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1.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 435-439, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. Given the sharply increased infection rate, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is correspondingly on the rise. SARS-CoV-2 infection is transmitted through droplets; though hypothesized, other transmission routes have not been confirmed. As of now, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 can possibly be transmitted from the mother to the fetus. Method: This study examines the medical records of 30 neonates born to women with COVID-19, the objective being to provide documented information on maternal-child transmission and infant outcomes. Results: Out of the 30 newborns, 28 had negative PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2; among their mothers, fifteen had fever, nine had cough and twenty had delivered by cesarean section. The median birth term was 37wk2dy, and twenty of the neonates were male. Most of them were asymptomatic, except for the three who presented with shortness of breath. Two of them were intubated and both died, the first because of severe sepsis and the second due to severe hyaline membrane disease. As regards the two infected neonates, the first represents a probable case of congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears unlikely in the second case. The outcome for both of them was good, without any complications. Conclusion: Maternal-fetal transmission of the SARS- CoV-2 virus was not detected in the majority of the reported cases, although two of 30 neonates had positive qRT-PCR test results. Our study supports the hypothesis that though it seldom actually occurs, in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20569, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475480

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian Northern region registered a high incidence of COVID-19 cases, particularly in the state of Pará. The present study investigated the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 in a Brazilian Amazon region of 100,819 cases. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, analytical and demographic study, analyzing data on confirmed cases for COVID-19 available at the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance platform, was conducted. Variables such as, municipalities of residence, age, gender, signs and symptoms, comorbidities were included and associated with COVID-19 cases and outcomes. The spatial distribution was performed using the ArcGIS program. A total of 100,819 cases were evaluated. Overall, patients had the mean age of 42.3 years, were female (51.2%) and with lethality reaching 4.79% of cases. Main symptoms included fever (66.5%), cough (61.9%) and sore throat (39.8%). Regarding comorbidities, most of the patients presented cardiovascular disease (5.1%) and diabetes (4.2%). Neurological disease increased risk of death by nearly 15 times, followed by obesity (5.16 times) and immunodeficiency (5.09 time). The municipalities with the highest incidence rate were Parauapebas, Canaã dos Carajás and Jacareacanga. Similarity between the Lower Amazon, Marajó and Southwest mesoregions of Pará state were observed concerning the highest morbidity rates. The obtained data demonstrated that the majority of cases occurred among young adults, females, with the classic influenza symptoms and chronic diseases. Finally, data suggest that the highest incidences were no longer in the metropolitan region of the state. The higher lethality rate than in Brazil may be associated with the greater impacts of the disease in this Amazonian population, or factors associated with fragile epidemiological surveillance in the notification of cases of cure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Area Under Curve , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Geography , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Regression Analysis , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 712190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405442

ABSTRACT

Fever is one of the typical symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the association between early fever (EF) and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. A total of 1,014 COVID-19 patients at the Leishenshan Hospital were enrolled and classified into the EF and non-EF groups based on whether they had fever within 5 days of symptom onset. Risk factors for clinical outcomes in patients with different levels of disease severity were analyzed using multivariable analyses. Time from symptom onset to symptom alleviation, CT image improvement, and discharge were longer for patients with moderate and severe disease in the EF group than in the non-EF group. Multivariable analysis showed that sex, EF, eosinophil number, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with the time from symptom onset to hospital discharge in moderate cases. The EF patients showed no significant differences in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, compared with the non-EF patients. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed no obvious differences in survival between the EF and non-EF patients. However, EF patients with increased temperature showed markedly lower survival than the non-EF patients with increased temperature. EF had no significant impact on the survival of critically ill patients, while an increase in temperature was identified as an independent risk factor. EF appears to be a predictor of longer recovery time in moderate/severe COVID-19 infections. However, its value in predicting mortality needs to be considered for critically ill patients with EF showing increasing temperature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e193, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366777

