical activity questionnaire), and Slike-CV19S. The associations and interactions were tested using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Frequent intake of fruits (OR = 0.84; p = 0.016), vegetables (OR = 0.72; p = 0.036), and fish (OR = 0.43; p < 0.001) were associated with a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared with infrequent intake. Patients with higher HES levels (OR = 0.84; p = 0.033 for medium HES; OR = 0.77; p = 0.006 for high HES) or being physically active (OR = 0.69; p < 0.001) had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES or physical inactivity, respectively. Patients with medium HES who were physically active (OR = 0.69; p = 0.005), or with high HES and physically active (OR = 0.58; p < 0.001), had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES and physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating behavior and physical activity showed single and combinative impacts on protecting people from Slike-CV19S. Strategic approaches are encouraged to improve healthy behaviors, which may further contribute to containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam , Young Adult
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410476

ABSTRACT

Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. In this cross-sectional analytical study, five previously validated surveys were condensed into a single 86-item online questionnaire. The survey was sent to 1000 potential participants of the university community; it was kept online for 28 days to be answered. Of the 639 respondents, the mean self-reported weight gain during confinement was 1.99 kg (standard deviation [SE]: 0.17) and 0.7 (SE: 0.06) units of body mass index (BMI) (both p < 0.001) and the median difference in body weight during lockdown was 3.3% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.0-6.7). The differences of intake of most food groups before and during lockdown were associated with greater self-reported weight, BMI and percentage weight gain. Differences in lifestyle (odds ratio [OR] = 14.21, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.35-85.82) worsening eating habits (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 2.31-5.09), and more consumption of sweet or filled cookies and cakes during lockdown (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.42-3.13) were associated with self-reported weight gain. In conclusion, different dietary behaviours (mainly consumption of industrialized foods) during lockdown, as well as quality of life deterioration were the main factors associated with self-reported weight gain during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Universities , Young Adult
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348679

ABSTRACT

The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325745

ABSTRACT

Food preferences are within the most important determinants of food choices; however, little is known about their complex associations, and no studies were conducted in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between food preferences and food choice determinants in adolescents aged 15-20 years within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. The PLACE-19 Study included a random quota sampling conducted in the whole of Poland and covered a population-based sample of 2448 secondary school students. The food preferences were assessed using a validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), and the food choices were assessed using a validated Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). The statistical analysis comprised k-means clustering and linear regression adjusted for sex and age. Four homogenous clusters of respondents were defined based on the food choice motives-"healthy eaters" (health as the most important determinant of food choices), "hedonists" (convenience, sensory appeal, and price as the most important determinants), "indifferent consumers" (low significance for all determinants), and "demanding consumers" (high significance for all determinants). The preferences for all food categories differed when comparing between clusters presenting various food choice determinants (p < 0.001). The "healthy eaters" were characterized by the highest preference for vegetables; the "hedonists" preferred meat/fish, dairy, and snacks; the "demanding consumers" had a high preference for all food categories, while "indifferent consumers" had a low preference for all food categories. All preference scores were positively associated with mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, and price (p < 0.05). The results confirmed the association between food preferences and food choice determinants in adolescents, as well as allowed adolescents to be clustered into segments to define various needs and motives among the identified segments. For public health purposes, it may be crucial to educate "hedonists," with a high preference for meat/fish, dairy and snacks, accompanied by convenience, sensory appeal, and price as the most important determinants of their food choices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Adolescent , Affect , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(9): 618-630, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323450

