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1.
Eat Weight Disord ; 28(1): 47, 2023 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The rapid spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19 in China had resulted in campus lockdown in many universities since February 2022, profoundly affecting students' daily lives. Campus lockdown conditions differ considerably from home quarantine, so that the eating patterns of university students may be different. Thus, the current study aimed to: (1) investigate university students' eating patterns during campus lockdown; (2) identify factors associated with their disordered eating. METHOD: An online survey about recent life changes, disordered eating, stress, depression, and anxiety was carried out from April 8th to May 16th, 2022. A total of 2541 responses from 29 provinces/cities of China were received. RESULTS: 2213 participants were included in the main analysis, and other 86 participants were analyzed separately as a subgroup due to their diagnosis of eating disorder. Participants who were undergoing campus lockdown (the lockdown group) showed less disordered eating than those who had never been in campus lockdown (the never-lockdown group), as well as those who had experienced campus lockdown before (the once-lockdown group). However, they perceived more stress and felt more depressed. Being female, higher BMI, gaining weight, increasing exercise, spending more time on social media, higher level of depression and anxiety were all related to disordered eating in the lockdown group. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered eating among Chinese university students was less prevalent during campus lockdown due to the strict and regular diet. However, there is a potential risk of "revenge eating" after campus lockdown ends. Thus, there should be further tracking and related prevention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV, uncontrolled trials without any interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Students
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 326, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses requiring a whole of health approach. Routinely collected health administrative data has clinical utility in describing associations and predicting health outcome measures. This study aims to develop models to assess the clinical utility of health administrative data in adult eating disorder emergency presentations and length of stay. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study on health administrative data in adults with eating disorders from 2014 to 2020 in Sydney Local Health District. Emergency and admitted patient data were collected with all clinically important variables available. Multivariable regression models were analysed to explore associations and to predict admissions and length of stay. RESULTS: Emergency department modelling describes some clinically important associations such as decreased odds of admission for patients with Bulimia Nervosa compared to Anorexia Nervosa (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.10 to 0.95; p = 0.04). Admitted data included more predictors and therefore further significant associations including an average of 0.96 days increase in length of stay for each additional count of diagnosis/comorbidities (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.37 to 1.55; p = 0.001) with a valid prediction model (R2 = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Health administrative data has clinical utility in adult eating disorders with valid exploratory and predictive models describing associations and predicting admissions and length of stay. Utilising health administrative data this way is an efficient process for assessing impacts of multiple factors on patient care and predicting health care outcomes.


Subject(s)
Feeding and Eating Disorders , Routinely Collected Health Data , Adult , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals
3.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313113

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: This multi-center study aimed to identify a risk profile for disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) based on their dietary intake, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI-SDS), and glycometabolic control. (2) Methods: Adolescents aged 11 to 18 years from five centers across Italy were recruited. Lipid profile, HbA1c, BMI-SDS, and dietary intake data were collected. The risk for developing DEBs was assessed via the Diabetes Eating Problems Survey-R (DEPS-R) questionnaire. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed using a person-centered approach. (3) Results: Overall, 148 participants aged 11-18 (12.1, ±3.34), 52% males with a mean diabetes duration of 7.2 (±3.4), were enrolled. Based on the results of the DEBS-R score, LCA allowed us to highlight two different classes of patients which were defined as "at-risk" and "not at-risk" for DEB. The risk profile for developing DEBs is characterized by higher BMI-SDS (23.9 vs. 18.6), higher HbA1c (7.9 vs. 7.1%), higher LDL cholesterol (99.9 vs. 88.8 mg/dL), lower HDL cholesterol (57.9 vs. 61.3 mg/dL), higher proteins (18.2 vs. 16.1%), and lower carbohydrates (43.9 vs. 45.3%). Adolescents included in the "at-risk" class were significantly older (p = 0.000), and their parents' SES was significantly lower (p = 0.041). (4) Conclusions: This study allowed us to characterize a risk profile for DEBs based on dietary behavior and clinical parameters. Early identification of the risk for DEBs allows timely intervention and prevention of behavior disorders.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin , Latent Class Analysis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Lipids
4.
Eat Behav ; 49: 101723, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296084

