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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 373-380, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and umbilical cord blood anti-spike immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels at delivery with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination before and during pregnancy and to assess the association of prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a vaccine booster dose with anti-spike maternal and umbilical cord IgG levels. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with self-reported COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen), including a booster dose, during or before pregnancy, who delivered at 34 weeks of gestation or more. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples at delivery were analyzed for semi-quantitative anti-spike IgG. We examined the association between timing of maternal vaccination and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels using a rank sum test. The relationships between a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike IgG levels, and between a booster dose and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels, were also evaluated using a rank sum test. RESULTS: We included data from 1,359 vaccinated pregnant women, including 20 women who received a booster dose, and 1,362 umbilical cord samples. Maternal anti-spike IgG levels were detectable at delivery regardless of timing of vaccination throughout pregnancy among fully vaccinated women; however, early third-trimester vaccination was associated with the highest anti-spike IgG levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Among women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal and cord blood antibody response achieved with vaccination in early pregnancy was comparable with third-trimester vaccination in pregnant women without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A booster dose in the third trimester was associated with maternal anti-spike IgG levels greater than third-trimester vaccination in women with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Vaccination against COVID-19 before and throughout pregnancy was associated with detectable maternal anti-spike IgG levels at delivery. A complete vaccination course, prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a third-trimester booster dose were associated with the highest maternal and umbilical cord antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
2.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(3): 290-295, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589275

ABSTRACT

Importance: BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination in the third trimester was found to be associated with a strong maternal humoral IgG response that crossed the placenta and approached maternal titers in the newborn. Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels at birth after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination during the second trimester of pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study, conducted at a single medical center in Haifa, Israel, from May to July 2021, included women with a singleton pregnancy over 24 weeks of gestation at least 7 days after receipt of their second COVID-19 vaccine dose who were not known to be previously infected with COVID-19. Exposures: BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers measured in the parturient at admission and in the umbilical cord blood within 30 minutes after delivery. Secondary outcomes were the correlation between antibody titers, feto-maternal characteristics, maternal adverse effects after vaccination, and time interval from vaccination to delivery. Results: Antibody levels were measured for 129 women (mean [SD] age, 31.9 [4.9] years) and 114 neonates, with 100% of the tests having positive results. The mean (SD) gestational age at administration of the second vaccine dose was 24.9 (3.3) weeks. Neonatal IgG titers were 2.6 times higher than maternal titers (median [range], 3315.7 [350.1-17 643.5] AU/mL vs 1185.2 [146.6-32 415.1] AU/mL). A positive correlation was demonstrated between maternal and neonatal antibodies (r = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94). Multivariable analysis revealed that for each week that passed since receipt of the second vaccine dose, maternal and neonatal antibody levels changed by -10.9% (95% CI, -17.2% to -4.2%; P = .002) and -11.7% (95% CI, -19.0 to -3.8%; P = .005), respectively. For each 1-year increase in the mother's age, maternal and neonatal antibody levels changed by -3.1% (95% CI, -5.3% to -0.9%; P = .007) and -2.7% (95% CI, -5.2% to -0.1%; P = .04), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, receipt of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with maternal and neonatal humoral responses, as reflected in maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels measured after delivery. These findings support COVID-19 vaccination of pregnant individuals during the second trimester to achieve maternal protection and newborn safety during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Israel , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Suppl 6): S647-S659, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), host molecules required for viral entry, may underlie sex differences in vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We investigated whether placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression vary by fetal sex in the presence of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by Western blot in 68 pregnant women (38 SARS-CoV-2 positive, 30 SARS-CoV-2 negative) delivering at Mass General Brigham from April to June 2020. The impact of fetal sex and maternal SARS-CoV-2 exposure on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted placental TMPRSS2 expression in a sexually dimorphic fashion (2-way ANOVA interaction, P = .002). We observed no impact of fetal sex or maternal SARS-CoV-2 status on ACE2. TMPRSS2 expression was significantly correlated with ACE2 expression in males (Spearman ρ = 0.54, P = .02) but not females (ρ = 0.23, P = .34) exposed to maternal SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in placental TMPRSS2 but not ACE2 were observed in the setting of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have implications for offspring vulnerability to placental infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fetal Blood/immunology , Placenta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sex Factors , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Fetus/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
4.
Placenta ; 115: 146-150, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514252

