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2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701316

ABSTRACT

Stillbirth is a recently recognized complication of COVID-19 in pregnant women. Other congenitally transmitted infections from viruses, bacteria and parasites can cause stillbirth by infecting fetal organs following transplacental transmission of the agent from the maternal bloodstream. However, recent research on pregnant women with COVID-19 having stillbirths indicates that there is another mechanism of stillbirth that can occur in placentas infected with SARS-CoV-2. In these cases, viral infection of the placenta results in SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, a combination of concurrent destructive findings that include increased fibrin deposition which typically reaches the level of massive perivillous fibrin deposition, chronic histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblast necrosis. These three pathological lesions, in some cases together with placental hemorrhage, thrombohematomas and villitis, result in severe and diffuse placental parenchymal destruction. This pathology can involve greater than one-half of the placental volume, averaging 77% in the largest study of 68 cases, effectively rendering the placenta incapable of performing its function of oxygenating the fetus. This destructive placental process can lead to stillbirth and neonatal death via malperfusion and placental insufficiency which is independent of fetal infection. Fetal autopsies show no evidence that direct infection of fetal organs is contributory. Because all mothers examined have been unvaccinated, maternal vaccination may prevent viremia and consequent placental infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placental Insufficiency , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Placenta/pathology , Placental Insufficiency/pathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669907

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The considerable volume of infections from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has made it challenging for health departments to collect complete data for national disease reporting. We sought to examine sensitivity of the COVID-19 case report form (CRF) pregnancy field by comparing CRF data to the gold standard of CRF data linked to birth and fetal death certificates. DESCRIPTION: CRFs for women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to birth and fetal death certificates for pregnancies completed during January 1-December 31, 2020 in Illinois and Tennessee. Among linked records, pregnancy was considered confirmed for women with a SARS-CoV-2 specimen collection date on or prior to the delivery date. Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnancy indicated on the CRF by the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. ASSESSMENT: Among 4276 (Illinois) and 2070 (Tennessee) CRFs that linked with a birth or fetal death certificate, CRF pregnancy field sensitivity was 45.3% and 42.1%, respectively. In both states, sensitivity varied significantly by maternal race/ethnicity, insurance, trimester of prenatal care entry, month of specimen collection, and trimester of specimen collection. Sensitivity also varied by maternal education in Illinois but not in Tennessee. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field varied by state and demographic factors. To more accurately assess outcomes for pregnant women, jurisdictions might consider utilizing additional data sources and linkages to obtain pregnancy status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology
4.
Ceska Gynekol ; 86(6): 410-413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize information about possible effects of covid-19 on intrauterine fetal death and present three cases of intrauterine fetal death in women with recent covid-19 infection. METHODS: Review of available information about pregnancy with covid-19 and comparison with own observation of cases during spring 2021. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 influences risk of intrauterine fetal death, preeclampsia/eclampsia or HELLP syndrome. Coagulation changes and drop of platelets is considered as one of the causes of intrauterine fetal death due to fetal vascular malperfusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HELLP Syndrome , Pre-Eclampsia , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 754-758, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621621

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the specific impact of maternal infection with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (delta) variant on pregnancy outcomes. We present 2 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and 1 case of severe fetal distress in the setting of maternal infection with delta-variant SARS-CoV-2. In all cases, fetal demise or distress occurred within 14 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Evaluation revealed maternal viremia, high nasopharyngeal viral load, evidence of placental infection with delta-variant SARS-CoV-2, and hallmark features of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. We suggest that delta-variant SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy warrants vigilance for placental dysfunction and fetal compromise regardless of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fetal Death , Fetal Distress , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Chorioamnionitis , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis
6.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 748-753, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a higher infection rate in pregnant women than age-matched adults. With increased infectivity and transmissibility, the Delta variant is predominant worldwide. METHODS: In this study, we describe intrauterine fetal demise in unvaccinated women with mild symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection. RESULTS: Histology and elevated proinflammatory responses of the placenta suggest that fetal demise was associated with placental malperfusion due to Delta variant infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the Delta variant can cause severe morbidity and mortality to fetuses. Vaccination should continue to be advocated and will likely continue to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection risks for pregnant women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fetal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stillbirth , Adult , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third
7.
Hum Pathol ; 121: 46-55, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592973