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all children aged 0-18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction in Qatar during the period 1st March to 31st July 2020. A generalised linear model with a binomial family and identity link was used to assess the association between selected factors and the prevalence of symptomatic infection. A total of 11 445 children with a median age of 8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3-13 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 36.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.7-37.5), and it was similar between children aged <5 years (37.8%), 5-9 years (34.3%) and 10 + years (37.3%). The most frequently reported symptoms among the symptomatic group were fever (73.5%), cough (34.8%), headache (23.2%) and sore throat (23.2%). Fever (82.8%) was more common in symptomatic children aged <5 years, while cough (38.7%) was more prevalent in those aged 10 years or older, compared to other age groups. Variables associated with an increased risk of symptomatic infection were; contact with confirmed cases (RD 0.21; 95% CI 0.20-0.23; P = 0.001), having visited a health care facility (RD 0.54; 95% CI 0.45-0.62; P = 0.001), and children aged under 5 years (RD 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.07; P = 0.001) or aged 10 years or older (RD 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.06; P = 0.001). A third of the children with COVID-19 were symptomatic with a higher proportion of fever in very young children and a higher proportion of cough in those between 10 and 18 years of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341688

ABSTRACT

Setting off a global pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been marked by a heterogeneous clinical presentation that runs the gamut from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. Although less lethal in children than adults, COVID-19 has nonetheless afflicted the pediatric population. This systematic review used clinical information from published literature to assess the spectrum of COVID-19 presentation in children, with special emphasis on characteristics associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). An electronic literature search for English and Chinese language articles in COVIDSeer, MEDLINE, and PubMed from 1 January 2020 through 1 March 2021 returned 579 records, of which 54 were included for full evaluation. Out of the total 4811 patients, 543 (11.29%) exhibited MIS-C. The most common symptoms across all children were fever and sore throat. Children presenting with MIS-C were less likely to exhibit sore throat and respiratory symptoms (i.e., cough, shortness of breath) compared to children without MIS-C. Inflammatory (e.g., rash, fever, and weakness) and gastrointestinal (e.g., nausea/vomiting and diarrhea) symptoms were present to a greater extent in children with both COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting that children testing positive for COVID-19 and exhibiting such symptoms should be evaluated for MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104821, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318924

ABSTRACT

AIM: Since December 2019, new COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred and spread around the world. However, the clinical characteristics of patients in other areas around Wuhan, Hubei Province are still unclear. In this study, we performed epidemiological and clinical characteristics analysis on these regional cases. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated COVID-19 patients positively confirmed by nucleic acid Q-PCR at Taihe Hospital from January 16 to February 4, 2020. Their epidemiological, clinical manifestations, and imaging characteristics were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 73 patients studied, 12.3 % developed symptoms after returning to Shiyan from Wuhan, and 71.2 % had a history of close contact with Wuhan personnel or confirmed cases. Among these patients, 9 cases were associated with family clustering. The first main symptoms presented by these patients were fever (84.9 %) and cough (21.9 %). The longest incubation period was 26 days, and the median interval from the first symptoms to admission was 5 days. Of the patients, 67.1 % were originally healthy people with no underlying diseases, others mostly had common comorbidities including hypertension (12.3 %) and diabetes (5.5 %), 10.9 % were current smokers, 30.1 % had low white blood cell counts and 45.2 % showed decreased lymphocytes at the first time of diagnosis. CT scans showed that multiple patchy ground glass shadows outside of the patient lungs were commonly observed, and a single sub-pleural sheet of ground glass shadow with enhanced vascular bundles was also found located under the pleura. Patient follow-up to February 14 presented 38.4 % severe cases and 2.7 % critical cases. After follow-up, the parameter of lymphocyte counts below 0.8 × 109/L cannot be used to predict severe and critical groups from the ordinary group, and a lower proportion of smokers and higher proportion of diabetes patients occur in the poor outcome group. Other co-morbidities are observed but did not lead to poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological characteristics of patients in the area around Wuhan, such as Shiyan, at first diagnosis are described as follows: Patients had histories of Wuhan residences in the early stage and family clustering in the later period. The incubation period was relatively long, and the incidence was relatively hidden, but the virulence was relatively low. The initial diagnosis of the patients was mostly ordinary, and the percentage of critical patients who evolved into the ICU during follow-up is 2.7 %, which is lower than the 26.1 % reported by Wuhan city. According to the Shiyan experience, early diagnosis with multiple swaps of the Q-PCR test and timely treatment can reduce the death rate. Diabetes could be one of the risk factors for progression to severe/critical outcomes. No evidence exists that smoking protects COVID-19 patients from developing to severe/critical cases, and the absolute number of lymphocytes at initial diagnosis could not predict the progression risk from severe to critical condition. Multivariate regression analysis should be used to further guide the allocation of clinical resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(27): e196, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is an observational study to analyze an emergency department (ED) utilization pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinated in-hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We included 4,703 HCWs who were administered the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine between March 4 and April 2, 2021, in a tertiary hospital in Korea where fast-track and post-vaccination cohort zone (PVCZ) were introduced in ED. We analyzed data of participants' age, sex, occupation, date and type of vaccination, and their clinical information using SPSS v25.0. RESULTS: The sample comprised HCWs, who received either the ChAdOx1 (n = 4,458) or the BNT162B2 (n = 245) vaccines; most participants were female (73.5%), and 81.1% were under 50 years old. Further, 153 (3.3%) visited the ED and reported experiencing fever (66.9%) and myalgia (56.1%). Additionally, 91 (59.5%) of them were in their 20s, and 106 (67.5%) were assigned to the PVCZ. Lastly, 107 (68.2%) of the patients received parenteral management. No patient required hospitalization. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, vaccinated HCWs who visited the ED with adverse events had a high incidence of fever and a low likelihood of developing serious illnesses. As the COVID-19 vaccination program for Korean citizens continues to expand, strategies to minimize unnecessary ED overcrowding should be put into effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Chills/chemically induced , Chills/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Fever/chemically induced , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/chemically induced , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/chemically induced , Myalgia/epidemiology , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Software Design , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Triage , Young Adult
11.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e195-e202, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296285