ABSTRACT

There is a clear association between food insecurity and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, mainly among samples in the United States and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Canadians experience food insecurity as well, which may have been heightened by the pandemic and its associated restrictions. The associations between food insecurity and ED psychopathology among Canadians remains underexamined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore associations between food insecurity and ED psychopathology by gender identity among a national sample Canadian adolescents and young adults. Data were collected from 2714 participants aged 16 to 30 years old from across Canada. Participants reported sociodemographic characteristics, ED psychopathology, and food insecurity experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic through an online survey. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, ANOVAs, and regression analyses were conducted. Overall, 8.9% of the sample experienced food insecurity, with the highest prevalence among transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Generally, those with no food insecurity reported the lowest ED psychopathology compared to higher ED psychopathology among those with food insecurity. Several unique differences were observed between cisgender men and cisgender women, while there were no significant associations between food insecurity and ED psychopathology found among transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Further research is needed to investigate how the relationship between food insecurity and ED psychopathology differs based on gender, and to continue to explore food insecurity experienced beyond the COVID-19 pandemic as food insecurity possesses a considerable health threat to all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adolescent , United States , Adult , Gender Identity , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295130

ABSTRACT

Most studies suggest that COVID-19 has adversely affected the quality of life and mental health, including eating disorders. However, studies have yet to examine longitudinally the impact of COVID-19 on eating disorder symptomatic individuals. This study aims to examine longitudinally the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle and eating disorder symptoms of a symptomatic group of community-dwelling women. These women (n = 171) were enrolled in a longitudinal study, completed a COVID-19 modular self-report (post or Qualtrics, 2020/21), and participated in the current study. This study examined a 15th year follow-up. In 2020, 40% were tested for COVID-19. Of these, 87% had negative results; 5.3% self-isolated at home; 20.5% stopped working/studying in person; 28% continued online work/study; and 28% stopped work/studying in person. The pandemic affected sporting activities, music, and club activities (32.7% discontinued); 38% socialized in person; 16% socialized online; and 10% completely stopped socializing. Findings showed that the respondents showed no significant changes in levels of psychological distress (K10: 21.4 ± 9.8 vs. 19.0 ± 7.1, p < 0.171), and impaired quality of life (SF12: 50.9 ± 8.0 vs. 48.3 ± 9.5, p < 0.055) at 15-year follow-up. Eating disorder symptoms increased over time (EDE-Q global: 2.1 ± 1.4 vs. 2.9 ± 1.4, p < 0.013). Observed worsening of eating disorder-related symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic may be due to interrupted eating patterns, exercise restrictions and the absence of social support. Provision and access to interventions to support those affected by eating disorders are a high priority, especially during these times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Life Style , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 49(1): 50, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing and quarantine imposed by the authority during the COVID-19 pandemic caused restrictions, which had a negative impact on eating behavior, especially among adolescents. We proposed a retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating disorders risk and symptoms. METHODS: In this study, a group of 127 pediatric patients (117 females and 10 males) with eating disorders admitted to the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome (Italy), in the period between August 2019 and April 2021, was analyzed. All patient data were collected from patients' electronic medical records. RESULTS: We found that 80.3% of patients were at the onset of eating disorders and that 26% of patients had familiarity for psychotic disorders. Often these patients had comorbidities and alterations in blood parameters such as leukocytopenia, neutropenia, hypovitaminosis and hormonal problems that could affect their future. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could provide a framework for developing clinical and educational interventions to mitigate the short- and long-term negative impact of the pandemic on adolescent future health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adolescent , Female , Male , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent Health
7.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(6): 362-371, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303777