ABSTRACT

There is inadequate screening for SARS-COV-2 during pregnancy. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal and neonatal cord blood SARS-COV-2 antibodies and placental transfer ratios in a region with a low screening plan. We performed a blind study in one of the SARS-CoV-2 epicenters in South America. 32% of pregnant women were serological positive. Importantly, there is an efficient passive immunization of the fetus to SARS-CoV-2. We report high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, which is higher than officially reported. Therefore the need of active immunization to enhance maternal protection and fetal passive immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Blood/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(12): 2268-2277, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488173

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence about the consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is rapidly increasing; however, data on antibody response and risk of transmission during pregnancy and delivery are still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in vaginal swabs and whether antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are present in maternal and umbilical cord blood of pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single-unit prospective cohort study in Denmark including pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a pharyngeal swab between August 20, 2020, and March 1, 2021, who gave birth during the same period. All patients admitted to the maternity ward and antepartum clinic were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A maternal blood sample and vaginal swabs were collected at inclusion. If included antepartum, these samples were repeated intrapartum when an umbilical cord blood sample was also collected. Swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 and blood samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies. Placental and neonatal swabs as well as placental histopathological examinations were performed on clinical indications. RESULTS: We included 28 women, of whom four had serious maternal or fetal outcomes including one case of neonatal death. Within the first 8 days after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 was detectable in two vaginal swabs (2/28) and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 1 of 13 women. From 16 days after confirmed infection, antibodies were observed in 19 of 21 of women. Antibodies in cord blood were not detected during the first 16 days after confirmed infection (n = 7). However, from 26 days, antibodies were present in 16 of 17 cord blood samples of seropositive mothers. Placental examination in two cases of severe fetal outcomes preceded by reduced fetal movements revealed SARS-CoV-2 in swabs and severe histopathological abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in only 2 of 28 vaginal swabs within 8 days after confirmed infection in pregnant women. Our data suggest that maternal seroconversion occurs between days 8 and 16, whereas antibodies in cord blood of seropositive mothers were present in the majority from 26 days after confirmed infection. Additional data are needed regarding timing of seroconversion for the mother and appearance of antibodies in cord blood.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies , Cohort Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Vaginal Smears
6.
Placenta ; 117: 47-56, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474964

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies can cross the placenta during pregnancy, and neonates born to infected mothers have acquired antibodies at birth. Few studies reported data on the histopathological changes of the placenta during infection and placental infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause impaired development of the placenta, thus predisposing maternal and fetal unfavorable outcomes. The prospective study aims to evaluate the risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and placental passage of anti-Spike antibodies as well as the impact of clinical severity on placental structures. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study on 30 pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2 with their neonates. The demographic features and pregnancy outcomes were collected. Gross and microscopic examinations of the placentas were done. Maternal and umbilical cord sera were obtained at the time of delivery. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from neonates immediately after birth. RESULTS: The concentrations of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies were higher in pregnant women with moderate to severe/critical disease. The maternal total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike levels were correlated with those of neonatal levels. The rate of placental abnormalities is high in the mothers with severe disease, and those with positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM. All neonates had negative nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS- CoV-2 infections and all placentas were negative in immunohistochemical staining for Spike protein. DISCUSSION: The maternally derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody can transmit to neonates born to infected mothers regardless of gestational age. Our results indicated that the disease severity is associated with ischemic placental pathology which may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/chemistry , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18984, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437691