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to describe COVID-19's epidemiological characteristics in Oman during the initial stages of the outbreak and compare findings with other countries' reports. Methods: Data were drawn from a descriptive, records-based review of reported cases of COVID-19 collected through the national COVID-19 Surveillance System from February to April 2020. Results: A total of 2,443 confirmed cases were reported during the study period. The overall first-time testing rate for this period was 851.7 per 100,000, the positivity rate was 53.1 (confidence intervals [CI]: 51.0-55.2) and the death rate was 0.32 (CI: 0.20-0.54) per 100,000 population, respectively. The overall national positive ratio was 5.7% and ranged from 2.2-7.1% across various governorates. Muscat Governorate had the highest positive ratio (12.5%). People in the 51-60 year old age group (RR = 1.97), males (RR = 1.24), non-Omanis (RR = 2.33) and those living in Muscat (RR = 2.14) emerged as categories with significant demographic risk for COVID-19 cases when compared to the national average. The mean age was 35.6 ± 13.4. Asymptomatic cases accounted for nearly 16%. Conclusion: The overall rate of COVID-19 cases and deaths were low in Oman compared to the rest of the world during the study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 697-702, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295587

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, started in December 2019 and has spread across the world. Materials & methods: We analyzed real-time PCR results of 10,000 samples from 2 April to 30 May 2020 in three neighbor cities located in the East of Turkey. The final study population was 7853 cases, after excluding screening tests. Results: Real-time PCR was performed to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase gene fragment. The number of total positive samples out of 7853 were 487; however, the number of nonrepeating positive patient was 373 (4.8%). Cough and fever were the most common symptoms in positive cases. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies should be performed about the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection to better understand the effect of the virus across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of universal testing, effective therapies, or vaccines, identifying risk factors for viral infection, particularly readily modifiable exposures and behaviors, is required to identify effective strategies against viral infection and transmission. METHODS: We conducted a world-wide mobile application-based prospective cohort study available to English speaking adults with a smartphone. We collected self-reported characteristics, exposures, and behaviors, as well as smartphone-based geolocation data. Our main outcome was incident symptoms of viral infection, defined as fevers and chills plus one other symptom previously shown to occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by daily surveys. FINDINGS: Among 14, 335 participants residing in all 50 US states and 93 different countries followed for a median 21 days (IQR 10-26 days), 424 (3%) developed incident viral symptoms. In pooled multivariable logistic regression models, female biological sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.39-2.20, p<0.001), anemia (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.81, p = 0.001), hypertension (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, p = 0.007), cigarette smoking in the last 30 days (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35-2.55, p<0.001), any viral symptoms among household members 6-12 days prior (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.67-2.55, p<0.001), and the maximum number of individuals the participant interacted with within 6 feet in the past 6-12 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, p<0.001) were each associated with a higher risk of developing viral symptoms. Conversely, a higher subjective social status (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, p<0.001), at least weekly exercise (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.70, p<0.001), and sanitizing one's phone (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99, p = 0.037) were each associated with a lower risk of developing viral symptoms. INTERPRETATION: While several immutable characteristics were associated with the risk of developing viral symptoms, multiple immediately modifiable exposures and habits that influence risk were also observed, potentially identifying readily accessible strategies to mitigate risk in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fever/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smartphone , United States/epidemiology
14.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(10): 2790-2795, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273073

