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1.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869724

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, eating disorders (ED) among individuals during emerging adulthood have become a crucial challenge to public health, taking into account the fact that the global prevalence of the ED risk in student-aged populations already stands at 10.4% and has been sharply increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. In all, from 50% to 80% of all the ED cases go undetected or are not correctly diagnosed; moreover, these individuals do not receive specialized treatment. Therefore, early diagnosis detected via screening questionnaires for ED is highly recommended. This study aimed to identify the triggers for ED risk development in emerging-adulthood individuals and to reveal the factors significant not only for ED prevention but also for assessing individuals with subthreshold symptoms. This cross-sectional study provides the results for the ED symptom screening in 1716 Lithuanian higher-education students aged 21.2 ± 3.9, during emerging adulthood. According to the results of this study, 19.2% of students were at risk for ED. Potential risk factors such as sex (odds ratio (OR): 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9-4.9), body weight (self-reported body mass index) (adjusted (A) OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7) and comorbidities such as smoking (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6-2.8), and perceived stress during the pandemic (AOR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) are involved in anticipating the symptomatology of ED during emerging adulthood. Regular initial screenings with universally adopted questionnaires and further referral to a psychiatrist must be applied to promote both the diagnosis of early-onset symptomatology and the treatment of these ED in student-aged populations. Preventive programs for reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity among students during emerging adulthood should focus on integration directions for the development of a positive body image.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Students
3.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(4): e150-e153, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789491

ABSTRACT

Eating disorders can have serious consequences for adolescent patients. Early detection and coordination of treatment can improve outcomes. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has negatively affected mental health, and eating disorders are no exception. The reported increase in eating disorder behaviors and referrals for treatment, combined with the shortage of treatment options, has underscored the role of the outpatient pediatrician. Detection of eating disorders in the primary care setting starts with analyzing vitals and weight trends. If suspecting an eating disorder, one should complete a thorough history with pertinent review of systems, physical examination, and an initial laboratory evaluation. Upon confirming a diagnosis, it is important for a pediatrician to decide on the level of care needed. Given long wait times for treatment centers, utilization of local resources is helpful for coordinating a multidisciplinary approach. Increased funding for eating disorder treatment initiatives could help alleviate the current strain on our health care system. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(4):e150-e153.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Feeding Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
6.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152304, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about how people with eating disorders are impacted by the widespread societal restructuring during the COVID-19 crisis. AIMS: We aimed to examine how factors relating to the impact of the pandemic associate with eating disorders and quantify this relationship while adjusting for concurrent and longitudinal parameters of risk. METHODS: We gathered demographic, behavioral and clinical data pre- and mid-pandemic as well as childhood trauma history from a longitudinal online survey of 489 adults (mean age 23.4 years) recruited from the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network (NSPN). Using pre-pandemic (T1) and concurrent (T2) data we aimed to predict eating disorders at mid-pandemic (T2). We deployed hierarchical generalized logistic regression to ascertain the strength of longitudinal and concurrent associations. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic eating disorder scores strongly associated with concurrent eating disorder (z = 5.93). More conflict at home mid-pandemic (z = 2.03), pre- (lower sensation seeking z = -2.58) and mid-pandemic (higher lack of perseverance z = 2.33) impulsivity traits also associated with mid-pandemic eating disorder. CONCLUSION: Conflict at home mid-pandemic and specific aspects of impulsiveness significantly associated with concurrent eating disorder when adjusted for pre-pandemic eating disorder symptoms, baseline demographics, behavioral traits, history of traumatic experiences and concurrent psychopathology. These results provide insight into the struggles of those suffering with eating disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight the importance of impulsiveness traits and the immediate family environment in their experience of illness during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Int J Eat Disord ; 55(2): 155-160, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661607

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly disrupted people's daily life and contributed to adverse health and mental health outcomes. People with pre-existing mental health conditions are particularly likely to experience symptom exacerbation. Complementing the adverse impacts of the pandemic are eating disorder specific risk factors for worsening of eating disorder symptoms and/or impeding treatment progress and recovery. For this joint Virtual Issue, we selected 15 articles that have been published in two leading journals in the field of eating disorders (International Journal of Eating Disorders and Journal of Eating Disorders) to highlight studies that offer information about individuals' lived experience with an eating disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic. In these studies, most participants reported worsening of eating disorder symptoms which they attributed to challenges arising from changes in daily routines including eating and exercise related habits, increased stress, and diminished social contacts. These research findings reported a mixed picture about patients' perceptions of the ease of the transition to virtual delivery of treatment and the quality of care they received during the pandemic. Qualitative studies suggested strategies for supporting people with eating disorders during pandemic conditions, with some of these holding promise for improving care for individuals who experience an eating disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Periodicals as Topic , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(1)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631300