ABSTRACT

Serological diagnostic of the severe respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a valuable tool for the determination of immunity and surveillance of exposure to the virus. In the context of an ongoing pandemic, it is essential to externally validate widely used tests to assure correct diagnostics and epidemiological estimations. We evaluated the performance of the COVID-19 ELISA IgG and the COVID-19 ELISA IgM/A (Vircell, S.L.) against a highly specific and sensitive in-house Luminex immunoassay in a set of samples from pregnant women and cord blood. The agreement between both assays was moderate to high for IgG but low for IgM/A. Considering seropositivity by either IgG and/or IgM/A, the technical performance of the ELISA was highly imbalanced, with 96% sensitivity at the expense of 22% specificity. As for the clinical performance, the negative predictive value reached 87% while the positive predictive value was 51%. Our results stress the need for highly specific and sensitive assays and external validation of diagnostic tests with different sets of samples to avoid the clinical, epidemiological and personal disturbances derived from serological misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
12.
JAMA ; 325(23): 2370-2380, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287297

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant women are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 but have been excluded from the phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trials. Data on vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these populations are therefore limited. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in pregnant and lactating women, including against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Design, Setting, and Participants: An exploratory, descriptive, prospective cohort study enrolled 103 women who received a COVID-19 vaccine from December 2020 through March 2021 and 28 women who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 2020 through March 2021 (the last follow-up date was March 26, 2021). This study enrolled 30 pregnant, 16 lactating, and 57 neither pregnant nor lactating women who received either the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccines and 22 pregnant and 6 nonpregnant unvaccinated women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses from pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women were assessed following vaccination. Spike-specific T-cell responses were evaluated using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and multiparameter intracellular cytokine-staining assays. Humoral and cellular immune responses were determined against the original SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain as well as against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. Results: This study enrolled 103 women aged 18 to 45 years (66% non-Hispanic White) who received a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. After the second vaccine dose, fever was reported in 4 pregnant women (14%; SD, 6%), 7 lactating women (44%; SD, 12%), and 27 nonpregnant women (52%; SD, 7%). Binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses as well as CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were present in pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women following vaccination. Binding and neutralizing antibodies were also observed in infant cord blood and breast milk. Binding and neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern were reduced, but T-cell responses were preserved against viral variants. Conclusion and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a convenience sample, receipt of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic in pregnant women, and vaccine-elicited antibodies were transported to infant cord blood and breast milk. Pregnant and nonpregnant women who were vaccinated developed cross-reactive antibody responses and T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Lactation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/physiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy/immunology , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278398

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women have been carefully observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, as the pregnancy-specific immune adaptation is known to increase the risk for infections. Recent evidence indicates that even though most pregnant have a mild or asymptomatic course, a severe course of COVID-19 and a higher risk of progression to diseases have also been described, along with a heightened risk for pregnancy complications. Yet, vertical transmission of the virus is rare and the possibility of placental SARS-CoV-2 infection as a prerequisite for vertical transmission requires further studies. We here assessed the severity of COVID-19 and onset of neonatal infections in an observational study of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. Our placental analyses showed a paucity of SARS-CoV-2 viral expression ex vivo in term placentae under acute infection. No viral placental expression was detectable in convalescent pregnant women. Inoculation of placental explants generated from placentas of non-infected women at birth with SARS-CoV-2 in vitro revealed inefficient SARS-CoV-2 replication in different types of placental tissues, which provides a rationale for the low ex vivo viral expression. We further detected specific SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses in pregnant women within a few days upon infection, which was undetectable in cord blood. Our present findings confirm that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is rare, likely due to the inefficient virus replication in placental tissues. Despite the predominantly benign course of infection in most mothers and negligible risk of vertical transmission, continuous vigilance on the consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy is required, since the maternal immune activation in response to the SARS-CoV2 infection may have long-term consequences for children's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/physiology
14.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe significant risks posed to mothers and fetuses by COVID-19 in pregnancy have sparked a worldwide debate surrounding the pros and cons of antenatal SARS-CoV-2 inoculation, as we lack sufficient evidence regarding vaccine effectiveness in pregnant women and their offspring. We aimed to provide substantial evidence for the effect of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine versus native infection on maternal humoral, as well as transplacentally acquired fetal immune response, potentially providing newborn protection.METHODSA multicenter study where parturients presenting for delivery were recruited at 8 medical centers across Israel and assigned to 3 study groups: vaccinated (n = 86); PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected during pregnancy (n = 65), and unvaccinated noninfected controls (n = 62). Maternal and fetal blood samples were collected from parturients prior to delivery and from the umbilical cord following delivery, respectively. Sera IgG and IgM titers were measured using the Milliplex MAP SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Panel (for S1, S2, RBD, and N).RESULTSThe BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine elicits strong maternal humoral IgG response (anti-S and RBD) that crosses the placenta barrier and approaches maternal titers in the fetus within 15 days following the first dose. Maternal to neonatal anti-COVID-19 antibodies ratio did not differ when comparing sensitization (vaccine vs. infection). IgG transfer ratio at birth was significantly lower for third-trimester as compared with second trimester infection. Lastly, fetal IgM response was detected in 5 neonates, all in the infected group.CONCLUSIONAntenatal BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination induces a robust maternal humoral response that effectively transfers to the fetus, supporting the role of vaccination during pregnancy.FUNDINGIsrael Science Foundation and the Weizmann Institute Fondazione Henry Krenter.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult
15.
JAMA ; 325(23): 2370-2380, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226170

