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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN230621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833812

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate fertility trends in Brazil in the 2010s and early 2020s during a period of back-to-back novel infectious disease outbreaks - Zika virus and COVID-19. We use Brazilian Ministry of Health and Association of Civil Registrar data from 2011-2021 to measure general fertility rates at the national and state levels. We also used seasonal ARIMA model to forecast fertility rates by month and state in 2021 and compared these forecasts with observed fertility rates. We find that fertility rates were steady over 2011-2015 with no statistically significant variation, followed by a sharp decline during the Zika outbreak in 2016 followed by a return to pre-Zika levels after the end of the epidemic. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, we make comparisons with observed and forecast rates from 2020-2021, showing that declines were generally larger for observed than for forecast rates, yet statistically insignificant. We argue that the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021 might lead to further declines, as women might have not had enough time to adjust rebound from either the effects of the Zika epidemic. We also discuss the importance of timely availability of live births data during a public health crisis with immediate consequences for fertility rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fertility , Humans , Pandemics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
2.
Ir Med J ; 115(2): 543, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813005

ABSTRACT

Aims The expedited development of multiple COVID-19 vaccines has raised concerns for some, with vaccine hesitancy described in many populations. A U.S. study assessing fertility patients attitudes towards the COVID -19 vaccine revealed that over half were unsure, or would not accept the vaccine if offered. Only 7.4% of participants in this study were male. We therefore sought to assess the perspective of male fertility patients towards COVID-19 vaccination. Methods Men with a fertility appointment were invited to complete an anonymous 21-item questionnaire. Results Willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccination was influenced by stage of fertility journey. Overall, 76% (n=102) of participants were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Men with a pregnant partner were most likely to accept or have already accepted the vaccine (97%, 30/31). Conclusion Although concerns around COVID-19 vaccines persist, this study demonstrates the growing rate of acceptance and engagement among the male fertility population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fertility , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809730

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect female reproductive health. Here, we investigated the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the follicular microenvironment, in particular granulosa (GCs) and cumulus cells (CCs), thus providing evidence for a productive infection. GCs and CCs were recovered from women (n = 25) who underwent in vitro fertilization at the Assisted Reproductive Unit, Siena University Hospital. Follicular ovarian cells were co-cultured with SARS-CoV-2 and then analyzed by qPCR, immunofluorescence (IF), western blot (WB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, cell culture supernatant was used to infect VERO6 cells. We demonstrated the expression of cell host factors ACE2, TRPMSS2, BSG and CTSL, which are pivotal for the virus life cycle. Cultured GCs and CCs incubated with SARS-CoV-2 revealed productive SARS-CoV-2 infection at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-adsorption. Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 RNA, spike and nucleocapsid proteins were detected in GCs and CCs, and their cell culture supernatant successfully infected the standard VERO E6 cells. Finally, TEM showed full-size virions attached to the membrane and located inside the cytoplasm. This in vitro study reveals the susceptibility of human ovarian cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting a potential detrimental effect of COVID-19 infection on female human fertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Fertility , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
4.
Reprod Toxicol ; 108: 56-61, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720799

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir (PF-07321332; NMV) the antiviral component of PAXLOVID™ is a potent and selective inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which plays a critical role in viral replication. PAXLOVID, comprised of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (used as a pharmacokinetic enhancer), is an oral therapy currently in development as a therapeutic option for those infected with SARS-CoV-2 to prevent progression to severe disease, hospitalization, and death. PAXLOVID has been shown to be efficacious against hospitalization and death in two Phase 2/3 clinical studies that evaluated non hospitalized patients both with and without high risk factors for progression to severe illness. Given that males and females of reproductive age are included in the intended patient population, we assessed the potential effects of NMV up to the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day in ICH guideline embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, and a fertility and early embryonic development study in rats. There were no effects on male and female fertility or early embryonic development in rats, and no severe manifestations of developmental toxicity in rats or rabbits. The lack of adverse findings reported here in nonclinical species is consistent with the intended therapeutic target of NMV (a virus specific protein not present in mammalian cells), the favorable off-target selectivity profile, and lack of genetic toxicity. The results of these nonclinical studies with NMV along with existing ritonavir safety information indicate that there are no clinically relevant risks associated with PAXLOVID administration during pregnancy and in males and females of reproductive age.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Lactams/toxicity , Leucine/toxicity , Nitriles/toxicity , Proline/toxicity , Ritonavir/toxicity , Animals , Drug Combinations , Female , Infertility/chemically induced , Male , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar
5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(4): 1026-1032, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673213