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study aims to develop a dietary consciousness scale and examine its reliability and validity, as well as investigate the changes in psychological aspects that influence diet among Japanese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and clarify its related factors.Methods An online survey was conducted from July 1, 2020 to July 3, 2020. Participants were adults aged between 20 and 69 years selected from 13 prefectures where the government declared the state of emergency from April to May 2020. All selected participants were shopping or cooking foods for more than 2 days a week at the time of the survey. A total of 2,299 participants were included in the analysis. Dietary consciousness was measured using 12 items, and the construct was examined using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was examined as an indicator of internal validity, and the criterion-referenced validity was confirmed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. To determine changes in dietary consciousness, we calculated total scores based on changes in each item of the Dietary Consciousness Scale as follows: no change (0 points), improved (+1 point), and worsening (-1 point). The associations between the changes in dietary consciousness and characteristics or socioeconomic factors of the participants were examined using the chi-squared test and residual analysis.Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a model consisting of two factors fitted the data (GFI = 0.958, AGFI = 0.938, CFI = 0.931, RMSEA = 0.066). Cronbach's alpha of the first factor (importance of diet) was 0.838 and 0.734 for the second factor (precedence of diet), and the reliability was confirmed at 0.828 for the entire scale. In the examination of criterion-related validity, the higher the stage of change, the higher the total score of the scale, and a significant difference was observed (P<0.001). The percentage of participants whose precedence worsened was higher than the importance. Significant differences were observed regarding gender, age group, marital status, employment status, household annual income, and income change during the COVID-19 pandemic considering changes in both the importance and precedence of diet. Those who were in the "worsening tendency" group in both the importance and precedence were men, 20-29 years old, unmarried, full-time employees, with a household income of 4-6 million yen during the past year.Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, the precedence of diet worsened, compared to its importance, and men, young, or unmarried persons show a worsening of dietary consciousness.


Subject(s)
/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Consciousness , Diet/psychology , Eating/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/economics , Diet/economics , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people's lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity (PA), hours of sleep, and screen time among Polish children and adolescents aged 6-15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We obtained self-reported data from 1016 participants at two measurement points before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland to examine the influence of the lockdown and the distance learning on PA, dietary habits, sleep, and media usage of children and adolescents aged 6-15 years. The study identified dietary differences and changes in daily activity patterns (reduced sleep duration with higher sleep quality and reduced physical activity). Additionally, the increase in general media usage was observed during the pandemic alongside a reduction in smartphone usage. Together, the findings indicate increased sleep, physical activity, and reduced media usage and screen time among Polish children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Screen Time , Sleep , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314707

ABSTRACT

Food preferences are among the strongest predictors of the food choices of adolescents. These are associated with appetitive traits (food approach and avoidance) to some extent. However, no research has been conducted so far analyzing the association between food preferences and appetitive traits of adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between food preferences and appetitive traits in adolescents (aged 15-20 years) within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The PLACE-19 Study was carried out in a population-based sample of 2448 secondary school students sampled across the country (random quota sampling). Food preferences (including the preference for vegetables, fruit, meat/fish, dairy, snacks, and starches) of the adolescents were assessed using the validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) while their appetitive traits (hunger, food responsiveness, emotional overeating, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, emotional undereating, food fussiness, slowness in eating) were assessed using the validated Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). The k-means clustering was performed to identify the homogenous clusters of respondents based on their preferences, and linear regression was performed to determine the relationship between food preferences and appetitive traits with a model adjusted for sex and age. Based on their preferences, three homogenous clusters of respondents were defined: low-preferring respondents (low preference for all food categories), respondents preferring snacking foods (low preference for all food categories, except for fruit and snacks), and high-preferring respondents (high preference for all food categories). The low-preferring respondents showed the lowest values for all appetitive traits (p = 0.0008), as well as the lowest total score (p = 0.0001), except for food fussiness, for which they showed the highest value (p = 0.0008). All preference scores were positively associated with traits such as hunger, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, and emotional under-eating, while negatively associated with food fussiness (all p < 0.05). The largest amount of variance was observed for preference for dairy (14.6%; R2 = 0.146, p = 0.008) and snacks with respect to enjoyment of food (16.2%; R2 = 0.162, p = 0.008), for vegetable with respect to food fussiness (22%; R2 = 0.220, p = 0.008), and for meat/fish with respect to enjoyment of food (19.9%; R2 = 0.199, p = 0.008) and food fussiness combined (19.1%; R2 = 0.191, p = 0.008). These results support the association of food preferences with both food approach traits and food avoidance traits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Preferences/physiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309965