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant women are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 but have been excluded from the phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trials. Data on vaccine safety and immunogenicity in these populations are therefore limited. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in pregnant and lactating women, including against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Design, Setting, and Participants: An exploratory, descriptive, prospective cohort study enrolled 103 women who received a COVID-19 vaccine from December 2020 through March 2021 and 28 women who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 2020 through March 2021 (the last follow-up date was March 26, 2021). This study enrolled 30 pregnant, 16 lactating, and 57 neither pregnant nor lactating women who received either the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccines and 22 pregnant and 6 nonpregnant unvaccinated women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses from pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women were assessed following vaccination. Spike-specific T-cell responses were evaluated using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and multiparameter intracellular cytokine-staining assays. Humoral and cellular immune responses were determined against the original SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain as well as against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. Results: This study enrolled 103 women aged 18 to 45 years (66% non-Hispanic White) who received a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. After the second vaccine dose, fever was reported in 4 pregnant women (14%; SD, 6%), 7 lactating women (44%; SD, 12%), and 27 nonpregnant women (52%; SD, 7%). Binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibody responses as well as CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were present in pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women following vaccination. Binding and neutralizing antibodies were also observed in infant cord blood and breast milk. Binding and neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern were reduced, but T-cell responses were preserved against viral variants. Conclusion and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a convenience sample, receipt of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic in pregnant women, and vaccine-elicited antibodies were transported to infant cord blood and breast milk. Pregnant and nonpregnant women who were vaccinated developed cross-reactive antibody responses and T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Lactation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/physiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy/immunology , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Science ; 372(6543): 738-741, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180894

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and infection promote the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells, which encode humoral immune memory. We evaluated pediatric and adult blood and deceased adult organ donor tissues to determine convergent antigen-specific antibody genes of similar sequences shared between individuals. B cell memory varied for different pathogens. Polysaccharide antigen-specific clones were not exclusive to the spleen. Adults had higher clone frequencies and greater class switching in lymphoid tissues than blood, while pediatric blood had abundant class-switched convergent clones. Consistent with reported serology, prepandemic children had class-switched convergent clones to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with weak cross-reactivity to other coronaviruses, while adult blood or tissues showed few such clones. These results highlight the prominence of early childhood B cell clonal expansions and cross-reactivity for future responses to novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Ebolavirus/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Genes, Immunoglobulin , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin D/genetics , Immunoglobulin D/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/genetics , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spleen/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(6): 974-978, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and infection-to-delivery interval with maternal and cord serum concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and transplacental transfer ratio in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27 March 2020 and 24 January 2021. We collected information regarding deep throat saliva or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, serial cycle threshold (Ct) values at and after diagnosis, demographic, clinical and outcome data, and neonatal NPS RT-PCR results. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed in maternal and cord blood serum samples obtained at delivery. Correlation of maternal Ct values, infection-to-delivery interval, infection duration and viral load area under the curve (AUC) with gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, maternal and cord serum IgG concentrations and transplacental transfer ratio of IgG were evaluated using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: Twenty pregnant women who consented to participate and who had delivered their babies by 31 January 2021 were included in the study, comprising 14 who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and six with active infection at delivery. The median GA at clinical manifestation was 32.7 (range, 11.9-39.4) weeks. The median infection-to-delivery interval and infection duration were 41.5 (range, 2-187) days and 10.0 (range, 1-48) days, respectively. The median GA at delivery was 39.1 (range, 32.4-40.7) weeks and the median seroconversion interval was 14 (range, 1-19) days. Of 13 neonates born to seropositive mothers with recovered infection at delivery, 12 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All neonatal NPS samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and all cord sera tested negative for IgM. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 (interquartile range, 0.9-1.6). There was a negative correlation between infection-to-delivery interval and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in maternal (r = -0.6693, P = 0.0087) and cord (r = -0.6554, P = 0.0068) serum and a positive correlation between IgG concentration in maternal serum and viral load AUC (r = 0.5109, P = 0.0310). A negative correlation was observed between transfer ratio and viral load AUC (r = -0.4757, P = 0.0409). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women who have recovered from COVID-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations at delivery increased with increasing viral load during infection and decreased with increasing infection-to-delivery interval. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 and it decreased with increasing viral load during infection. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 179, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142427