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY: To assess impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental wellbeing, workload, training progression, and fertility planning among London Obstetrics and Gynecology trainees. DESIGN: An anonymous survey comprising 41 peer-validated questions was sent to London trainees. Anxiety and depression were screened using Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD 7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-seven trainees completed the questionnaire, of whom 54% were aged 25-34 years, 43% were senior trainees (ST6-7), and 51% classified themselves as Black, Asian, and Minority Asian (BAME). Although the percentage of respondents with "moderate"/"severe" GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores was two to three times that of UK population estimates, median GAD 7 and PHQ-9 scores were 7 and 6 ("mild"). Sixteen percent deferred their fertility plans and 26% of ST6-7 trainees changed their Advanced Training Skills Modules. Other issues raised ranged from lack of assistance with electronic portfolio, postponement of examinations, poor senior input for mental health, lack of debriefing for redeployed trainees and requests for deferment of annual reviews. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has incurred an impact on mental health, training progression, and fertility planning of London trainees. With recommencement of nonemergency consultations and elective gynecology theater, alongside Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Recovery Blueprint to optimize learning opportunities, there is optimism that these challenges can be overcome. Trainers and trainees need to safeguard training opportunities and consider innovative forms of future learning, while anticipating potential effects of subsequent waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gynecology , Obstetrics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fertility , Gynecology/education , Humans , London/epidemiology , Mental Health , Obstetrics/education , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
APMIS ; 130(5): 243-252, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672984

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) and has rapidly spread worldwide, causing serious problems to the healthcare systems of many countries and hundreds of thousand deaths. In this review we discuss data from the literature to understand whether the various districts of the male reproductive system may represent another vulnerable target for SARS-CoV-2. Studies were searched from electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and COVID-19 specific databases such as LitCovid, until July 31, 2021. It appears that SARS-CoV-2 virus infection not only causes damage to the respiratory system, but could have a serious impact on the reproductive system of male patients modulating many physiological processes. Like some other infections, SARS-CoV-2 also leads to a worsening of semen quality and an increase in oxidative stress (OS) levels. However, due to the limited number of studies, it is unclear whether this deterioration in semen parameters is temporary or lasts over time. It is certainly important that patients' reproductive function is monitored after coronavirus infection to avoid problems in reproductive health in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fertility , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen Analysis , Sexuality
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604723

ABSTRACT

The COVID Pandemic may affect fertility behaviour and intentions in many ways. Restrictions on service provision reduce access to family planning services and increase fertility in the short term. By contrast, the economic uncertainty brought about by the pandemic and its impact on mental health and well-being may reduce fertility. These various pathways have been explored in the context of high income countries such as the United States and Western Europe, but little is known about middle income countries. In this paper we asses the impact of the COVID pandemic on fertility intentions and behaviour in the Republic of Moldova, a middle income country in Eastern Europe, using the Generations and Gender Survey. This survey was conducted partially before and partially after the onset of the pandemic in 2020, allowing for detailed comparisons of individual circumstances. The results indicate that the pandemic reduced the used of intrauterine devices, and increased the use of male condoms, but with no overall decrease in contraceptive use. Conversely individuals interviewed after the onset of the pandemic were 34.5% less likely to be trying to conceive, although medium term fertility intentions were unchanged. Indicators therefore suggest that in the medium term fertility intentions may not be affected by the pandemic but restricted access to contraception requiring medical consultation and a decrease in short-term fertility intentions could disrupt short term family planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fertility/physiology , Reproductive Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Condoms/trends , Contraception/trends , Contraception Behavior/trends , Family Characteristics , Family Planning Services/supply & distribution , Family Planning Services/trends , Female , Humans , Income , Intrauterine Devices/trends , Male , Moldova/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Andrologia ; 54(4): e14361, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583697