ABSTRACT

Objective: Recent evidence suggests psychosocial stressors stemming from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure and public health recommendations and policies have exacerbated eating disorder symptoms. Consequentially, eating disorder acuity has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, it is still unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic may be impacting individuals receiving treatment for eating disorders at higher levels of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 on eating disorder symptoms and associated outcomes in a sample of individuals receiving eating disorder treatment compared to individuals receiving treatment in 2019.Methods: Blinded outcomes data from 272 adults who completed treatment at an eating disorder treatment center between April and October of 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group) and 2020 (COVID-19 group) were examined. Repeated measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction were used to examine differences in outcome variables and treatment response.Results: Fewer participants reported trauma in 2020, but symptoms were more severe when present. A significant interaction effect for treatment (eg, admission, discharge) and year (eg, pre-COVID-19, COVID-19) was found for eating disorder and trauma symptoms. Moreover, trauma symptom scores were higher in 2020 than in 2019. The interaction among year, trauma, and treatment was significant (F3,268 = 2.11, P = .027, η2 = 0.034), indicating that individuals with severe trauma in 2020 reported less eating disorder symptom score reduction.Conclusions: Results extend understanding of effects during the COVID-19 pandemic on treatment-seeking individuals with eating disorders. Clinical implications suggest that greater attention to trauma when screening eating disorder patients and selecting treatment approaches are needed, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Comorbidity , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542506

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ2(7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = -0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = -0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Child , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
10.
Int J Eat Disord ; 55(1): 3-38, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Research investigating the effects of COVID-19 on eating disorders is growing rapidly. A comprehensive evaluation of this literature is needed to identify key findings and evidence gaps to better inform policy decisions related to the management of eating disorders during and after this crisis. We conducted a systematic scoping review synthesizing and appraising this literature. METHOD: Empirical research on COVID-19 impacts on eating disorder severity, prevalence, and demand for treatment was searched. No sample restrictions were applied. Findings (n = 70 studies) were synthesized across six themes: (a) suspected eating disorder cases during COVID-19; (b) perceived pandemic impacts on symptoms; (c) symptom severity pre versus during the pandemic; (d) pandemic-related correlates of symptom severity; (e) impacts on carers/parents; and (f) treatment experiences during COVID-19. RESULTS: Pandemic impacts on rates of probable eating disorders, symptom deterioration, and general mental health varied substantially. Symptom escalation and mental health worsening during-and due to-the pandemic were commonly reported, and those most susceptible included confirmed eating disorder cases, at-risk populations (young women, athletes, parent/carers), and individuals highly anxious or fearful of COVID-19. Evidence emerged for increased demand for specialist eating disorder services during the pandemic. The forced transition to online treatment was challenging for many, yet telehealth alternatives seemed feasible and effective. DISCUSSION: Evidence for COVID-19 effects is mostly limited to participant self-report or retrospective recall, cross-sectional and descriptive studies, and samples of convenience. Several novel pathways for future research that aim to better understand, monitor, and support those negatively affected by the pandemic are formulated.


OBJETIVO: La investigación que se hace sobre los efectos de COVID-19 en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria está creciendo rápidamente. Se necesita una evaluación exhaustiva de esta literatura para identificar los hallazgos clave y evidenciar las brechas para informar mejor las decisiones de políticas públicas relacionadas con el manejo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria durante y después de esta crisis. Se realizó una revisión sistemática del alcance que sintetizó y valoró esta literatura. MÉTODO: Se buscó investigación empírica sobre los impactos de COVID-19 en la gravedad, prevalencia y demanda de tratamiento de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. No se aplicaron restricciones a la muestra. Los hallazgos (n = 70 estudios) se sintetizaron en seis temas: (1) casos sospechosos de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria durante COVID-19; (2) impacto percibido en los síntomas; (3) gravedad de los síntomas antes versus durante la pandemia; (4) correlatos relacionados con la pandemia de la gravedad de los síntomas; (5) impactos en los cuidadores/padres; (6) experiencias de tratamiento durante COVID-19. RESULTADOS: El impacto de la pandemia en las tasas de probables trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, deterioro de los síntomas y salud mental en general variaron sustancialmente. La escala de síntomas y el empeoramiento de la salud mental durante y debido a la pandemia fueron reportados comúnmente, y los más susceptibles incluyeron casos confirmados de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, poblaciones en riesgo (mujeres jóvenes, atletas, padres / cuidadores) e individuos con altos niveles de ansiedad o con miedo de COVID-19. Surgió alguna evidencia de una mayor demanda de servicios especializados en trastornos de la conducta alimentaria durante la pandemia. La transición forzada al tratamiento en línea fue un desafío para muchos, sin embargo, las alternativas de telesalud parecían factibles y efectivas. Conclusiones. La evidencia de los efectos de COVID-19 se limita principalmente al autoinforme de los participantes o al recuerdo retrospectivo, los estudios transversales y descriptivos, y las muestras de conveniencia. Se formulan varias vías novedosas para futuras investigaciones que tienen como objetivo comprender, monitorear y apoyar mejor a aquellos que fueron afectados negativamente por la pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(7): 1213-1223, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study tested the association between food insecurity and eating disorder (ED) pathology, including probable ED diagnosis, among two cohorts of university students before and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Students (n = 579) from a large Midwestern American university completed self-report questionnaires assessing frequency of ED behaviors, ED-related impairment, and individual food insecurity as measured by the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale 5, Clinical Impairment Assessment, and Radimer/Cornell, respectively. Chi-square tests and MANOVA with post-hoc corrections were conducted to compare demographic characteristics, ED pathology, and probable ED diagnosis prevalence between students with and without individual food insecurity. RESULTS: Partially supporting hypotheses, MANOVA indicated significantly greater frequency of objective binge eating, compensatory fasting, and ED-related impairment for students with food insecurity compared with individuals without food insecurity. Chi-squared tests showed higher prevalence of ED diagnoses among individuals with food insecurity compared with those without food security (47.6 vs. 31.1%, respectively, p < .01, NNT = 6.06), specifically bulimia nervosa and other specified feeding and eating disorder. There were no differences in food insecurity before or during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Consistent with prior literature, food insecurity was associated with elevated ED psychopathology in this sample. Findings emphasize the importance of proper ED screening for college students vulnerable to food insecurity and EDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 24(4): 671-680, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141434

