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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(6): 987-995, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the most common infectious diseases globally. Community surveillance may provide a more comprehensive picture of disease burden than medically attended illness alone. METHODS: In this longitudinal study conducted from 2012 to 2017 in the Washington Heights/Inwood area of New York City, we enrolled 405 households with 1915 individuals. Households were sent research text messages twice weekly inquiring about ARI symptoms. Research staff confirmed symptoms by follow-up call. If ≥2 criteria for ARI were met (fever/feverish, cough, congestion, pharyngitis, myalgias), staff obtained a mid-turbinate nasal swab in participants' homes. Swabs were tested using the FilmArray reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respiratory panel. RESULTS: Among participants, 43.9% were children, and 12.8% had a chronic respiratory condition. During the 5 years, 114 724 text messages were sent; the average response rate was 78.8% ± 6.8%. Swabs were collected for 91.4% (2756/3016) of confirmed ARI; 58.7% had a pathogen detected. Rhino/enteroviruses (51.9%), human coronaviruses (13.9%), and influenza (13.2%) were most commonly detected. The overall incidence was 0.62 ARI/person-year, highest (1.73) in <2 year-olds and lowest (0.46) in 18-49 year-olds. Approximately one-fourth of those with ARI sought healthcare; percents differed by pathogen, demographic factors, and presence of a chronic respiratory condition. CONCLUSIONS: Text messaging is a novel method for community-based surveillance that could be used both seasonally as well as during outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics. The importance of community surveillance to accurately estimate disease burden is underscored by the findings of low rates of care-seeking that varied by demographic factors and pathogens.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pharyngitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Text Messaging , Child , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
2.
Trop Doct ; 53(2): 205-206, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290685

ABSTRACT

Kanpur, India, recently witnessed an outbreak of undifferentiated febrile illness among medical students. Several students developed high-grade fever with altered sensorium within 2-3 days after the index case. Surprisingly, this outbreak coincided with the death of several pigs in the vicinity. Acute necrotising encephalitis, although rare, was noted in some patients. When correlated with each other, all of these incidents were suggestive of an outbreak of H1N1.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Students, Medical , Humans , Animals , Swine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 674, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study of the etiology of acute febrile illness (AFI) has historically been designed as a prevalence of pathogens detected from a case series. This strategy has an inherent unrealistic assumption that all pathogen detection allows for causal attribution, despite known asymptomatic carriage of the principal causes of acute febrile illness in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We designed a semi-quantitative PCR in a modular format to detect bloodborne agents of acute febrile illness that encompassed common etiologies of AFI in the region, etiologies of recent epidemics, etiologies that require an immediate public health response and additional pathogens of unknown endemicity. We then designed a study that would delineate background levels of transmission in the community in the absence of symptoms to provide corrected estimates of attribution for the principal determinants of AFI. METHODS: A case-control study of acute febrile illness in patients ten years or older seeking health care in Iquitos, Loreto, Peru, was planned. Upon enrollment, we will obtain blood, saliva, and mid-turbinate nasal swabs at enrollment with a follow-up visit on day 21-28 following enrollment to attain vital status and convalescent saliva and blood samples, as well as a questionnaire including clinical, socio-demographic, occupational, travel, and animal contact information for each participant. Whole blood samples are to be simultaneously tested for 32 pathogens using TaqMan array cards. Mid-turbinate samples will be tested for SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and Influenza B. Conditional logistic regression models will be fitted treating case/control status as the outcome and with pathogen-specific sample positivity as predictors to attain estimates of attributable pathogen fractions for AFI. DISCUSSION: The modular PCR platforms will allow for reporting of all primary results of respiratory samples within 72 h and blood samples within one week, allowing for results to influence local medical practice and enable timely public health responses. The inclusion of controls will allow for a more accurate estimate of the importance of specific prevalent pathogens as a cause of acute illness. STUDY REGISTRATION: Project 1791, Registro de Proyectos de Investigación en Salud Pública (PRISA), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Perú.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Peru , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Health Facilities , COVID-19 Testing
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S34-S41, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162915