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 vaccine access has increased nationwide, vaccination rates have been slow-moving, with many studies showing significant vaccine hesitancy in the U.S. We conducted an online survey using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to identify reasons for vaccine hesitancy among unvaccinated adults between June 30 and July 1, 2021. We found that 58% of unvaccinated respondents were worried about unknown long-term adverse effects. Of these, 41% believed that the COVID-19 vaccines can negatively impact reproductive health and or fertility, and 38% were unsure of the effects on fertility. Our study demonstrates that fear regarding COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects and belief that they can negatively impact fertility is a major cause of vaccine hesitancy in the United States. We identified that urban residents, married individuals, those born outside the U.S., those with health insurance, and people with higher education and income greater than $100,000 felt that the vaccine would affect fertility more than their counterparts did. Finally, we found that 48% of unvaccinated respondents cited 'more information and research conducted on the COVID-19 vaccines' as the action that would most encourage vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fear , Fertility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Reprod Toxicol ; 107: 69-80, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531737

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. A recently developed recombinant Plant-Derived Virus-Like Particle Vaccine candidate for COVID-19 (CoVLP) formulated with AS03 has been shown to be well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in healthy adults. Since the target population for the vaccine includes women of childbearing potential, the objective of the study was to evaluate any untoward prenatal and postnatal effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP administered intramuscularly to Sprague-Dawley female rats before cohabitation for mating (22 and 8 days prior) and during gestation (Gestation Days [GD] 6 and 19). The embryo-fetal development (EFD) cohort was subjected to cesarean on GD 21 and the pre/post-natal (PPN) cohort was allowed to naturally deliver. Effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP was evaluated on pregnant rats, embryo-fetal development (EFD), during parturition, lactation and the development of the F1 offspring up to weaning Vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP induced an antibody response in F0 females and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific maternal antibodies were detected in the offspring at the end of the gestation and lactation periods. Overall, there was no evidence of untoward effects of AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP on the fertility or reproductive performance of the vaccinated F0 females. There was no evidence of untoward effects on embryo-fetal development (including teratogenicity), or early (pre-weaning) development of the F1 offspring. These results support the acceptable safety profile of the AS03-adjuvanted CoVLP vaccine for administration to women of childbearing potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Squalene/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Drug Combinations , Female , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Pregnancy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Tobacco/genetics
10.
Hum Reprod ; 37(1): 5-13, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501078