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other eating disorders) affect young people worldwide. This narrative review summarizes key studies conducted on the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) eating disorders among young people in 2013-22. RECENT FINDINGS: In Western settings, a substantial proportion of young people have reported an eating disorder. Overall, 5.5--17.9% of young women and 0.6-2.4% of young men have experienced a DSM-5 eating disorder by early adulthood. Lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was reported by 0.8-6.3% of women and 0.1-0.3% of men, bulimia nervosa by 0.8-2.6% of women and 0.1-0.2% of men, binge eating disorder by 0.6-6.1% of women and 0.3-0.7% of men, other specified feeding or eating disorders by 0.6-11.5% of women and 0.2-0.3% of men, and unspecified feeding or eating disorders 0.2-4.7% of women and 0-1.6% of men. Gender and sexual minorities were at particularly high risk. Emerging studies from Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America show similar high prevalences. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of eating disorders has still increased. SUMMARY: Eating disorders are a global health concern among young people. Improved detection, management, and prevention methods are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , Binge-Eating Disorder , Bulimia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Binge-Eating Disorder/diagnosis , Binge-Eating Disorder/epidemiology , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
8.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(6): 2251-2255, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of eating disorders in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of new patients with eating disorders who visited an outpatient eating disorders clinic of a single university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from April 2020 to March 2021 (FY2020) and April 2019 to March 2020 (FY2019). We determined whether the onset or course in each patient in FY2020 was associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and classified COVID-19-associated medical histories into the following categories: (1) fatness phobia, (2) acceleration of dieting, (3) family relationships, (4) social factors, and (5) mood change. We performed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the cumulative distribution of disease onset by month in FY2020 and FY2019. RESULTS: We reviewed the records of 112 and 77 patients with eating disorders in FY2020 and FY2019, respectively. The onset or course of 35 patients (31.3%) in FY2020 was associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. We classified 14 patients to fatness phobia category, 11 to acceleration of dieting, 4 to family relationships, 2 to social factors, and 4 to mood change. No COVID-19-associated cases were associated with fear of contracting the disease. The cumulative distribution of disease onset differed significantly in FY2020 and FY2019 (D = 0.248; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: This chart review suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the prevalence of eating disorders. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, cohort study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
9.
Int J Eat Disord ; 56(1): 151-168, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic and public health mitigation measures have negatively impacted individuals with eating disorders (ED). We evaluated changes in and predictors of ED symptoms, pandemic-related ED concerns, and anxiety symptoms across the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic among individuals with self-reported EDs in the United States (US), Sweden (SE), and the Netherlands (NL). METHOD: Participants in the US (N = 510), SE (N = 982), and NL (N = 510) completed an online survey assessing ED symptoms (binge eating, restriction, compensatory behaviors, and anxiety about being unable to exercise), general anxiety symptoms, and pandemic-related ED concerns about accessing food, lack of structure and social support, being in a triggering environment, and food and treatment costs. In the US and NL, respondents completed surveys beginning April 2020 and continuing monthly for a year. In SE, respondents completed baseline surveys in May 2020, a six-month follow-up around December 2020, and a 12-month follow-up in May 2021. RESULTS: Three patterns emerged: (1) a curvilinear course with the highest level of symptoms at baseline, declining through November 2020, and increasing through the rest of the year; (2) a linear declining course over time; and (3) a stable course with no changes. Worries about COVID-19 infection, lockdown, concerns about lack of structure and social support, and concerns about accessing food consistent with one's recovery meal plan predicted increases in ED symptoms. DISCUSSION: ED symptoms tracked with pandemic-related concerns in people with EDs. Conceptualizing predictors of symptoms may inform therapy and public health resources that reduce the impact of pandemics on mental health. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on people with eating disorders, including amplification of mental health symptoms and stressors around peak periods of infection and COVID-19 restrictions. These findings inform medical providers, policy-makers, and community-based supports about the information and resource needs of this group to ensure efficient dissemination in future public health emergencies and during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology
10.
MSMR ; 30(1): 19-25, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273339

ABSTRACT

From 2017 through 2021, a total of 2,454 active component U.S. military service members received incident diagnoses for 1 of the following eating disorders: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), or "other/unspecified eating disorder" (OUED). The incidence rate of any eating disorder was 3.6 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The case defining diagnoses OUED, BN, and BED accounted for nearly 89% of total incident cases. The incidence rate of any eating disorder among women was more than 8 times the rate among men. Overall rates were highest among service members under 30 years of age. Crude annual incidence rates of total eating disorders increased in 2021, following the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased prevalence of major life stressors and mental health conditions were reported on Periodic Health Assessment (PHA) forms completed in the 1-year period after an eating disorder diagnosis. These data suggest the need for increased attention to eating disorder prevention. Additionally, treatment programs could be warranted as continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are elucidated within the military population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Military Personnel , Male , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology
11.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(4): 363-372, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269664