ABSTRACT

Existing acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance systems can be leveraged to identify and characterize emerging pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with ministries of health and implementing partners in Belize, Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, and Peru to adapt AFI surveillance systems to generate COVID-19 response information. Staff at sentinel sites collected epidemiologic data from persons meeting AFI criteria and specimens for SARS-CoV-2 testing. A total of 5,501 patients with AFI were enrolled during March 2020-October 2021; >69% underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. Percentage positivity for SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 4% (87/2,151, Kenya) to 19% (22/115, Ethiopia). We show SARS-CoV-2 testing was successfully integrated into AFI surveillance in 5 low- to middle-income countries to detect COVID-19 within AFI care-seeking populations. AFI surveillance systems can be used to build capacity to detect and respond to both emerging and endemic infectious disease threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , United States , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Fever/epidemiology
8.
Medwave ; 22(9): e2581, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic for coronavirus 19. Typical symptoms were fever, cough, asthenia, dyspnea, and muscle pain. Pulmonary and central nervous system compromise presented challenging characteristics for healthcare physicians. The objectives of this study were to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS-COV-2 infection survivors in a region of Argentina and to determine differences between gender, age groups, year of infection, and evolution time since diagnosis. Methods: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional observational study was carried out. A self-administered questionnaire was applied, which was available between August and December 2021. Results: Among 1868 individuals included, the mean age was 39.4 ± 13.9 years, and 72.8% were female. Arterial hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (11.7%). The majority were outpatients (81.9%). The most frequent presentation symptoms at all ages were asthenia (83.7%), fever (54.9%), headache (60.8%), anosmia (64.8%), ageusia (53.2%), cough (54.4%) and myalgias (53.7%). For the 18 to 29 years old age group, the most prevalent presentation symptoms were: headache (69.4%), anosmia (69.1%), ageusia (60.2%), odynophagia (45%), and rhinitis/nasal congestion (46.9%). In the 30 to 64 years old age group, there was a higher prevalence of myalgias (55.8%), arthralgias (41%), and concentration/memory disorder (28.3%). Male showed higher prevalence of fever (64.9% versus 51.1%; p < 0.001) and pneumonia (23.5% versus 13.4%; p < 0.001). After 12 weeks from diagnosis, 38.1% of patients persisted with asthenia, 23.6% with anosmia/dysosmia, and 21.2% with concentration/memory disorders. Conclusions: Systemic symptoms were common to all age groups with coronavirus 19 disease; however, younger, and intermediate age groups presented a higher prevalence of central nervous system symptoms such as anosmia and cognitive disorders, respectively. Symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis reached slightly more than 10% of the participants.


