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1.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869724

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, eating disorders (ED) among individuals during emerging adulthood have become a crucial challenge to public health, taking into account the fact that the global prevalence of the ED risk in student-aged populations already stands at 10.4% and has been sharply increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. In all, from 50% to 80% of all the ED cases go undetected or are not correctly diagnosed; moreover, these individuals do not receive specialized treatment. Therefore, early diagnosis detected via screening questionnaires for ED is highly recommended. This study aimed to identify the triggers for ED risk development in emerging-adulthood individuals and to reveal the factors significant not only for ED prevention but also for assessing individuals with subthreshold symptoms. This cross-sectional study provides the results for the ED symptom screening in 1716 Lithuanian higher-education students aged 21.2 ± 3.9, during emerging adulthood. According to the results of this study, 19.2% of students were at risk for ED. Potential risk factors such as sex (odds ratio (OR): 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9-4.9), body weight (self-reported body mass index) (adjusted (A) OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7) and comorbidities such as smoking (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6-2.8), and perceived stress during the pandemic (AOR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) are involved in anticipating the symptomatology of ED during emerging adulthood. Regular initial screenings with universally adopted questionnaires and further referral to a psychiatrist must be applied to promote both the diagnosis of early-onset symptomatology and the treatment of these ED in student-aged populations. Preventive programs for reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity among students during emerging adulthood should focus on integration directions for the development of a positive body image.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Students
2.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 30(4): 301-303, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866527
4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 241-245, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, our diet and lifestyle have changed significantly. In this study, it was aimed to determine the changes in diet, body weight and Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) tendency in the pandemic. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among adults (n = 945). An online questionnaire was used to determine nutrition, lifestyle factors and ON tendency (via Google Docs). The questionnaire was also shared on social media groups and pages (instagram, twitter and facebook) managed by registered dietitians. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic individuals' body weight and total food consumption increased by 51.0% and 57.2%, respectively. Increased screen time (OR: 1.912, 95% CI: 1.374-2.661 p < 0.001), sleeping time (OR: 3.630, 95% CI: 2.551-5.166 p < 0.001) and decreased physical activity (OR: 2.051, 95% CI: 1.198-3.509 p < 0.01) were associated with weight gain. The ON tendency increased in all groups according to the change in food consumption status (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the ongoing pandemic, individuals should be provided with adequate nutritional support. It is very important to get that support from nutritionists in order to monitor and control body weight and ON tendency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Pandemics
5.
Eat Disord ; 30(2): 144-153, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791091

ABSTRACT

An array of novel and important studies advancing the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) were published in Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention in 2021. In an unprecedented year of challenges to the delivery of ED treatment, and the volume of patients requiring it, this review summarizes the recent contributions to the literature on the treatment of EDs. Notably, an emphasis on assessing and addressing barriers to collaborative care offers much promise in augmenting treatment delivery and patient outcomes. In keeping with recent data illustrating an elevated risk for increased symptom severity during the COVID-19 pandemic, a focus on further disseminating treatments to higher level of care settings will be critical as the field meets the challenge presented by COVID-19. In addition, we review recent findings relating to the broader assessment and treatment of comorbidities which exacerbate ED symptom severity-which offer critical insights into the development of novel treatments. These recent contributions pave the way for more nuanced approaches to treating EDs across the diagnostic spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Feeding and Eating Disorders/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(4): e150-e153, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789491

ABSTRACT

Eating disorders can have serious consequences for adolescent patients. Early detection and coordination of treatment can improve outcomes. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has negatively affected mental health, and eating disorders are no exception. The reported increase in eating disorder behaviors and referrals for treatment, combined with the shortage of treatment options, has underscored the role of the outpatient pediatrician. Detection of eating disorders in the primary care setting starts with analyzing vitals and weight trends. If suspecting an eating disorder, one should complete a thorough history with pertinent review of systems, physical examination, and an initial laboratory evaluation. Upon confirming a diagnosis, it is important for a pediatrician to decide on the level of care needed. Given long wait times for treatment centers, utilization of local resources is helpful for coordinating a multidisciplinary approach. Increased funding for eating disorder treatment initiatives could help alleviate the current strain on our health care system. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(4):e150-e153.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Feeding Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
9.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 55(9): 923-924, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770096
10.
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 140-142, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768778

