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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 640, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st December 2019 to 16th July 2020 based on three databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant outcomes. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0 °C), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 °C, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 65 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Demography , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21824, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733318

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a cluster of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The present study was conducted to report the clinical characteristics of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, a city outside of Wuhan. All of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the First Hospital of Changsha City, the designated hospital for COVID-19 assigned by the Changsha City Government. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, data of laboratory, radiological picture, treatment, and outcomes records of 201 COVID-19 patients were collected using electronic medical records. This study population consisted of 201 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Changsha by April 28, 2020. The median age of the patients was 45 years (IQR 34-59). About half (50.7%) of the patients were male, and most of the infected patients were staff (96 [47.8%]). Concerning the epidemiologic history, the number of patients linked to Wuhan was 92 (45.8%). The most common symptoms were fever (125 [62.2%]), dry cough (118 [58.7%]), fatigue (65 [32.3%]), and pharyngalgia (31 [15.4%]). One hundred and forty-four (71.6%) enrolled patients showed bilateral pneumonia. Fifty-four (26.9%) patients showed unilateral involvement, and three (1.5%) patients showed no abnormal signs or symptoms. The laboratory findings differed significantly between the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had depressed white blood cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT). Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group. In this single-center study of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, 22.4% of patients were admitted to ICU. Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency, hepatic injury, and kidney injury should be monitored. Previous reports focused on the clinical features of patients from Wuhan, China. With the global epidemic of COVID-19, we should pay more attention to the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients outside of Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
4.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721619

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 564, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched from January 1, 2020, to April 16, 2020. Case reports and case series of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included. Two reviewers screened 366 studies and 14 studies were included. Four reviewers independently extracted the features from the studies. We used a random-effects model to analyse the incidence (P) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 236 pregnant women with COVID-19. The results were as follows: positive CT findings (71%; 95% CI, 0.49-0.93), caesarean section (65%; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87), fever (51%; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67), lymphopenia (49%; 95% CI, 0.29-0.70), coexisting disorders (33%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.44), cough (31%; 95% CI, 0.23-0.39), fetal distress (29%; 95% CI, 0.08-0.49), preterm labor (23%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.32), and severe case or death (12%; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20). The subgroup analysis showed that compared with non-pregnant patients, pregnant women with COVID-19 had significantly lower incidences of fever (pregnant women, 51%; non-pregnant patients, 91%; P < 0.00001) and cough (pregnant women, 31%; non-pregnant patients, 67%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of fever, cough and positive CT findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are less than those in the normal population with COVID-19, but the rate of preterm labor is higher among pregnant with COVID-19 than among normal pregnant women. There is currently no evidence that COVID-19 can spread through vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Obstetric Labor, Premature/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 335-340, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699403

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is rarely reported in children and they are mildly affected in most cases. The most common clinical presentation of COVID-19 is cough, fever and sore throat; severe cases show tachypnea. The course of the disease is from one to two weeks. Laboratory findings are nonspecific; lymphopenia, elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been described. Early chest X-ray is usually normal, and the most common tomographic findings are consolidations with halo, ground-glass opacities and tiny nodules which mainly affects subpleural areas. Management of the disease is supportive; in severe cases, it should be focused on respiratory support. It is recommended to limit the handling of respiratory secretions and to follow the same preventive measures provided to adults.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Child , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 253-258, 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699402

