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Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(1): 127-132, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575092


INTRODUCTION: Effective and safe anesthesia for rodents has long been a leading concern among biomedical researchers. Intraperitoneal injection constitutes an alternative to inhalant anesthesia. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify a safe, reliable, and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia protocol for laboratory rats exposed to painful procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven female Wistar rats in an ongoing study that required surgery were randomized into groups for three different intraperitoneal anesthesia protocols and three different analgesia regimens. The anesthesia groups were (1) medetomidine + ketamine (MK), (2) ketamine + xylacine (KX), and (3) fentanyl + medetomidine (FM). Three analgesia groups were equally distributed among the anesthesia groups: (1) local mepivacaine + oral ibuprofen (MI), (2) oral tramadol + oral ibuprofen (TI), and (3) local tramadol + oral tramadol + + oral ibuprofen (TTI). A core was assigned to measure anesthesia (0-3) and analgesia (0-2) effectiveness; the lower the score, the more effective the treatment. RESULTS: The mean MK score was 0.44 versus 2.00 for FM and 2.33 for KX. Mean score for analgesia on the first postoperative day was TTI (4.66) TI (9.13), and MI (10.14). Mean score 48 hours after surgery was TTI (3.4), TI (6.71), and MI (9.5). These differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: MK was shown to be a reliable, safe, and effective method of anesthesia. The TTI analgesia regimen is strongly recommended in light of these results.

Fentanyl/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Medetomidine/pharmacology , Xylazine/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Medetomidine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xylazine/administration & dosage
J Opioid Manag ; 16(4): 237-238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745232


The COVID-19 ARDS appears to have worse outcomes than ARDS from other causes. It is a predictable serious complication and the key strategy is to maintain oxygenation. Adopting the prone position for conscious COVID-19 patients requiring basic respiratory support, is shown to benefit patients in terms of improving oxygenation, reducing the need for invasive ventilation and potentially even reducing mortality. Cough and myalgia are the common and most distressing symptoms seen in conscious COVID-19 patients which can impair tolerance to awake proning. Modified awake proning with application of transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP) can improve the compliance to conscious proning in COVID-19 patients.

Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Consciousness , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prone Position , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transdermal Patch
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 10(3): 343-349, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602096


BACKGROUND: Anticipatory prescribing (AP) of injectable medications in advance of clinical need is established practice in community end-of-life care. Changes to prescribing guidelines and practice have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate UK and Ireland clinicians' experiences concerning changes in AP during the COVID-19 pandemic and their recommendations for change. METHODS: Online survey of participants at previous AP national workshops, members of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland and other professional organisations, with snowball sampling. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-one replies were received between 9 and 19 April 2020 from clinicians in community, hospice and hospital settings across all areas of the UK and Ireland. Changes to AP local guidance and practice were reported: route of administration (47%), drugs prescribed (38%), total quantities prescribed (35%), doses and ranges (29%). Concerns over shortages of nurses and doctors to administer subcutaneous injections led 37% to consider drug administration by family or social caregivers, often by buccal, sublingual and transdermal routes. Clinical contact and patient assessment were more often remote via telephone or video (63%). Recommendations for regulatory changes to permit drug repurposing and easier community access were made. CONCLUSIONS: The challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic for UK community palliative care has stimulated rapid innovation in AP. The extent to which these are implemented and their clinical efficacy need further examination.

Caregivers , Drug Administration Routes , Palliative Care/methods , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Terminal Care/methods , Administration, Buccal , Administration, Sublingual , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , General Practitioners , Hospice Care/methods , Hospices , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Ireland/epidemiology , Lorazepam/administration & dosage , Methotrimeprazine/administration & dosage , Muscarinic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Nurse Specialists , Palliative Medicine , Pandemics , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Transdermal Patch , United Kingdom/epidemiology