ABSTRACT

Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect 13%-18% of young men and women. EDs are associated with substantial psychiatric and medical morbidity and mortality, indicating a critical need for improved identification and treatment. Despite the relatively high prevalence and severity of EDs, they are often omitted from discussions of mental health. This comment is in response to Gruber et al. (2020), who wrote an important article on the challenges and opportunities facing clinical scientists in the time of COVID-19. Our response extends Gruber et al.'s article by noting additional challenges facing people with an ED during COVID-19 and recognizing opportunities for improved evidence-based assessment and treatment of this important population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychopathology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760612

ABSTRACT

Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother-child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients' needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers' depression, anxiety, and obsession-compulsion symptoms. This study showed that video-feedback web-based intervention might be employed successfully to yield considerable beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Internet-Based Intervention , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans
14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152304, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about how people with eating disorders are impacted by the widespread societal restructuring during the COVID-19 crisis. AIMS: We aimed to examine how factors relating to the impact of the pandemic associate with eating disorders and quantify this relationship while adjusting for concurrent and longitudinal parameters of risk. METHODS: We gathered demographic, behavioral and clinical data pre- and mid-pandemic as well as childhood trauma history from a longitudinal online survey of 489 adults (mean age 23.4 years) recruited from the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network (NSPN). Using pre-pandemic (T1) and concurrent (T2) data we aimed to predict eating disorders at mid-pandemic (T2). We deployed hierarchical generalized logistic regression to ascertain the strength of longitudinal and concurrent associations. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic eating disorder scores strongly associated with concurrent eating disorder (z = 5.93). More conflict at home mid-pandemic (z = 2.03), pre- (lower sensation seeking z = -2.58) and mid-pandemic (higher lack of perseverance z = 2.33) impulsivity traits also associated with mid-pandemic eating disorder. CONCLUSION: Conflict at home mid-pandemic and specific aspects of impulsiveness significantly associated with concurrent eating disorder when adjusted for pre-pandemic eating disorder symptoms, baseline demographics, behavioral traits, history of traumatic experiences and concurrent psychopathology. These results provide insight into the struggles of those suffering with eating disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the importance of impulsiveness traits and the immediate family environment in their experience of illness during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Obes Surg ; 32(6): 1884-1894, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery have high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, which may increase their vulnerability to COVID-19-related mental health distress. Exacerbation of mental health distress and disordered eating could have significant negative effects on long-term weight management and quality of life for these patients if untreated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention in improving depressive, anxiety, and disordered eating symptoms during COVID-19. METHODS: Participants were recruited as part of a larger randomized controlled trial study (clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT03315247) between March 2020 and March 2021 and randomized 1:1 to receive Tele-CBT or standard bariatric care. Outcomes of Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Emotional Eating Scale (EES), and Binge Eating Scale (BES) were measured at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Linear mixed models were used to test the effect of intervention group, time, and group-by-time interaction for each outcome. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Mean (SD) age of participants was 47.68 (9.36) years and 80.2% were female. There were significant group-by-time interactions for all outcomes and significant differences between groups across time. There were significant decreases in mean GAD-7 (p = 0.001), PHQ-9 (p < 0.001), EES-Total (p = 0.001), EES-Anger (p = 0.003), EES-Anxiety (p < 0.001), EES-Depression (p < 0.001), and BES (p = 0.002) scores for the Tele-CBT group at post-intervention and follow-up when compared to baseline and the control group. CONCLUSION: Tele-CBT is a feasible and effective treatment for improving psychological distress and disordered eating among post-operative bariatric surgery patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Obesity, Morbid , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Telephone , Treatment Outcome
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708156