ABSTRACT

In order to describe manifestations from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), sociodemographic variables such as, previous medical history, clinical and radiological manifestations, treatments and evolution of patients were evaluated. This took place from March 6th to 25th, 2020, in the "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" National Hospital in Lima. Seventeen patients were registered: 76% were male, with an average age of 53.5 years (range 25-94); 23.5% had returned from abroad; 41.2% were referred from other health facilities; 41.2% were admitted to mechanical ventilation; 29.4% (5 patients) died. The risk factors detected were: advanced age, arterial hypertension and obesity. The main symptoms detected were: cough, fever and dyspnea. Frequent laboratory findings were: elevated C-reactive protein and lymphopenia. The predominant radiological presentation was bilateral interstitial lung infiltrate. A first experience in the management of patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 in Peru is reported.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 567, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories. METHODS: Fifty-three discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled at Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, between January 21 and March 10, 2020. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between CT scores and laboratory indicators. Patients were divided into the Wuhan group (lived in or with travel to Wuhan, numbering 30 cases) and non-Wuhan group (close contacts or unknown exposure, totaling 23 cases). The CT and laboratory findings were compared between and within groups during the clinical process. RESULTS: Fever (88.7%), cough (64.2%), fatigue (34%), and abnormal laboratory indicators, including lymphopenia, reduced albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), were mainly observed. Subpleural ground-glass opacities (86.8%) were usually detected at admission. The CT scores were highly correlated with lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G at initial and follow-ups (all p < 0.05). Four days after admission, most patients (66.7% Wuhan, 47.8% non-Wuhan) showed progression, and the CT scores of Wuhan significantly increased (p = 0.015). Eight days after admission, the vast majority of patients (69.2% Wuhan, 100% non-Wuhan, p = 0.006) presented improvement, and the CT scores of non-Wuhan were significantly lower than Wuhan (p = 0.006). Pneumonia was completely absorbed in most patients 2-4 weeks after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: CT plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in COVID-19. Lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G are expected to predict disease severity and prognosis. Viral pathogenicity in non-endemic areas may be weaker than core-infected areas. In most patients, lung lesions can disappear around 4 weeks after discharge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Serum Globulins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 549, 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Zengdu District, Hubei Province, China. METHODS: Clinical data on COVID-19 inpatients in Zengdu Hospital from January 27 to March 11, 2020 were collected; this is a community hospital in an area surrounding Wuhan and supported by volunteer doctors. All hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The epidemiological findings, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiologic manifestations, and clinical outcomes of these patients were analyzed. The patients were followed up for clinical outcomes until March 22, 2020. Severe COVID-19 cases include severe and critical cases diagnosed according to the seventh edition of China's COVID-19 diagnostic guidelines. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases were diagnosed according to the seventh edition of China's COVID-19 diagnostic guidelines. RESULTS: All hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 276 (median age: 51.0 years), were enrolled, including 262 non-severe and 14 severe patients. The proportion of patients aged over 60 years was higher in the severe group (78.6%) than in the non-severe group (18.7%, p < 0.01). Approximately a quarter of the patients (24.6%) had at least one comorbidity, such as hypertension, diabetes, or cancer, and the proportion of patients with comorbidities was higher in the severe group (85.7%) than in the non-severe group (21.4%, p < 0.01). Common symptoms included fever (82.2% [227/276]) and cough (78.0% [218/276]). 38.4% (106/276) of the patients had a fever at the time of admission. Most patients (94.9% [204/276]) were cured and discharged; 3.6% (10/276) deteriorated to a critical condition and were transferred to another hospital. The median COVID-19 treatment duration and hospital stay were 14.0 and 18.0 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the COVID-19 patients in Zengdu had mild disease. Older patients with underlying diseases were at a higher risk of progression to severe disease. The length of hospital-stay and antiviral treatment duration for COVID-19 were slightly longer than those in Wuhan. This work will contribute toward an understanding of COVID-19 characteristics in the areas around the core COVID-19 outbreak region and serve as a reference for decision-making for epidemic prevention and control in similar areas.