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause severe placental lesions leading rapidly to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). From August 2020 to September 2021, in the pathology department of Toulouse Oncopole, we analyzed 50 placentas from COVID-19-positive unvaccinated mothers. The purpose of our study is to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of these placental damages and to understand the pathophysiology. Ten of them (20%) showed placental lesions with positive immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 in villous trophoblasts. In five cases (10%), we observed massive placental damage associating trophoblastic necrosis, fibrinous deposits, intervillositis, as well as extensive hemorrhagic changes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection probably responsible of IUFD by functional placental insufficiency. In five other cases, we found similar placental lesions but with a focal distribution that did not lead to IUFD but live birth. These lesions are independent of maternal clinical severity of COVID-19 infection because they occur despite mild maternal symptoms and are therefore difficult to predict. In our cases, they occurred 1-3 weeks after positive SARS-CoV-2 maternal real-time polymerase chain reaction testing and were observed in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancies. When these lesions are focal, they do not lead to IUFD and can be involved in intrauterine growth restriction. Our findings, together with recent observations, suggest that future pregnancy guidance should include stricter pandemic precautions such as screening for a wider array of COVID-19 symptoms, enhanced ultrasound monitoring, as well as newborn medical surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pathologe ; 43(2): 135-139, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588808

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a placenta with extensive maternal vascular malperfusion and chronic histiocytic intervillositis corresponding to SARS-CoV­2 placentitis in the context of fetal demise at 31 weeks of gestation. Placental swamp and PCR of the placental parenchyma, umbilical cord and amnion-chorion membrane showed SARS-CoV-2- and B­betacoronavirus-specific RNA. Maternal vascular malperfusion has been described in cases of SARS-CoV­2 infection; however, the manifested severity of this case in the setting of a severe SARS-CoV­2 placentitis is rare. It emphasizes the need of a maternal prophylactic anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 801, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is dearth of information on COVID-19's impact on pregnant women. However, literature reported trends of COVID-19 differ, depending on the presence of clinical features upon presentation. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to assess differences in risk factors, management, complications, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A search was run on electronic databases to identify studies reporting COVID-19 in pregnancy. Meta-analysis was performed and odds ratios and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager 5.4. Review Prospero registration number CRD42020204662. RESULTS: We included ten articles reporting data from 3158 pregnancies; with 1900 symptomatic and 1258 asymptomatic pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the mean age, gestational age, and body mass index between the two groups. The meta-analysis suggested that pregnant women who were obese (OR:1.37;95%CI:1.15 to 1.62), hypertensive (OR:2.07;95%CI:1.38 to 3.10) or had a respiratory disorder (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.25 to 2.16), were more likely to be symptomatic when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women with Black (OR:1.48;95%CI:1.19 to 1.85) or Asian (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.23 to 2.18) ethnicity were more likely to be symptomatic while those with White ethnicity (OR:0.63;95%CI:0.52 to 0.76) were more likely to be asymptomatic. Cesarean-section delivery (OR:1.40;95%CI:1.17 to 1.67) was more likely amongst symptomatic pregnant women. The mean birthweight(g) (MD:240.51;95%CI:188.42 to 293.51), was significantly lower, while the odds of low birthweight (OR:1.85;95%CI:1.06 to 3.24) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.04 to 4.23) was higher amongst symptomatic pregnant women. Symptomatic pregnant women had a greater requirement for maternal ICU admission (OR:13.25;95%CI:5.60 to 31.34) and mechanical ventilation (OR:15.56;95%CI:2.96 to 81.70) while their neonates had a higher likelihood for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission (OR:1.96;95%CI:1.59 to 2.43). The management strategies in the included studies were poorly discussed, hence could not be analyzed. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests that the presence of risk factors (co-morbidities and ethnicity) increased the likelihood of pregnant women being symptomatic. Higher odds of complications were also observed amongst symptomatic pregnant women. However, more adequately conducted studies with adjusted analysis and parallel comparison groups are required to reach conclusive findings.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Death , Gestational Age , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Placenta ; 109: 72-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386464