ABSTRACT

Importance: The 5-item Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food (SCOFF) questionnaire is the most widely used screening measure for eating disorders. However, no previous systematic review and meta-analysis determined the proportion of disordered eating among children and adolescents. Objective: To establish the proportion among children and adolescents of disordered eating as assessed with the SCOFF tool. Data Sources: Four databases were systematically searched (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) with date limits from January 1999 to November 2022. Study Selection: Studies were required to meet the following criteria: (1) participants: studies of community samples of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and (2) outcome: disordered eating assessed by the SCOFF questionnaire. The exclusion criteria included (1) studies conducted with young people who had a diagnosis of physical or mental disorders; (2) studies that were published before 1999 because the SCOFF questionnaire was designed in that year; (3) studies in which data were collected during COVID-19 because they could introduce selection bias; (4) studies based on data from the same surveys/studies to avoid duplication; and (5) systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses and qualitative and case studies. Data Extraction and Synthesis: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of disordered eating among children and adolescents assessed with the SCOFF tool. Results: Thirty-two studies, including 63 181 participants, from 16 countries were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall proportion of children and adolescents with disordered eating was 22.36% (95% CI, 18.84%-26.09%; P < .001; n = 63 181) (I2 = 98.58%). Girls were significantly more likely to report disordered eating (30.03%; 95% CI, 25.61%-34.65%; n = 27 548) than boys (16.98%; 95% CI, 13.46%-20.81%; n = 26 170) (P < .001). Disordered eating became more elevated with increasing age (B, 0.03; 95% CI, 0-0.06; P = .049) and body mass index (B, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the available evidence from 32 studies comprising large samples from 16 countries showed that 22% of children and adolescents showed disordered eating according to the SCOFF tool. Proportion of disordered eating was further elevated among girls, as well as with increasing age and body mass index. These high figures are concerning from a public health perspective and highlight the need to implement strategies for preventing eating disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Surveys and Questionnaires , Body Mass Index , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Can J Public Health ; 114(1): 22-32, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with increased mental health problems. We investigated (1) associations between disordered eating in adolescence and mental health problems after one year of the pandemic and (2) the mechanisms explaining associations. METHOD: We analyzed data from a population-based birth cohort in Quebec, Canada (557 males and 759 females). High and low levels of disordered eating symptom trajectories were previously estimated (age 12, 15, 17, and 20 years). Anxiety, depression, non-suicidal self-injury, and suicidal ideation were assessed at 23 years (March-June 2021). Putative mediators included loneliness and social media use (age 22 years, July-August 2020). Analyses controlled for mental health and socio-economic status at age 10-12 years and were conducted for males and females separately. RESULTS: Females in the high-level disordered eating symptom trajectory were at increased risk for non-suicidal self-injury (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02-2.52) and suicidal ideation (2.16; 1.31-3.57), whereas males were at increased risk for severe anxiety (2.49; CI 1.11-5.58). Males and females in the high-level trajectory were more likely to report severe depression (2.26; 1.14-5.92 and 2.15, 1.36-3.38 respectively). Among females, associations were partially explained (17-35%) by loneliness during the first 4 months of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Young adults who experienced disordered eating as adolescents were at increased risk of mental health problems during the pandemic. Loneliness partially mediated the effect, suggesting that pandemic mitigation resulting in increased social isolation may have exacerbated mental health problems among women with a history of disordered eating.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: La pandémie de COVID-19 a été associée à une augmentation des problèmes de santé mentale. Nous avons investigué 1) les associations entre les problèmes de comportement alimentaire à l'adolescence et les problèmes de santé mentale après un an de pandémie et 2) les mécanismes expliquant les associations. MéTHODE: Nous avons analysé les données d'une cohorte de naissance basée sur la population au Québec, Canada (557 hommes et 759 femmes). Nous avons utilisé des trajectoires précédemment estimées indicatives d'un haut et bas niveau de problèmes alimentaires (à l'âge de 12, 15, 17 et 20 ans). L'anxiété, la dépression, l'automutilation et les idées suicidaires ont été évaluées à 23 ans (mars à juin 2021). Les médiateurs putatifs incluaient la solitude et l'utilisation des réseaux sociaux (à l'âge de 22 ans, juillet à août 2020). Les analyses contrôlaient la santé mentale et le statut socio-économique à l'âge de 10 à 12 ans et ont été menées séparément pour les hommes et les femmes. RéSULTATS: Les femmes dans la trajectoire des problèmes alimentaires élevés présentaient un risque accru d'automutilation non-suicidaire (OR 1,60; IC à 95 % 1,02-2,52) et d'idées suicidaires (2,16; 1,31-3,57), tandis que les hommes présentaient un risque accru d'anxiété sévère (2,49; IC 1,11-5,58). Les hommes et les femmes de la trajectoire élevée étaient plus susceptibles de déclarer une dépression grave (2,26; 1,14-5,92 et 2,15; 1,36-3,38, respectivement). Chez les femmes, les associations s'expliquaient en partie (17-35 %) par la solitude durant les 4 premiers mois de la pandémie. CONCLUSION: Les jeunes adultes ayant connu des problèmes de comportement alimentaire à l'adolescence couraient un risque accru de problèmes de santé mentale pendant la pandémie. La solitude a partiellement atténué l'effet, suggérant que l'isolation accrue entrainée par la pandémie peut avoir exacerbé les problèmes de santé mentale chez les femmes ayant des antécédents de problèmes de comportement alimentaire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Adult , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Depression/epidemiology