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 497-506, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS: By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 69-75, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Even though Korea was known to have the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in the early phase of the pandemic, Korea was able to successfully flatten the curve in a short period of time without extreme measures. We compared the status of cancer management before and after COVID-19 and analysed how cancer care continuity was maintained in Korea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the medical records on the number of cancer diagnosis, cancer surgery, radiation therapy and scheduled chemotherapy conducted in Korea University Anam Hospital from January 1 to April 30, 2019 and from the same period in 2020. We also collected the data of metastatic cancer patients who were hospitalised due to respiratory disease. RESULTS: Of all diagnoses, 1694 cancer diagnoses were made in the study period of 2019, and 1445 diagnoses in 2020 (decreased by 14.7%); the cancer surgery performed 830 and 800 cases; the set-up for radiation therapy decreased from 185 to 140 cases; the number of systemic chemotherapies for metastatic cancer patients treated in department of medical oncology increased from 2555 to 2878 cases. Among hospitalised patients, emergency centre visit, intensive care unit admission, discharge after recovery and death reveal no drastic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Routine cancer care for patients with metastatic cancer has been maintained without significant difference before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean government's innovative countermeasures in the early phase of outbreak made it possible for cancer care practitioners to provide cancer patients with regular care under the standard infection control protocol.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Delivery of Health Care , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Radiotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014549, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635864

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ability to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the prehospital emergency setting could inform strategies for infection control and use of personal protective equipment. However, little is known about the presentation of patients with COVID-19 requiring emergency care, particularly those who used 911 emergency medical services (EMS). Objective: To describe patient characteristics and prehospital presentation of patients with COVID-19 cared for by EMS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 124 patients who required 911 EMS care for COVID-19 in King County, Washington, a large metropolitan region covering 2300 square miles with 2.2 million residents in urban, suburban, and rural areas, between February 1, 2020, and March 18, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 was diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swabs. Test results were available a median (interquartile range) of 5 (3-9) days after the EMS encounter. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of clinical characteristics, symptoms, examination signs, and EMS impression and care. Results: Of the 775 confirmed COVID-19 cases in King County, EMS responded to 124 (16.0%), with a total of 147 unique 911 encounters. The mean (SD) age was 75.7 (13.2) years, 66 patients (53.2%) were women, 47 patients (37.9%) had 3 or more chronic health conditions, and 57 patients (46.0%) resided in a long-term care facility. Based on EMS evaluation, 43 of 147 encounters (29.3%) had no symptoms of fever, cough, or shortness of breath. Based on individual examination findings, fever, tachypnea, or hypoxia were only present in a limited portion of cases, as follows: 43 of 84 encounters (51.2%), 42 of 131 (32.1%), and 60 of 112 (53.6%), respectively. Advanced care was typically not required, although in 24 encounters (16.3%), patients received care associated with aerosol-generating procedures. As of June 1, 2020, mortality among the study cohort was 52.4% (65 patients). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that screening based on conventional COVID-19 symptoms or corresponding examination findings of febrile respiratory illness may not possess the necessary sensitivity for early diagnostic suspicion, at least in the prehospital emergency setting. The findings have potential implications for early identification of COVID-19 and effective strategies to mitigate infectious risk during emergency care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Fever/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Multiple Chronic Conditions/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Washington/epidemiology
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 756-761, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has raised world concern since it emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The infection may result in severe pneumonia with clusters of illness onsets. Its impacts on public health make it paramount to clarify the clinical features with other pneumonias. METHODS: Nineteen COVID-19 and 15 other patients with pneumonia (non-COVID-19) in areas outside of Hubei were involved in this study. Both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were confirmed to be infected using throat swabs and/or sputa with/without COVID-2019 by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed the demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features from those patients, and compared the differences between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: All patients had a history of exposure to confirmed cases of COVID-19 or travel to Hubei before illness. The median (IQR) duration was 8 (6-11) and 5 (4-11) days from exposure to onset in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases, respectively. The clinical symptoms were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. Fifteen (78.95%) COVID-19 but 4 (26.67%) non-COVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement while 17 COVID-19 patients (89.47%) but 1 non-COVID-19 patient (6.67%) had multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity on chest CT images. Compared with non-COVID-19, COVID-19 presents remarkably more abnormal laboratory tests, including AST, ALT, γ-GT, LDH, and α-HBDH. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 infection has onsets similar to other pneumonias. CT scan may be a reliable test for screening COVID-19 cases. Liver function damage is more frequent in COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 patients. LDH and α-HBDH may be considerable markers for evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Travel
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234765, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, an evidence-based understanding of the symptoms is critical to inform guidelines for quarantining and testing. The most common features are purported to be fever and a new persistent cough, although the global prevalence of these symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the prevalence of symptoms associated with COVID-19 worldwide. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, medRxiv and bioRxiv on 5th April 2020 for studies of adults (>16 years) with laboratory test confirmed COVID-19. No language or publication status restrictions were applied. Data were independently extracted by two review authors into standardised forms. All datapoints were independently checked by three other review authors. A random-effects model for pooling of binomial data was applied to estimate the prevalence of symptoms, subgrouping estimates by country. I2 was used to assess inter-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of 851 unique citations, 148 articles were included which comprised 24,410 adults with confirmed COVID-19 from 9 countries. The most prevalent symptoms were fever (78% [95% CI 75%-81%]; 138 studies, 21,701 patients; I2 94%), a cough (57% [95% CI 54%-60%]; 138 studies, 21,682 patients; I2 94%) and fatigue (31% [95% CI 27%-35%]; 78 studies, 13,385 patients; I2 95%). Overall, 19% of hospitalised patients required non-invasive ventilation (44 studies, 6,513 patients), 17% required intensive care (33 studies, 7504 patients), 9% required invasive ventilation (45 studies, 6933 patients) and 2% required extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (12 studies, 1,486 patients). The mortality rate was 7% (73 studies, 10,402 patients). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that fever and cough are the most prevalent symptoms of adults infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, there is a large proportion of infected adults which symptoms-alone do not identify.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Preprints as Topic , Prevalence
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003130, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of April 18, 2020, over 2,000,000 patients had been diagnosed with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) globally, and more than 140,000 deaths had been reported. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients have been documented recently. However, information on pediatric patients is limited. We describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients to provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and assessment of COVID-19 in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, observational study involves a case series performed at 4 hospitals in West China. Thirty-four pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included from January 27 to February 23, 2020. The final follow-up visit was completed by March 16, 2020. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were analyzed on the basis of demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, radiological findings, and treatment information. Data analysis was performed for 34 pediatrics patients with COVID-19 aged from 1 to 144 months (median 33.00, interquartile range 10.00-94.25), among whom 14 males (41%) were included. All the patients in the current study presented mild (18%) or moderate (82%) forms of COVID-19. A total of 48% of patients were noted to be without a history of exposure to an identified source. Mixed infections of other respiratory pathogens were reported in 16 patients (47%). Comorbidities were reported in 6 patients (18%). The most common initial symptoms were fever (76%) and cough (62%). Expectoration (21%), vomiting (12%), and diarrhea (12%) were also reported in a considerable portion of cases. A substantial increase was detected in serum amyloid A for 17 patients (among 20 patients with available data; 85%) and in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for 17 patients (among 29 patients with available data; 59%), whereas a decrease in prealbumin was noticed in 25 patients (among 32 patients with available data; 78%). In addition, significant increases in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were detected in 28 patients (among 34 patients with available data; 82%) and 25 patients (among 34 patients with available data; 74%), respectively. Patchy lesions in lobules were detected