ABSTRACT

Whether early SARS-CoV-2 definitively increases the risk of stillbirth is unknown, though studies have suggested possible trends of stillbirth increase during the pandemic. This study of third trimester stillbirth does not identify an increase in rates during the first wave of the pandemic period, however investigation of the placental pathology demonstrates trends towards more vascular placental abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Placenta Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(5): 522.e1-522.e11, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, but these associations are still not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth and maternal and perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This is a population-based cohort study in England. The inclusion criteria were women with a recorded singleton birth between May 29, 2020, and January 31, 2021, in a national database of hospital admissions. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recorded in the birth episode and those without. Study outcomes were fetal death at or beyond 24 weeks' gestation (stillbirth), preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation), small for gestational age infant (small for gestational age; birthweight at the .05) in the rate of other maternal outcomes. The risk of neonatal adverse outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.66; P<.001), need for specialist neonatal care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.51; P=.03), and prolonged neonatal admission after birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.75; P<.001) were all significantly higher for infants with mothers with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the analysis was restricted to pregnancies delivered at term (≥37 weeks), there were no significant differences in neonatal adverse outcome (P=.78), need for specialist neonatal care after birth (P=.22), or neonatal readmission within 4 weeks of birth (P=.05). Neonates born at term to mothers with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to have prolonged admission after birth (21.1% compared with 14.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.75; P<.001). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth is associated with higher rates of fetal death, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and emergency cesarean delivery. There were no additional adverse neonatal outcomes, other than those related to preterm delivery. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be considered a priority for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Placenta ; 112: 97-104, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women with covid-19 are more likely to experience preterm birth. The virus seems to be associated with a wide range of placental lesions, none of them specific. METHOD: We collected cases of Covid-19 maternal infection during pregnancy associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, for which we received the placenta. We studied clinical data and described pathological findings of placenta and post-mortem examination of fetuses. We performed an immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR of SARS-Cov-2 on placenta samples. RESULTS: We report 5 cases of poor fetal outcome, 3 fetal deaths and 2 extreme premature neonates, one with growth restriction, without clinical and biological sign of SARS-Cov-2 infection. All placenta presented massive perivillous fibrin deposition and large intervillous thrombi associated with strong SARS-Cov-2 expression in trophoblast and SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in amniotic fluid or on placenta samples. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis was present in 4/5 cases. Placental ultrasound was abnormal and the sFLT1-PIGF ratio was increased in one case. Timing between mothers' infection and the poor fetal outcome was ≤10 days in 4 cases. The massive placental damage are directly induced by the virus whose receptors are expressed on trophoblast, leading to trophoblast necrosis and massive inflammation in villous chamber, in a similar way it occurs in diffuse alveolar damage in adults infected by SARS-Cov-2. DISCUSSION: SARS-Cov-2 can be associated to a rare set of placental lesions which can lead to fetal demise, preterm birth, or growth restriction. Stronger surveillance of mothers infected by SARS-Cov-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Stillbirth , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , France , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/pathology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
15.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub ; 165(3): 328-331, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318450

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 is responsible for a worldwide increase in morbidity and mortality. The relationship of this infection to mother-to-child vertical transmission has not been elucidated yet. However, recent reports indicate a foetal death rate of up to 3%. METHODS: We report a case of sudden pre-term foetal demise in a woman positive for SARS-CoV-2 but asymptomatic, with physiological course of pregnancy. RESULTS: One of the possible explanations of sudden foetal death may be acute placental insufficiency caused by a SARS-CoV-2 placental infection or the development of foetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). CONCLUSION: Considering the potential risk of foetal demise, questions remain regarding foetal monitoring and the timing of labour and delivery in the second and third trimesters, particularly in asymptomatic or mild maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. A relevant multidisciplinary team must also be aware of these risks associated with possibly fatal consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fetal Death , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314115

ABSTRACT

A 31-year-old G3P2002 with history of two prior caesarean sections presented with influenza-like illness, requiring intubation secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Investigations revealed intrauterine fetal demise at 30-week gestation.She soon deteriorated with sepsis and multiple organs impacted. Risks of the gravid uterus impairing cardiopulmonary function appeared greater than risks of delivery, including that of uterine rupture. Vaginal birth after caesarean was achieved with misoprostol and critical care status rapidly improved.Current guidelines for management of fetal demise in patients with prior hysterotomies are mixed: although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends standard obstetric protocols rather than misoprostol administration for labour augmentation, there is limited published data citing severe maternal morbidity associated with misoprostol use. This case report argues misoprostol-augmented induction of labour can be a reasonable option in a medically complex patient with fetal demise and prior hysterotomies.