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 56(3): 604-615, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) disproportionately affect sexual and gender minorities, with majority of research conducted among samples in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine ED psychopathology among adolescents and young adults in Canada with diverse gender and sexual identities. METHOD: Data were collected from 2,714 Canadians, aged 16-30 years old, via an online survey at the end of 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants responded to sociodemographic questions (including history of EDs) and reported on eating attitudes and behaviors. Descriptive statistics and multiple modified Poisson and linear regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Over half the sample was heterosexual, 35% were sexual minority cisgender men and women, and 6.5% were transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) people. The sample overall reported elevated ED psychopathology based on their eating attitudes and behaviors. TGNC participants reported the most severe ED psychopathology. Generally, sexual minority cisgender women and cisgender men had elevated ED psychopathology compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Regression analyses revealed all gender and sexual minorities reported greater ED psychopathology compared to heterosexual cisgender men. DISCUSSION: The Canadian sample reported elevated ED psychopathology compared to previous studies among various populations. Additional investigations are now needed to observe how ED psychopathology continues to change after the onset of the pandemic. Further research is needed among cisgender men, TGNC people, and sexual minorities to understand the unique stressors they face that lead to high ED psychopathology, and develop appropriate prevention and treatment tools. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: EDs affect people of all gender and sexual identities. People who identify as a gender and/or sexual minority often experience problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, particularly transgender and gender non-conforming people of all sexual identities. More research attention is needed among these populations, especially due to a paucity of research among Canadians, to develop effective diagnostic tools, prevention efforts, and treatment programs specific to gender and sexual identities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Female , United States , Adult , Gender Identity , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology
14.
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(3): 1176-1184, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) first appeared in China with rapidly progressing pneumonia of unknown cause. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and eating disorders among front-line physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study is observational, prospective and analytical. The study population age range is from 18 to 65 years and includes healthcare professionals with a Master's degree or higher or subjects who have completed their education. We administered the Demographic Data Form, the Eating Disorder Rating Scale (EDRS), and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) to "Health professionals with a Master's degree or higher education, or who are receiving or have received Medical Specialization Training" across Turkey. RESULTS: The study initially included 312 people in total, but 19 were excluded (9 due to a pre-existing eating disorder, 2 for pregnancy, 2 for colitis, 4 for Diabetes Mellitus, 1 for depression, 1 with generalized anxiety disorder - GAD), leaving 293 subjects (82 men and 211 women). Assistant doctor was the highest status in the study group (56%), while specialization Training was the highest level of training (60.1%). CONCLUSIONS: We presented a detailed account of effects of scales and parameters related to the COVID-19 process on eating disorders and weight change in a specific population. These effects show both anxiety scores related to COVID-19 and eating disorders on various aspects and identify various variables influencing these scales in the main groups and subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Students
16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 64(8): 1176-1184, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on child eating disorder hospitalizations in Quebec, Canada. Quebec had one of the strictest lockdown measures targeting young people in North America. METHODS: We analyzed eating disorder hospitalizations in children aged 10-19 years before and during the pandemic. We used interrupted time series regression to assess trends in the monthly number of hospitalizations for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders before the pandemic (April 2006 to February 2020), and during the first (March to August 2020) and second waves (September 2020 to March 2021). We determined the types of eating disorders requiring hospital treatment and identified the age, sex and socioeconomic subgroups that were most affected. RESULTS: Hospitalization rates for eating disorders increased during the first (6.5 per 10,000) and second waves (12.8 per 10,000) compared with the period before the pandemic (5.8 per 10,000). The increase occurred for anorexia nervosa as well as other types of eating disorders. The number of girls and boys aged 10-14 years admitted for eating disorders increased during wave 1. Wave 2 triggered an increase in eating disorder admissions among girls aged 15-19 years. Hospitalization rates increased earlier for advantaged than disadvantaged youth. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic affected hospitalizations for anorexia nervosa as well as other eating disorders, beginning with girls aged 10-14 years during wave 1, followed by girls aged 15-19 years during wave 2. Boys aged 10-14 years were also affected, as well as both advantaged and disadvantaged youth.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Bulimia , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Female , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Bulimia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiology , Hospitalization
17.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 62(1-2): 60-74, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260787