ABSTRACT

AIM: Minimal data exist regarding the severity of COVID-19 in febrile infants under 60 days old. This multicentre prospective study explored the clinical course and outcomes of this hospitalised patient population, as, to date, the best approach has not been specifically addressed. METHODS: This study focused on the clinical features, laboratory parameters and outcomes of febrile infants up to 60 days old who tested positive for the virus and were hospitalised in Israel from March 2020 to January 2021. The data were extracted from a real-time prospective surveillance network for COVID-19 that includes 20 of the country's 26 hospitals. RESULTS: We identified 75 febrile young infants (60% female) with COVID-19 at a median age of 28 days (range 8-56 days). Of these, 84% had an unremarkable medical history, 29% had respiratory symptoms, and 96% had a mild illness. The Rochester criteria showed that 44% were considered at high-risk for serious bacterial infections, and we found that eight infants actually had concomitant bacterial infections. Outcomes were excellent, and no complications or fatalities were reported. CONCLUSION: The excellent outcomes of young febrile infants with COVID-19 closely resembled other respiratory viral aetiologies of fever in this age group, and there were no fatalities.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 539, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute gastrointestinal infections (GI) and acute febrile disease of unknown cause (AFDUC) have a large disease burden, especially among children, while respective aetiologies often remain unresolved. The need for robust infectious disease surveillance to detect emerging pathogens along with common human pathogens has been highlighted by the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The African Network for Improved Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Management of Common Infectious Agents (ANDEMIA) is a sentinel surveillance study on the aetiology and clinical characteristics of ARI, GI and AFDUC in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: ANDEMIA includes 12 urban and rural health care facilities in four African countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of South Africa). It was piloted in 2018 in Côte d'Ivoire and the initial phase will run from 2019 to 2021. Case definitions for ARI, GI and AFDUC were established, as well as syndrome-specific sampling algorithms including the collection of blood, naso- and oropharyngeal swabs and stool. Samples are tested using comprehensive diagnostic protocols, ranging from classic bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance screening to multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems and High Throughput Sequencing. In March 2020, PCR testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and analysis of full genomic information was included in the study. Standardised questionnaires collect relevant clinical, demographic, socio-economic and behavioural data for epidemiologic analyses. Controls are enrolled over a 12-month period for a nested case-control study. Data will be assessed descriptively and aetiologies will be evaluated using a latent class analysis among cases. Among cases and controls, an integrated analytic approach using logistic regression and Bayesian estimation will be employed to improve the assessment of aetiology and associated risk factors. DISCUSSION: ANDEMIA aims to expand our understanding of ARI, GI and AFDUC aetiologies in sub-Saharan Africa using a comprehensive laboratory diagnostics strategy. It will foster early detection of emerging threats and continued monitoring of important common pathogens. The network collaboration will be strengthened and site diagnostic capacities will be reinforced to improve quality management and patient care.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Sentinel Surveillance , Bayes Theorem , Burkina Faso , Case-Control Studies , Cote d'Ivoire , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , South Africa
16.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 64, 2021 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trends in the characteristics and disease severity of patients using an after-hours house call (AHHC) medical service changed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been no reports on this issue since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate patients' tendencies to utilize an AHHC medical service for fever or common cold symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared the characteristics and disease severity of patients with fever or common cold symptoms utilizing an AHHC medical service offered by a single large company between the control period (December 1, 2018 to April 30, 2019) and the COVID-19 pandemic exposure period (December 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020). We also assessed the proportion of these patients in relation to all patients calling the service for any reason. RESULTS: During the control and COVID-19 pandemic exposure periods, a total of 6462 and 10,003 patients consulted the AHHC medical service, respectively. Of these, 5335 (82.6%) and 7423 (74.2%) patients had fever and common cold symptoms, respectively, during the control and COVID-19 pandemic exposure periods (P < 0.001). The corresponding median (interquartile range) ages were 8 (3-11) and 10 (4-33) years, respectively. The distribution of disease severity differed between the groups. The proportions of patients with mild, moderate, and severe illness were 71.1, 28.7, and 0.2% in the control period and 42.3, 56.7, and 0.9% in the COVID-19 pandemic exposure period, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of patients with fever or common cold symptoms was lower than that in the control period, but disease severity was significantly higher.