Subject(s)
Fetal Death/etiology , Labor, Induced/methods , Labor, Obstetric/drug effects , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Oxytocics/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravaginal , Adult , Delivery, Obstetric/standards , Female , Humans , Hysterotomy/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Misoprostol/pharmacology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Oxytocics/pharmacology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Rupture/prevention & control
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288947

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a worldwide pandemic causing a serious global public health problem. The risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still debated, and the consequences of this virus on pregnant women and their fetuses remain unknown. We report a case of pregnancy complicated with hydrops fetalis that developed 7 weeks after recovery from a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to intrauterine death of the foetus. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis was demonstrated by the presence of viral particles in the placenta identified by immunohistochemistry. As we excluded all possible etiological factors for non-immunologic hydrops fetalis, we believe that the fetal consequences of our case are related to vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the literature of COVID-19 infection complicated with hydrops fetalis and intrauterine fetal demise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Humans , Hydrops Fetalis/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
18.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 24(5): 450-454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259128

ABSTRACT

An emerging complication of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is reported. A 23-year-old patient presented with high temperature and reduced fetal movements at 25 + 5/40 weeks of gestation. RT-PCR proved maternal COVID-19 infection. Ultrasound examination confirmed intrauterine death. Placenta histology showed necrosis of the villous trophoblast, associated with Chronic Histiocytic Intervillositis (CHI) and Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition (MPFD) with up to 90% - of the intervillous spaces being involved. Immunohistochemistry showed CD68 positive histiocytes in the intervillous spaces and the villous trophoblast was positive for the COVID-19 spike protein. RNA scope signal was indicative of the presence of the viral genome and active viral replication in the villous trophoblastic cells, respectively. MPFD is a gradually developing end-stage disease with various etiology, including autoimmune and alloimmune maternal response to antigens expressed at the feto-maternal interface and frequently accompanies chronic alloimmune villitis or histiocytic intervillositis. Covid-19 infection is associated with similar pattern of histological changes of the placenta leading to placental insufficiency and fetal death. This case report supports maternal- fetal vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus leading to placental insufficiency and fetal demise. MPFD and CHI appear to be the typical placental histology for SARS-CoV-2 virus infection associated fetal demise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chorionic Villi/virology , Fibrin/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Histiocytes/virology , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , RNA, Viral
19.
Mod Pathol ; 34(9): 1704-1709, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233700

ABSTRACT

Placental pathology in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnancies seems rather unspecific. However, the identification of the placental lesions due to SARS-CoV-2 infection would be a significant advance in order to improve the management of these pregnancies and to identify the mechanisms involved in a possible vertical transmission. The pathological findings in placentas delivered from 198 SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women were investigated for the presence of lesions associated with placental SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated in placental tissues through immunohistochemistry, and positive cases were further confirmed by in situ hybridization. SARS-CoV-2 infection was also investigated by RT-PCR in 33 cases, including all the immunohistochemically positive cases. Nine cases were SARS-CoV-2-positive by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR. These placentas showed lesions characterized by villous trophoblast necrosis with intervillous space collapse and variable amounts of mixed intervillous inflammatory infiltrate and perivillous fibrinoid deposition. Such lesions ranged from focal to massively widespread in five cases, resulting in intrauterine fetal death. Two of the stillborn fetuses showed some evidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity. The remaining 189 placentas did not show similar lesions. The strong association between trophoblastic damage and placenta SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that this lesion is a specific marker of SARS-CoV-2 infection in placenta. Diffuse trophoblastic damage, massively affecting chorionic villous tissue, can result in fetal death associated with COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fetal Death/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Trophoblasts/pathology , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(2): 140-144, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142403

ABSTRACT

Research into the origins of twinning has focused mostly on contributions from the female side of the family. A review of current findings suggests that possible male contributions to twinning events have been overlooked. This section is followed by brief reviews of twin research concerning monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson's disease, fetal loss in twin pregnancies following prenatal diagnosis, uterine rupture and repair in an early twin pregnancy and a twin study of affectionate communication. The concluding portion of this article presents human interest stories involving twins that are both informative and poignant, namely conjoined twins in a triplet set, identical twin nurses who delivered identical twins, identical twins discordant for COVID-19 recovery course, identical twins who passed away from COVID-19 and archeological finds of the oldest identical twins.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Twin Studies as Topic , Twins, Monozygotic , COVID-19 , Communication , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Male , Nurses , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Twin , Prenatal Diagnosis , Twins, Conjoined , Twins, Monozygotic/genetics , Uterine Rupture
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