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted with 458 participants. The demographic and health information of the participants along with the Social Media Addiction, Emotional Eating Scale were obtained. The level of social media addiction in adults was moderate, and women were more interested in social media than men. As the average age of participants increased, the virtual tolerance, virtual communication, social media scores decreased (p < .05). The study found that 51.6% of individuals with emotional eating tendencies happened to be obese. The social media addiction scale scores of those with emotional eating tendencies were higher than those without emotional eating tendencies (p < .05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Internet Addiction Disorder , Obesity , Quarantine , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 76Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20220197, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to analyze subjective experiences related to adaptation to remote care by users with eating disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with users of an eating disorders outpatient clinic. A semi-structured remote interview was applied using the Google Meet application. The data were submitted to lexical analysis using ALCESTE software and discussed in the light of scientific evidence. RESULTS: the remote appointment is a positive strategy but not a substitute for the face-to-face modality. The research cited financial savings, closer contact with professionals, and flexibility of service schedules as advantages. It pointed out the difficulty in clinical evaluation concerning weight, vital signs, and poor mastery of technology as limitations. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the study induces discussion about the systematization of remote care, which, during the COVID-19 pandemic, were responsible for providing a greater sense of support to people with eating disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Remote Consultation , Humans , Pandemics , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Technology
19.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 383-393, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243292

ABSTRACT

The area of mental health is directly affected by the pandemic and its consequences, for various reasons: 1-the pandemic triggered a global lockdown, with dramatic socioeconomic and therefore psychosocial implications; 2-mental health services, which treat by definition a fragile population from the psychological, biological and social points of view, have a complex organizational frame, and it was expected that this would be affected (or overwhelmed) by the pandemic; 3-mental health services should, at least in theory, be able to help guide public health policies when these involve a significant modification of individual behaviour. It was conducted a narrative review of the publications produced by European researchers in the period February-June 2020 and indexed in PubMed. A total of 34 papers were analyzed, which document the profound clinical, organizational and procedural changes introduced in mental health services following this exceptional and largely unforeseen planetary event.Among the main innovations recorded everywhere, the strong push towards the use of telemedicine techniques should be mentioned: however, these require an adequate critical evaluation, which highlights their possibilities, limits, advantages and disadvantages instead of simple triumphalist judgments. Furthermore, should be emphasized the scarcity of quantitative studies conducted in this period and the absence of studies aimed, for example, at exploring the consequences of prolonged and forced face-to-face contact between patients and family members with a high index of "expressed emotions".


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adolescent Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent Health Services/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Child Health Services/supply & distribution , Europe/epidemiology , Expressed Emotion , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Forensic Psychiatry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Health Services for the Aged/supply & distribution , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/supply & distribution , Observational Studies as Topic , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , PubMed , Quarantine , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241543

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented changes in the contemporary world, significantly affecting the work of companies, especially management staff. This study investigated whether fear about one's health (caused by the pandemic, disordered eating attitudes, or concerns about one's body image) has a negative relationship with the well-being of managers. (2) Methods: N = 354 managers (222 women, 126 men, and 6 people with no gender identity) participated in the study. The following psychometric instruments were used: the psychological well-being scale, the coronavirus anxiety scale, the fear of negative appearance evaluation scale, and the eating attitude test-26. Results: the fear of negative appearance influenced the well-being of the studied managers. However, this relation was mediated by dieting as well as bulimia and food preoccupation. (4) Conclusions: the well-being level depended on the managers' positive body images, but only when mediated by healthy dieting and eating attitudes. While the well-being level of managers was high, it is worth further exploring how they can flourish and develop in life and work, which can also transfer to the quality of life of their co-workers and companies. However, the subject of the well-being of managers warrants more research; for example, by considering different moderators, such as job experience, gender, and age. Moreover, experimental studies examining the effectiveness of different interventions for the physical and mental health of managers could be worth investigating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Fear/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology
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