ABSTRACT

In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, personal hygiene behaviours such as proper handwashing have gained significantly more attention and interpersonal contact is performed with great care. Disgust, as a disease-avoidance mechanism, can play an important role in the promotion of hygiene behaviour. We know from previous research that pathogen disgust can be a predictor of an individual's behaviour in the pandemic. Given that the pandemic greatly affects our food and eating behaviour, the current study aims to add to the existing evidence and to complement it by investigating the role of food-specific disgust in the pandemic. For that, we conducted an online survey in Germany in April 2020, while the pandemic was spreading in Europe. A total of 519 participants completed the survey and provided information about their COVID-19-related attitudes and behaviours and about their food disgust sensitivity. The results show that food disgust sensitivity is an important predictor for an individual's feelings, shopping behaviour, and disease-preventive behaviour related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the success of political measures to fight the pandemic critically depends on the population to support and follow the proposed measures, a better understanding of the factors driving individual behaviour is key. Implications for pandemic management are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disgust , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273492

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a negative influence on dietary behaviors, which may lead to health deterioration. Dietary behaviors may be determined by psychological characteristics, such as basic hope and resilience, which facilitate the effective adjustment to new difficult conditions. The professional literature includes no research on the role of basic hope and resilience in the context of undertaken dietary behaviors in the situations of mental load associated with pandemics. The study aimed at the description of the dietary behaviors of individuals with various intensities of the discussed psychological characteristics (basic hope and resilience); (2) The observational cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted with the participation of 1082 adult Polish inhabitants. Three psychological scales were used: PSS-10, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and BHI-12 questionnaire. The assessment of the adherence to dietary recommendations was performed with the present authors' Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGA Index); (3) Results: The value of DGA Index was variable depending on the psychological profile of study participants. The highest adherence to the principles of appropriate nutrition was observed in individuals characterized by the ability to cope with difficult situations and those who quickly adapted to new changing circumstances. The DGA Index values became poorer with the deterioration of the coping ability as regards stress and mental load; (4) Conclusions: Nutritional education during pandemics should encompass the psychological profile of the patients. It requires the implementation of a different psychodietetic approach which will facilitate a more effective introduction of a well-balanced diet.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Hope , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Nutrition Policy , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259551

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on populations at an economic, health, and on an interpersonal level, it is still unclear how it has affected health-risk behaviors, such as comfort food consumption over time. This study longitudinally examines the effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption and whether this effect is mediated by emotional distress. A convenience sample of 1048 students and university staff (academic and non-academic) from two universities completed monthly online surveys during the COVID-19 pandemic across six waves (W; W1 to W6). Participants reported their perceived impact of COVID-19 (economic, interpersonal, and health), comfort food consumption, and emotional distress (DASS-21). Using structural equation models, we found an indirect longitudinal effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 (W1) on comfort food consumption (W3 to W6) through increased emotional distress (W2). The perceived negative impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption was fully mediated by the emotional distress during the first waves (W3 and W4), ending in a partial mediation in the last waves (W5 and W6). These findings contribute to disentangling the mechanisms by which the perceived impact of COVID-19 affects comfort food consumption over time, and highlight the role of emotional distress. Future interventions should address comfort food consumption by focusing on handling emotional distress during a crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet/psychology , Emotions , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Faculty , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/diet therapy , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes not only severe illness but also detrimental effects associated with the lockdown measures. The present study aimed to evaluate reported lifestyle changes in a cohort of adults in Italy, including physical exercise, food choices, and psychological wellbeing, after two months of lockdown. METHODS: A web survey on social media (Facebook and LinkedIn) of 32 multiple-choice questions aiming to evaluate the impact of the national COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of Italian adults. RESULTS: We received 1378 complete responses (women 68.3%, mean age 39.5 ± 12.5 years). The percentage of participants reporting regular exercise decreased during lockdown (52 vs. 56.5%). The vast majority of people continued to consume the three traditional meals per day, but the consumption of meat, fish, and eggs significantly decreased. Women reported more frequent anxiety, sadness, fear, and feelings of insecurity than men. The factors predicting the worst outcome during the lockdown were being a woman, low education and income, gastrointestinal diseases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had a limited impact on food choices and physical exercise in Italian adults of our series, since most of them made an effort to improve their lifestyle. However, women with gastrointestinal diseases reported more frequent negative feelings and poor adaptation to the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Emotions , Female , Humans , Italy , Life Style , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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