ABSTRACT

Microglia, the resident brain immune cells, play a critical role in normal brain development, and are impacted by the intrauterine environment, including maternal immune activation and inflammatory exposures. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential developmental immune challenge to the fetal brain, in the setting of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection with its attendant potential for cytokine production and, in severe cases, cytokine storming. There is currently no biomarker or model for in utero microglial priming and function that might aid in identifying the neonates and children most vulnerable to neurodevelopmental morbidity, as microglia remain inaccessible in fetal life and after birth. This study aimed to generate patient-derived microglial-like cell models unique to each neonate from reprogrammed umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, adapting and extending a novel methodology previously validated for adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We demonstrate that umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells can be used to create microglial-like cell models morphologically and functionally similar to microglia observed in vivo. We illustrate the application of this approach by generating microglia from cells exposed and unexposed to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our ability to create personalized neonatal models of fetal brain immune programming enables non-invasive insights into fetal brain development and potential childhood neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities for a range of maternal exposures, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/growth & development , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Reprogramming , Fetal Blood/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(5): 894-896, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) do not include pregnant participants. No data are available to counsel on vaccine safety and potential for neonatal passive immunity. CASE: A 34-year-old multigravid patient working in health care received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in the third trimester of pregnancy. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery of a female neonate with Apgar scores of 9 and 9 occurred at term. The patient's blood as well as neonatal cord blood were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Both the patient and the neonate were positive for antibodies at a titer of 1:25,600. CONCLUSION: In this case, passage of transplacental antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 was shown after vaccination in the third trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fetal Blood/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094169

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been raging around the world since January 2020. Pregnancy places the women in a unique immune scenario which may allow severe COVID-19 disease. In this regard, the potential unknown effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mothers and fetuses have attracted considerable attention. There is no clear consistent evidence of the changes in the immune status of pregnant women after recovery from COVID-19. In this study, we use multiparameter flow cytometry and Luminex assay to determine the immune cell subsets and cytokines, respectively, in the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood from pregnant women recovering from COVID-19 about 3 months (n=5). Our results showed decreased percentages of Tc2, Tfh17, memory B cells, virus-specific NK cells, and increased percentages of naive B cells in the peripheral blood. Serum levels of IL-1ra and MCP-1 showed a decreased tendency in late recovery stage (LRS) patients. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in immune cell subsets in the umbilical cord blood. The placentas from LRS patients showed increased CD68+ macrophages infiltration and mild hypoxic features. The inflammatory damage of the placenta may be related to the antiviral response. Since the receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, utilized by SARS-CoV-2 are not co-expressed in the placenta, so it is extremely rare for SARS-CoV-2 to cause infection through this route and the impact on the fetus is negligible.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Placenta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autoantigens/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Killer Cells, Natural , Pregnancy , Receptors, Interleukin-1/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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