Introducción: En marzo de 2020 la enfermedad por coronavirus 19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, tos, astenia, disnea y dolor muscular. Los compromisos pulmonar y del sistema nervioso central presentaron características desafiantes para los médicos asistenciales. Los objetivos del estudio fueron conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de sobrevivientes a infección por SARS-CoV-2 en una región de Argentina, y determinar las diferencias entre género, grupos etarias, año de contagio, tiempo de evolución desde el diagnóstico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y analítico de corte transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto administrado, que estuvo disponible entre agosto y diciembre de 2021. Resultados: La media de edad fue de 39,4 ± 13,9 años, el 72,8% fueron mujeres. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue hipertensión arterial (11,7%). La mayoría de los pacientes fueron ambulatorios (81,9%). Los síntomas de presentación más frecuentes a cualquier edad, fueron astenia (83,7%), fiebre (54,9%), cefalea (60,8%), anosmia (64,8%), ageusia (53,2%), tos (54,4%) y mialgias (53,7%). Para el grupo de 18 a 29 años los síntomas de presentación más prevalentes fueron cefalea (69,4%), anosmia 69,1%), ageusia (60,2%), odinofagia (45%) y rinitis/congestión nasal (46,9%). En el grupo de 30 a 64 años se observó mayor prevalencia de mialgias (55,8%), artralgias (41%), falta de concentración/memoria (28,3%). Los hombres mostraron más prevalencia de fiebre (64,9% versus 51,1%; p < 0,001) y neumonía (23,5% versus 13,4%; p < 0,001). Luego de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico 38,1% de los pacientes persistían con astenia, 23,6% con anosmia/disosmia y 21,2% con trastornos de concentración/memoria. Conclusiones: La enfermedad por coronavirus 19 presenta un patrón de síntomas sistémicos común a todos los grupos etarios. No obstante, los grupos más jóvenes presentan más prevalencia de síntomas de afección del sistema nervioso central como la anosmia y los grupos intermedios, mayor prevalencia de trastornos cognitivos. Los síntomas más allá de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico alcanzaron a algo más del 10% de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Asthenia , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Survivors
9.
J Int Med Res ; 50(10): 3000605221127518, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Using a prospective observational design, we assessed adverse events (AEs) after COVID-19 vaccination in Japanese patients. METHODS: Two doses of the mRNA-1273 (SPIKEVAX®) or BNT162b2 (COMIRNATY®) vaccine were administered to participants aged 12 to 18 years, and AEs after each dose were recorded for 14 days. Data on the duration and nature (local vs. systemic) of AEs were collected using a questionnaire. Sex-based differences in AE frequency were also analyzed. RESULTS: After the first and second doses, 152 and 135 vaccinees were enrolled, respectively. After the first dose, fever (>37.1°C) occurred in 38.9% of males and 50.0% of females, whereas local pain occurred in 89.8% and 97.7% of males and females, respectively (only SPIKEVAX® was used as the first dose). After the second dose, fever (>37.1°C) occurred in 77.8% and 82.6% of males vaccinated with COMIRNATY® and SPIKEVAX®, respectively, and 82.6% of females (all received SPIKEVAX®). The local pain rates in these groups were 80.6%, 76.3%, and 100%, respectively. After the second dose, local pain, fever (>38.1°C) and headache were significantly more common in female participants, and the median symptom duration was 3 days. CONCLUSIONS: AEs were more frequent after the second dose and in females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pain/etiology , RNA, Messenger , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30634, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042657