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has precipitated a global health crisis of unprecedented proportions. Because of its severe impact, multiple COVID-19 vaccines are being rapidly developed, approved and manufactured. Among them, mRNA vaccines are considered as ideal candidates with special advantages to meet this challenge. However, some serious adverse events have been reported after their application, significantly increasing concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and doubts about the necessity of vaccination. Although several fertility societies have announced that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are unlikely to affect fertility, there is no denying that the current evidence is very limited, which is one of the reasons for vaccine hesitancy in the population, especially in pregnant women. Herein, we provide an in-depth discussion on the involvement of the male and female reproductive systems during SARS-CoV-2 infection or after vaccination. On one hand, despite the low risk of infection in the male reproductive system or fetus, COVID-19 could pose an enormous threat to human reproductive health. On the other hand, our review indicates that both men and women, especially pregnant women, have no fertility problems or increased adverse pregnancy outcomes after vaccination, and, in particular, the benefits of maternal antibodies transferred through the placenta outweigh any known or potential risks. Thus, in the case of the rapid spread of COVID-19, although further research is still required, especially a larger population-based longitudinal study, it is obviously a wise option to be vaccinated instead of suffering from serious adverse symptoms of virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fertility , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(4): 378-382, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to fertility services. METHODS: A retrospective quality improvement study was conducted at a university-affiliated fertility practice in southwestern Ontario. Annual procedural volumes for intrauterine and donor inseminations (IUI/DI), in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injections (IVF/ICSI), and frozen embryo transfers (FET) during the COVID-19-affected year were compared with mean annual volumes from the 2 preceding years. In addition, volumes for the same procedures were compared between the first quarter of 2021 and mean first quarter volumes from 2018 to 2019. Piecewise linear regressions were conducted to evaluate whether any changes in monthly procedural volume were attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In 2020, our fertility practice attained the mean annual volumes of 89.7% for IUI/DI, 69.0% for IVF/ICSI, and 60.6% for FET. In contrast, in 2021, we performed mean first quarter volumes of 130.1% for IUI/DI, 164.3% for IVF/ICSI, and 126.8% for FET. The slopes of the pre- and post-COVID-19 segments of the piecewise linear regressions were significantly different for IUI/DI (P < 0.001) and IVF/ICSI (P = 0.001), but not for FET (P = 0.133). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in decreased annual volumes of medically assisted reproductive procedures at a university-affiliated fertility practice in southwestern Ontario. Impact on monthly procedural volume was confirmed for IUI/DI and IVF/ICSI by linear regression. Local adaptations helped compensate and exceed expected volumes in 2021. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a short-lived limitation in access to fertility care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Fertility , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Retrospective Studies , Universities
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166295, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491726

ABSTRACT

Several organs, such as the heart, breasts, intestine, testes, and ovaries, have been reported to be target tissues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To date, no studies have demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 infection in the female reproductive system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on ovarian function by comparing follicular fluid (FF) from control and recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and by evaluating the influence of these FF on human endothelial and non-luteinized granulosa cell cultures. Our results showed that most FFs (91.3%) from screened post COVID-19 patients were positive for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, patients with higher levels of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 had lower numbers of retrieved oocytes. While VEGF and IL-1ß were significantly lower in post COVID-19 FF, IL-10 did not differ from that in control FF. Moreover, in COV434 cells stimulated with FF from post COVID-19 patients, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), estrogen-receptor ß (Erß), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were significantly decreased, whereas estrogen-receptor α (ERα) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) did not change. In endothelial cells stimulated with post COVID-19 FF, we observed a decrease in cell migration without changes in protein expression of certain angiogenic factors. Both cell types showed a significantly higher γH2AX expression when exposed to post COVID-19 FF. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time that the SARS-CoV-2 infection adversely affects the follicular microenvironment, thus dysregulating ovarian function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Ovary/metabolism , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fertility , Follicular Fluid/metabolism , Granulosa Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Oocytes/metabolism , Young Adult
13.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 50(2): 173-181, 2022 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450113

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic context raises questions about COVID-19 consequences on Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART). Indeed, according to the first Biomedicine Agency recommendations, ART centers suspended their activities in March 2020 during the first wave of Covid-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 direct and indirect effects on gametes, fertility, pregnancy and neonatal health are still debated. The aim of this review is to assess the available data on this subject, to inform patients in care and adapt daily practice. Most recent studies are based on the effects of the infectious syndrome, on hormonal factors as well as on the expression of viral entry proteins (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) in cells involved in gametogenesis, to assess the impact of COVID-19. So far, no effect on female gametes was highlighted. More studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Mother to children transmission couldn't be proven, yet neonatal infection remains possible. However, men are more susceptible to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, to be symptomatic, and spermatogenesis is likely to be affected. Presence of the virus in semen is infrequently reported, but all of these parameters should be taken into account in ART.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Fertility , Germ Cells , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Spermatogenesis , Technology
14.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 44(1): 145-149, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447086