Subject(s)
After-Hours Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , House Calls/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044208, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Currently effective symptom-based screening of patients suspected of COVID-19 is limited. We aimed to investigate age-related differences in symptom presentations of patients tested positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: SETTING: Calls to the medical helpline (1-8-1-3) and emergency number (1-1-2) in Copenhagen, Denmark. At both medical services all calls are recorded. PARTICIPANTS: We included calls for patients who called for help/guidance at the medical helpline or emergency number prior to receiving a test for SARS-CoV-2 between April 1st and 20th 2020 (8423 patients). Among these calls, we randomly sampled recorded calls from 350 patients who later tested positive and 250 patients tested negative and registered symptoms described in the call. OUTCOME: RESULTS: After exclusions, 544 calls (312 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 232 negative) were included in the analysis. Fever and cough remained the two most common of COVID-19 symptoms across all age groups and approximately 42% of SARS-CoV-2 positive and 20% of negative presented with both fever and cough. Symptoms including nasal congestion, irritation/pain in throat, muscle/joint pain, loss of taste and smell, and headache were common symptoms of COVID-19 for patients younger than 60 years; whereas loss of appetite and feeling unwell were more commonly seen among patients over 60 years. Headache and loss of taste and smell were rare symptoms of COVID-19 among patients over 60 years. CONCLUSION: Our study identified age-related differences in symptom presentations of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients calling for help or medical advice. The specific symptoms of loss of smell or taste almost exclusively reported by patients younger than 60 years. Differences in symptom presentation across age groups must be considered when screening for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Case-Control Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 326, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236951

ABSTRACT

Introduction: although the main manifestations of COVID-19 are respiratory, several neurological symptoms and complications have also been reported. The pandemic seems to have some epidemiological specificities in sub-Saharan Africa, and this may be reflected in the type and frequency of neurological symptoms. This study aimed to report neurological manifestations associated with symptomatic COVID-19 in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods: we conducted a retrospective review of symptomatic PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted to the Bafoussam Regional Hospital between March and September 2020. Patients' files were reviewed at discharge by a consultant neurologist. Socio-demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, symptoms on admission, neurological symptoms during hospitalization, management, and in-hospital outcome were recorded. Comparisons between patients with and without neurological symptoms were performed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: we enrolled 177 symptomatic patients (68% men). Mean age was 54.6 ± 17.8 years (range 2-99 years). Co-morbidities were present in 57.6% of patients, including hypertension (27.1%) and diabetes mellitus (25.4%). Neurological symptoms were found in 113 (63.8%) patients. The most frequent were headache (39.0%), myalgia (35.6%), anosmia (11.9%), impaired consciousness (10.7%) and delirium (5.6%). Regarding the presenting symptoms, fever was more frequent in patients with neurological symptoms than in those without (81.4% versus 50.0%, p< 0.001), while digestive symptoms were less frequent in patients with neurological symptoms (0.9% versus 9.4%, p= 0.004). Conclusion: neurological manifestations are frequent and heterogeneous in patients with symptomatic COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiology of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 and their impact on patients' long-term outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cameroon , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical characterisation studies have been essential in helping inform research, diagnosis and clinical management efforts, particularly early in a pandemic. This systematic review summarises the early literature on clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital, and evaluates the quality of evidence produced during the initial stages of the pandemic. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases were searched for studies published from January 1st 2020 to April 28th 2020. Studies which reported on at least 100 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 of any age were included. Data on clinical characteristics were independently extracted by two review authors. Study design specific critical appraisal tools were used to evaluate included studies: the Newcastle Ottawa scale for cohort and cross sectional studies, Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for case series and the Cochrane collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. RESULTS: The search yielded 78 studies presenting data on 77,443 people. Most studies (82%) were conducted in China. No studies included patients from low- and middle-income countries. The overall quality of included studies was low to moderate, and the majority of studies did not include a control group. Fever and cough were the most commonly reported symptoms early in the pandemic. Laboratory and imaging findings were diverse with lymphocytopenia and ground glass opacities the most common findings respectively. Clinical data in children and vulnerable populations were limited. CONCLUSIONS: The early Covid-19 literature had moderate to high risk of bias and presented several methodological issues. Early clinical characterisation studies should aim to include different at-risk populations, including patients in non-hospital settings. Pandemic preparedness requires collection tools to ensure observational studies are methodologically robust and will help produce high-quality data early on in the pandemic to guide clinical practice and public health policy. REVIEW REGISTRATION: Available at https://osf.io/mpafn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Databases, Factual , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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