ABSTRACT

Because of the serious consequences of eating disorders on young women's lives and because of the lack of specialised care facilities, assessing and implementing evidence-based prevention interventions is necessary. Switzerland, like other Western countries, has high prevalence rates of eating disorders. However, no prevention interventions have been evaluated in this country so far. This paper presents the protocol of a preliminary study with the aim to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of two interventions, the Body Project (BP) and the Healthy Weight Program (HW), for female students from French-speaking Switzerland. These two interventions were chosen because they have been widely evaluated and they proved to be effective in various countries. They take place in groups and include four weekly sessions over one month. Because of the pandemic situation, the group sessions will take place online on an collaborative platform. The design is a three-arm randomised controlled study. Ninety female students aged 18-25 and presenting with at least moderate body dissatisfaction will be randomised into three groups: (1) one-month BP intervention, (2) one-month HW intervention, and (3) one-month waiting-list control group followed by the BP intervention. Assessments of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalisation, dietary restraint, negative affect, and eating disorder psychopathology will be conducted before and after the interventions or waiting list and after a one-month follow-up. ANCOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures will be used to assess group differences and follow-up stability. Acceptability will be assessed with a questionnaire on participants' satisfaction with the interventions, group discussion at the end of the intervention, and with participants' rate of attendance to the group sessions. The study results will provide additional data on these two eating disorders prevention interventions and will suggest ways for their dissemination and further evaluation in Switzerland.


Subject(s)
Feeding and Eating Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Analysis of Variance , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Random Allocation , Switzerland , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e050350, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702825

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental health condition associated with high mortality rates and significantly impaired quality of life. National guidelines outline psychotherapeutic interventions as treatments of choice for adults with AN, but outcomes are limited and therapy drop-out high, resulting in calls for new innovative treatments. The Specialist Psychotherapy with Emotion for Anorexia in Kent and Sussex (SPEAKS) research programme sought to develop the SPEAKS intervention avoiding some difficulties inherent in development of earlier interventions, such unclear hypotheses about change processes. SPEAKS focuses on a core hypothesised maintaining factor (emotional experience) with clear proposed model of change. The current feasibility trial aims to provide an initial test of SPEAKS and inform design of a full randomised controlled trial protocol. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study employs a multisite, single-arm, within-group, mixed-methods design. Up to 60 participants (36 therapy completers) meeting inclusion criteria will be offered the SPEAKS intervention instead of treatment-as-usual (TAU). SPEAKS is a weekly psychotherapy lasting nine to 12 months, provided by trained and experienced eating disorders therapists. All other clinical input remains inline with TAU. Acceptability will be assessed using VAS scales and end of therapy interview. Reach and recruitment, such as recruitment yield, will be monitored. To support sample size estimation and economic estimation, data pertaining to eating disorder-related symptoms will be recorded every 3 months, alongside service usage and intervention-specific measures. Videoed therapy sessions will inform model adherence. Additional analyses coding videoed therapy will test SPEAKS change process hypotheses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by London-Bromley Research Ethics Committee (NHS Rec Reference: 19/LO/1530). Data will be disseminated via high-impact, peer-reviewed journals (Open Access preferred), conferences, service user and charity networks (eg, UK charity BEAT) and through a free open conference hosted by National Health Service Trusts and Higher Education Institutions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11778891. TRIAL STATUS: Recruitment began on 12 December 2019 and ends on 28 February 2021. All data will be collected and the trial ended by 28 February 2022. PROTOCOL VERSION: SPEAKS protocol V.3.0 (30 August 2020). Changes were made to the original protocol due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A further set of changes were made to incorporate the measures of change processes, resulting in this being the third version of the protocol.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Anorexia , Anorexia Nervosa/complications , Anorexia Nervosa/psychology , Anorexia Nervosa/therapy , Emotions , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Outpatients , Pandemics , Psychotherapy/methods , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
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