by chest computed tomographic scans in 28 patients (82%). Ground-glass opacities, which were a typical feature in adults, were rare in pediatric patients (3%). Rapid radiologic progression and a late-onset pattern of lesions in the lobules were also noticed. Lesions in lobules still existed in 24 (among 32 patients with lesions; 75%) patients that were discharged, although the main symptoms disappeared a few days after treatment. All patients were discharged, and the median duration of hospitalization was 10.00 (8.00-14.25) days. The current study was limited by the small sample size and a lack of dynamic detection of inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data systemically presented the clinical and epidemiological features, as well as the outcomes, of pediatric patients with COVID-19. Stratified analysis was performed between mild and moderate cases. The findings offer new insight into early identification and intervention in pediatric patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Infant , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Prealbumin/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/physiopathology
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(7): 895-899.e1, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many nursing home residents infected with SARS-CoV-2 fail to be identified with standard screening for the associated COVID-19 syndrome. Current nursing home COVID-19 screening guidance includes assessment for fever, defined as a temperature of at least 38.0°C. The objective of this study was to describe the temperature changes before and after universal testing for SARS-CoV-2 in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Veterans Administration (VA) operates 134 Community Living Centers (CLC), similar to nursing homes, that house residents who cannot live independently. VA guidance to CLCs directed daily clinical screening for COVID-19 that included temperature assessment. MEASURES: All CLC residents (n = 7325) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. We report the temperature in the window of 14 days before and after universal SARS-CoV-2 testing among CLC residents. Baseline temperature was calculated for 5 days before the study window. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 443 (6.0%) residents. The average maximum temperature in SARS-CoV-2-positive residents was 37.66 (0.69) compared with 37.11 (0.36) (P = .001) in SARS-CoV-2-negative residents. Temperatures in those with SARS-CoV-2 began rising 7 days before testing and remained elevated during the 14-day follow-up. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive residents, only 26.6% (n = 118) met the fever threshold of 38.0°C during the survey period. Most residents (62.5%, n = 277) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 did experience 2 or more 0.5°C elevations above their baseline values. One cohort of SARS-CoV-2 residents' (20.3%, n = 90) temperatures never deviated >0.5°C from baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: A single screening for temperature is unlikely to detect nursing home residents with SARS-CoV-2. Repeated temperature measurement with a patient-derived baseline can increase sensitivity. The current fever threshold as a screening criteria for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be reconsidered.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Temperature/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Thermometers/statistics & numerical data , United States , Veterans
18.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(5): 379-387, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from common viruses. This poses a challenge for early detection during triage in the emergency department (ED). Over a 3-month period, our ED aimed to minimize nosocomial transmission by using broader suspect case criteria for better detection and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: All ED admissions with respiratory syndromes over a 3-month period were tested for COVID-19. The sensitivity and specificity of screening criteria in detecting COVID-19 were assessed. A risk-stratified approach was adopted for PPE usage in the ED, based on high-risk "fever areas" and lower-risk zones. When a case of COVID-19 was confirmed, surveillance was conducted for potentially exposed patients and HCWs. RESULTS: A total of 1,841 cases presenting with respiratory syndromes required admission over the study period. Among these, 70 cases of COVID-19 were subsequently confirmed. The majority (84.2%, 59/70) were detected at ED triage because they fulfilled suspect case criteria. Of these, 34 met the official screening criteria; an additional 25 were detected by the broader internal screening criteria. Over the 12-week period, the cumulative sensitivity of internal screening criteria was 84.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 73.6% to 91.9%), whereas the sensitivity of the official screening criteria was 48.6% (95% CI = 36.4% to 60.8%). Given the broadened internal criteria, the preexisting ED "fever area" was insufficient and had to be expanded. However, there were no cases of nosocomial transmission from intra-ED exposure, despite extensive surveillance. CONCLUSION: Frontline physicians need to be given leeway to decide on the disposition of cases based on clinical suspicion during an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19. If a broader criterion is used at ED triage, ED facilities and isolation facilities need to be readied to accommodate a surge of suspect cases. Usage of appropriate PPE is essential in minimizing nosocomial transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Singapore/epidemiology , Triage/methods , Workflow