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In December 2019, a new epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and spread rapidly to other parts of China and worldwide. Although established methods exist for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 infection, the management of dermatomyositis (DM) patients with COVID-19 is unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this article, we describe case reports of 2 patients with DM. The first case was a 67-year-old patient with DM and infected with COVID-19 who was admitted to Leishenshan Hospital for a 1-month history of fever, cough, and expectoration. The second case was a 51-year-old male patient who was admitted to Leishenshan Hospital due to fever with cough, expectoration and shortness of breath for 1 month. DIAGNOSES: The first patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 secondary to DM based on repeated SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test, detailed medical history and chest computed tomography; The second patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease associated with anti-MDA5 DM based on the results of antirheumatic and anti-inflammatory therapy and the above 3 methods. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The first patient received supportive and empirical treatment, including antiviral treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen therapy and prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. The symptoms and laboratory results got improved after the treatments. He was discharged with thrice negative PCR tests for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The second patient received a comprehensive treatment, including glucocorticoid and plasma exchange; his symptoms were relieved and improved. LESSONS: These cases suggest that repeated new pathogenic test results for the coronavirus and a detailed diagnosis of the medical history are important means to distinguish these diseases. Increased attention to the individual characteristics of different cases may allow for more effective diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatomyositis , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anticoagulants , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Cough/drug therapy , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 38-45, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Selenium deficiency can be associated with increased susceptibility to some viral infections and even more severe diseases. In this study, we aimed to examine whether this association applies to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). METHOD: An observational study was conducted based on the data of 13,305 human SFTS cases reported in mainland China from 2010 to 2020. The associations among incidence, case fatality rate of SFTS, and crop selenium concentration at the county level were explored. The selenium level in a cohort of patients with SFTS was tested, and its relationship with clinical outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: The association between selenium-deficient crops and the incidence rate of SFTS was confirmed by multivariate Poisson analysis, with an estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 4.549 (4.215-4.916) for moderate selenium-deficient counties and 16.002 (14.706-17.431) for severe selenium-deficient counties. In addition, a higher mortality rate was also observed in severe selenium-deficient counties with an IRR of 1.409 (95% CI: 1.061-1.909). A clinical study on 120 patients with SFTS showed an association between serum selenium deficiency and severe SFTS (odds ratio, OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.00-8.67) or fatal SFTS (OR: 7.55; 95% CI: 1.14-50.16). CONCLUSION: Selenium deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to SFTS and poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bunyaviridae Infections , Phlebovirus , Selenium , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , China/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 550, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first Covid-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of several diseases. A general reduction in the emergency department (ED) accesses was observed during this period, both in adult and pediatric contexts. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on the behalf of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (SINePe) in 17 Italian pediatric EDs in March and April 2020, comparing them with data from the same periods in 2018 and 2019. The total number of pediatric (age 0-18 years) ED visits, the number of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnoses, and clinical and laboratory parameters were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: The total number of febrile UTI diagnoses was 339 (73 in 2020, 140 in 2019, and 126 in 2018). During the first Covid-19 pandemic, the total number of ED visits decreased by 75.1%, the total number of febrile UTI diagnoses by 45.1%, with an increase in the UTI diagnosis rate (+ 121.7%). The data collected revealed an increased rate of patients with two or more days of fever before admission (p = 0.02), a significant increase in hospitalization rate (+ 17.5%, p = 0.008) and also in values of C reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.006). In 2020, intravenous antibiotics use was significantly higher than in 2018 and 2019 (+ 15%, p = 0.025). Urine cultures showed higher Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis percentages and lower rates of Escherichia coli (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic had an essential impact on managing febrile UTIs in the ED, causing an absolute reduction of cases referring to the ED but with higher clinical severity. Children with febrile UTI were more severely ill than the previous two years, probably due to delayed access caused by the fear of potential hospital-acquired Sars-Cov-2 infection. The possible increase in consequent kidney scarring in this population should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e131, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000836

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus has caused a large number of human infections since discovered in 2009. This study elucidated epidemiological features and fatal risk factors of SFTS cases accumulated up to ten years in Taizhou, a coastal prefecture of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. A total of 188 hospitalised SFTS cases (including 40 deaths) reported to Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 2011-2020 were enrolled in the study. In the past decade, the annual incidence of SFTS increased over the years (P < 0.001) along with an expanding epidemic area, and the case fatality of hospitalised cases has remained high (21.3%). Although most cases occurred in hilly areas, a coastal island had the highest incidence and case fatality. The majority of cases were over the age of 60 years (72.3%), and both incidence and case fatality of SFTS increased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 7.47, 95% CI 1.32-42.33; P = 0.023), and haemorrhagic manifestations including petechiae (OR 7.76, 95% CI 1.17-51.50; P = 0.034), gingival haemorrhage (OR 5.38, 95% CI 1.25-23.15; P = 0.024) and melena (OR 5.75, 95% CI 1.18-28.07; P = 0.031) were significantly associated with the death of SFTS cases. Five family clusters identified were farmers, among four of which the index patients were female with a history of hypertension. Based on the study, age is a critical risk factor for incidence and case fatality of SFTS. With an increased annual incidence over the last ten years, SFTS remains a public health threat that should not be ignored. Further study is needed to look at the natural foci in the coastal islands.