ABSTRACT

This study compared postpartum and control women on depressive, anxiety, and OCD-type symptoms, and eating disorder symptoms during the 2019-nCOV pandemic and evaluated if associations between 2019-nCOV distress and these mental health symptoms differed for postpartum compared to control women. A community sample of women, ages 18-39, who had either given birth in the past 12 months (n = 232) or had no pregnancy history (n = 137; controls), was recruited to complete an online survey about their depressive, anxiety, OCD, and eating disorder symptoms. Postpartum women reported greater OCD-type symptoms related to concerns about both contamination and responsibility for harm (ps < .05) compared to controls. After controlling for general stress and mental health history, the association between 2019-nCOV distress and OCD-type symptoms related to concerns about contamination was stronger among postpartum compared to control women (ps < .002). For all women, 2019-nCOV distress was positively related to general anxiety symptoms, total OCD-type symptoms, and OCD-type symptoms related to concerns about responsibility for harm after controlling for general stress and mental health history (ps < .03). Data are first to suggest postpartum women may be at elevated risk for OCD-type symptoms during 2019-nCOV pandemic, and pandemic distress is associated with anxiety and OCD-type symptoms among postpartum women more so than control women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Eat Behav ; 41: 101481, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091859

ABSTRACT

Online, anonymous data collection is common and increasingly available to researchers studying eating disorders (ED), particularly since the development of online crowdsourcing platforms. Crowdsourcing for participant recruitment may also be one effective strategy to address ED research disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to: (a) develop a rigorous method for assessing self-reported athropometrics; (b) determine if individuals with EDs self-select into MTurk studies assessing eating behaviors; and (c) characterize ED-related psychopathology in an MTurk sample. We recruited 400 US adults to complete an MTurk study assessing ED features. Results did not indicate the presence of a self-selection bias among individuals with EDs; however, 40% of the sample met criteria for a current ED diagnosis, with all diagnoses represented except ARFID, and 18.1% reported currently being in ED treatment. The sample was characterized by higher scores on measures of ED psychopathology compared to extant non-clinical norms. Approximately 66% of the overall sample and 73% of participants with EDs indicated that they have participated in more MTurk studies since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Finally, we identified an alternative approach to assessing self-reported height and weight that appears to reduce error, which we strongly recommend researchers conducting online surveys use. Our findings suggest that individuals with EDs appear to be overrepresented on MTurk and highlight the utility of crowdsourcing using MTurk as an ED data collection alternative during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
15.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(5): 369-376, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125212

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced an abrupt change in the delivery of clinical services, including for individuals with an eating disorder. We present this Virtual Issue as a resource for the eating disorder community to showcase research published in the International Journal of Eating Disorders that provides information on effective strategies to help address the challenges arising from COVID-19-related disruptions. Articles included describe original research or systematic reviews on obstacles to health services use and strategies to improve access to care; technological tools to provide or enhance interventions; patients' and clinicians' attitudes or perspectives on using digital tools for clinical care; factors influencing therapeutic alliance; and ideas for improving reach and uptake of digital interventions. We hope that readers will find ways to observe and record their own experiences during this global crisis; the experiences of people at risk for developing or exhibiting an eating disorder; and the experiences of those who care for people with an eating disorder. These lived experiences will be invaluable in formulating hypotheses for future studies in service of advancing the understanding of eating disorders and improving interventions and policies for reducing the burden of suffering attributable to eating disorders.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Access to Information , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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