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does Pfizer's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination detrimentally affect semen analysis parameters? DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a single large tertiary centre in Israel between February and March of 2021. Semen samples from 75 fertile men were analysed 1-2 months following their second dose of Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine. The semen parameters were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) reference ranges. The primary outcome was the percentage of abnormal semen parameters in those who were vaccinated, i.e. the rates of oligozoospermia, reduced percentage of motile spermatozoa and abnormal sperm morphology. RESULTS: The interval from the time of the second vaccination to the date of participation was on average 37 days, with most subjects describing either mild or no side effects after the first or second dose. The mean sperm concentration was 63.2 ± 33.6 â€¯×  106/ml, with only a single participant (1.3%) with a sperm count of 12.5 â€¯×  106/ml, considered by the WHO to be oligozoospermic. The mean sperm motility percentage was 64.5 ± 16.7%, with only a single man (1.3%) displaying reduced motility. No notable morphological abnormalities were observed. This constituted a lower percentage of abnormal semen parameters compared with the 5% rates reported in fertile men by the WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The semen parameters following COVID-19 vaccination were predominantly within the normal reference ranges as set by the WHO and do not reflect any causative detrimental effect from COVID-19 vaccination. The results strengthen the notion that the Pfizer's severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine is safe and should be recommended to men wishing to conceive.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Fertility/drug effects , Semen Analysis , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
15.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103428, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433588

ABSTRACT

This opinion paper briefly presents arguments that support the unlikelihood of an impact on female fertility from current covid-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fertility/drug effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Female , Humans
16.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103427, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433587

ABSTRACT

To overcome COVID-19 long-term consequences, one possible approach is to control inflammasomes activation, because SARS-CoV-2 can induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this opinion article we hypothesized that if it is proven with convincing and unmistakable evidence that firstly, SARS-CoV-2 can enter cells and damage them through its common receptors in the reproductive tissues, and secondly, inflammasome pathway activation is responsible for the damages caused, then the inflammasome inhibitors might be considered as suitable candidates in preventing the pathological effects on the germ cells and reproductive tissues and subsequent fertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infertility/virology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/immunology , Fertility , Humans
18.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(11): 1885-1894, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375632

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is known to mediate attack via ACE-2 Receptor, thus having adverse effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, the latter being an area of emerging concern, due to the associated impact on fertility, with potential for an outsized effect on population distribution and socioeconomic road map in subsequent years. This narrative review aims to put forth the current evidence of effect of SARS-CoV-2 on human fertility from a multipronged immunologic, haematologic, and gynaecologic perspective; highlighting the areas of contradiction and potential future measures. A literature search was conducted through the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases to identify articles on the subject in English. Relevant information was extracted from around 300 articles for this review. The existing data give non-conclusive evidence about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on fertility; however, a greater impact on male fertility as compared to females merits further exploration. However, reproduction and fertility is a key concern and considering the pandemic is prolonged, natural conception or ART require extra precautions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Fertility , Genitalia/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369645

ABSTRACT

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fertility , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Inflammation/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
20.
BJU Int ; 129(2): 143-150, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360469

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to more than 160 million infections and 3.5 million deaths globally. Men are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, having more severe disease with higher mortality rates than women. Androgens have been implicated as the underlying cause for more severe disease, as the androgen receptor has been noted to upregulate the cell surface receptors that mediate viral cell entry and infection. Unfortunately, despite testosterone's potential role in COVID-19 prognosis, androgen deprivation therapy is neither protective nor a treatment for COVID-19. Interestingly, the male reproductive organs have been found to be vulnerable in moderate to severe illness, leading to reports of erectile dysfunction and orchitis. COVID-19 viral particles have been identified in penile and testis tissue, both in live patients who recovered from COVID-19 and post mortem in men who succumbed to the disease. Although sexual transmission remains unlikely in recovered men, moderate to severe COVID-19 infection can lead to germ cell and Leydig cell depletion, leading to decreased spermatogenesis and male hypogonadism. The objective of this review is to describe the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive health. There are still many unanswered questions as to the specific underlying mechanisms by which COVID-19 impacts male reproductive organs and the long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Men's Health , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Androgen Antagonists , Fertility , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Middle Aged , Spermatogenesis , Testosterone/blood
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