Subject(s)
Bunyaviridae Infections , Phlebovirus , Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
14.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(12): 1616-1622, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the clinical characteristics, outcomes and factors related to the serious adverse events (AEs) of patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with various AEs after ChAdOx1 and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Patients with AEs who visited the ED between March 2021 and September 2021 were selected from three EDs. The clinical data of these patients were collected by retrospectively reviewing medical records. Serious adverse events (AEs) were defined as any adverse medical events that led to hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 3572 patients visited the ED with AEs; 69.6% were administered mRNA vaccines, and the median (IQR) age was 48 (31-63) years. Regarding chief complaints, chest pain/discomfort (43.7%) was most common in the mRNA vaccines group, while fever (15.8%) was more commonly presented in the ChAdOx1 group. Most patients (93.9%) were discharged from the ED. In multivariate analysis, age ≥70 years, days from vaccination to ED visit ≥8 days, fever and dyspnea as chief complaints were higher independent risk factors for serious AEs (OR 27.94, OR 2.55, OR 1.95 and OR 2.18: p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: Most patients who visited the ED with AEs after vaccination were discharged from the ED regardless of the type of vaccine. Emergency physicians need to differentiate serious AEs and consider factors that may require admission to the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105244, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type B7 (HAdV-B7) has been reported to cause pneumonia. However, there are limited data about the epidemiological and clinical features of HAdV-B7 pneumonia in young adults. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 52 patients diagnosed of human adenovirus B7 pneumonia in Nanjing, China from February 7, 2016, to February 20, 2016. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of the 52 patients was 19.5 years (IQR 18.0-21.0). The most common symptoms were fever (50, 96.2%), cough (49, 94.2%), and expectoration (48, 92.3%). Most of the routine hematology and blood chemistry parameters were within the normal range. The predominant abnormal patterns seen on chest CT were unilateral (33, 66%), multifocal (36, 72%), and ground-glass opacity (27, 54%), mainly involving the left lower lobes (41 [36.0%] of 114 affected segments). As the disease progressed in the second week after symptom onset, consolidation and mixed patterns became more common, while the ground glass opacity pattern decreased. The single-agent ribavirin therapy group had a significantly shorter duration of nonrespiratory symptoms, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the single-agent methylprednisolone group and the nonglucocorticoid group. CONCLUSIONS: The main symptoms in immunocompetent patients with adenovirus type 7 are fever, cough and sputum, with no significant abnormalities in laboratory tests. Chest CT scan mostly shows a ground-glass opacity at the beginning of the disease, which subsequently changes to a mixed pattern. Ribavirin and glucocorticoids did not shorten the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 6111-6115, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990499