19.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 011004, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186549

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei province of China by the end of 2019, it has burned its way across the globe, resulting in a still fast-growing death toll that far exceeded those from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in less than two months. As there is a paucity of evidence on which population is more likely to progress into severe conditions among cases, we looked into the first cluster of death cases, aiming to add to current evidence and reduce panic among the population. Methods: We prospectively collected the demographic and clinical data of the first 38 fatalities whose information was made public by the Health Commission of Hubei province and the official Weibo account of China Central Television news center, starting from 9 January through 24 January 2020. The death cases were described from four aspects (gender and age characteristics, underlying diseases, the time course of death, symptoms at the incipience of illness and hospital admission). Results: Among the 38 fatalities, 71.05% were male, and 28.95% were female, with the median age of 70 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 65-81). Persons aged 66-75 made up the largest share. Twenty-five cases had a history of chronic diseases. The median time between the first symptoms and death was 12.50 days (IQR = 10.00-16.25), while the median time between the admission and death was 8.50 (IQR = 5.00-12.00) days. In persons aged over 56 years, the time between the first symptoms and death decreased with age, and so did the time between the admission and death, though the latter increased again in persons aged over 85 years. The major first symptoms included fever (52.63%), cough (31.58%), dyspnea (23.68%), myalgia and fatigue (15.79%). Conclusions: Among the death cases, persons with underlying diseases and aged over 65 made up the majority. The time between the first symptoms and death decreased with the advanced age. In all the age groups, males dominated the fatalities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104821, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-177266

ABSTRACT

AIM: Since December 2019, new COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred and spread around the world. However, the clinical characteristics of patients in other areas around Wuhan, Hubei Province are still unclear. In this study, we performed epidemiological and clinical characteristics analysis on these regional cases. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated COVID-19 patients positively confirmed by nucleic acid Q-PCR at Taihe Hospital from January 16 to February 4, 2020. Their epidemiological, clinical manifestations, and imaging characteristics were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 73 patients studied, 12.3 % developed symptoms after returning to Shiyan from Wuhan, and 71.2 % had a history of close contact with Wuhan personnel or confirmed cases. Among these patients, 9 cases were associated with family clustering. The first main symptoms presented by these patients were fever (84.9 %) and cough (21.9 %). The longest incubation period was 26 days, and the median interval from the first symptoms to admission was 5 days. Of the patients, 67.1 % were originally healthy people with no underlying diseases, others mostly had common comorbidities including hypertension (12.3 %) and diabetes (5.5 %), 10.9 % were current smokers, 30.1 % had low white blood cell counts and 45.2 % showed decreased lymphocytes at the first time of diagnosis. CT scans showed that multiple patchy ground glass shadows outside of the patient lungs were commonly observed, and a single sub-pleural sheet of ground glass shadow with enhanced vascular bundles was also found located under the pleura. Patient follow-up to February 14 presented 38.4 % severe cases and 2.7 % critical cases. After follow-up, the parameter of lymphocyte counts below 0.8 × 109/L cannot be used to predict severe and critical groups from the ordinary group, and a lower proportion of smokers and higher proportion of diabetes patients occur in the poor outcome group. Other co-morbidities are observed but did not lead to poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological characteristics of patients in the area around Wuhan, such as Shiyan, at first diagnosis are described as follows: Patients had histories of Wuhan residences in the early stage and family clustering in the later period. The incubation period was relatively long, and the incidence was relatively hidden, but the virulence was relatively low. The initial diagnosis of the patients was mostly ordinary, and the percentage of critical patients who evolved into the ICU during follow-up is 2.7 %, which is lower than the 26.1 % reported by Wuhan city. According to the Shiyan experience, early diagnosis with multiple swaps of the Q-PCR test and timely treatment can reduce the death rate. Diabetes could be one of the risk factors for progression to severe/critical outcomes. No evidence exists that smoking protects COVID-19 patients from developing to severe/critical cases, and the absolute number of lymphocytes at initial diagnosis could not predict the progression risk from severe to critical condition. Multivariate regression analysis should be used to further guide the allocation of clinical resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
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