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) can cause acute respiratory diseases (ARDs) worldwide, and HAdV-55 is a reemergent pathogen in recent years. In the study, we investigated an outbreak of ARD at a school due to HAdV-55 in Beijing, China, during the early outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The epidemic prevention team was dispatched to the school to collect epidemiologic data and nasopharyngeal samples. Then, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and other respiratory pathogens, respectively. One representative HAdV-55 isolate was selected and submitted for whole-genome sequencing using a MiSeq system and the whole-genome phylogenetic tree was conducted based on the maximum likelihood method. The outbreak lasted from January 27 to February 6, 2020, and 108 students developed fever, among whom 60 (55.56%) cases were diagnosed with HAdV-55 infection in the laboratory using real-time PCR and 56 cases were hospitalized. All the confirmed cases had a fever and 11 cases (18.33%) presented with a fever above 39°C. Other main clinical symptoms included sore throat (43.33%) and headache (43.33%). We obtained and assembled the full genome of one isolate, BJ-446, with 34 761 nucleotides in length. HAdV-55 isolate BJ-446 was 99.85% identical to strain QS-DLL, which was the first HAdV-55 strain in China isolated from an ARD outbreak in Shanxi in 2006. One and four amino acid mutations were observed in the hexon gene and the coding region of L2 pV 40.1 kDa protein, respectively. We identified the first HAdV-55 infection associated with the ARD outbreak in Beijing since the emergence of COVID-19. The study suggests that improved surveillance of HAdV is needed, although COVID-19 is still prevalent in the world.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Amino Acids , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
17.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 20(1): 47-53, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation, biochemical characteristics, and outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 can vary in different populations. The purpose of the study is to assess the clinical presentation and identify predictors of mortality among patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to different critical care units in Nepal. METHODS: An observational study was conducted among the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to different critical care units in seven provinces of Nepal. Retrospective data was collected for the period of three months (April 14, 2021 to July 15, 2021) in relation to the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Clinical, biochemical and mortality data were collected from the admitted patients of different critical care units. Univariate logistic regression analysis was done among the selected variables at 5% significance. Final predictor variables were identified after multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Out of total of 646 patients admitted to critical care units of different provinces of Nepal, there was a male predominance 420 (65%). A total of 232(35.91 %) patients were non-survivors with the majority of mortality occurring in patients > 50 years of age. Cough (72.3 %), shortness of breath (70.9%) and fever (56 %) were the most common presenting clinical features. Increasing age, presence of comorbidity, critical COVID-19 cases, respiratory rate, temperature, serum urea and alanine aminotransferase were identified as predictors of mortality after multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 36 % of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patient admitted to critical care units did not survive. There was a male preponderance with most casualties occurring in patients more than 50 years of age. Cough, shortness of breath and fever were the most common presenting features. After multiple regression analysis of the identified clinical and biochemical factors, age, presence of comorbidity, respiratory rate, temperature, severity grade as per the World Health Organization classification, serum urea and alanine aminotransferase were identified as the predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Alanine Transaminase , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough , Critical Care , Dyspnea , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Urea
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5336-5344, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935702

ABSTRACT

Data regarding early predictors of clinical deterioration in patients with infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still scarce. The aim of the study is to identify early symptoms or signs that may be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study on a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in home isolation from March 2020 to April 2021. We assessed longitudinal clinical data (fever, dyspnea, need for hospitalization) through video calls at three specific time points: the beginning of symptoms or the day of the first positivity of the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2-RNA (t0 ), and 3 (t3 ) and 7 (t7 ) days after the onset of symptoms. We included 329 patients with COVID-19: 182 (55.3%) males, mean age 53.4 ± 17.4 years, median Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 1 (0-3). Of the 329 patients enrolled, 171 (51.98%) had a mild, 81 (24.6%) a moderate, and 77 (23.4%) a severe illness; 151 (45.9%) were hospitalized. Compared to patients with mild COVID-19, moderate and severe patients were older (p < 0.001) and had more comorbidities, especially hypertension (p < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.01). At t3 and t7 , we found a significant higher rate of persisting fever (≥37°C) among patients with moderate (91.4% and 58.0% at t3 and t7 , respectively; p < 0.001) and severe outcome (75.3% and 63.6%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared to mild COVID-19 outcome (27.5% and 11.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Factors independently associated with a more severe outcome were persisting fever at t3 and t7 , increasing age, and CCI above 2 points. Persisting fever at t3 and t7 seems to be related to a more severe COVID-19. This data may be useful to assess hospitalization criteria and optimize the use of resources in the outpatient setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30185, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be more severe in infants than in older children. To date, only a few case series have reported data on neonates with COVID-19, including mostly asymptomatic neonates who were tested because of exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study summarises nationwide epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of neonates presenting with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from hospitalised neonates with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive polymerase chain reaction on a respiratory sample) from 1 March 2020 to 31 September 2021. All 29 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported cases. RESULTS: In total, 73 neonates were included; 7 (10%) were preterm. The median age at presentation was 17 days (interquartile range [IQR] 11-23); 40 (55%) were female. The majority of neonates (64, 88%) were admitted from home. Nine (12%) had a pre-existing medical condition. Overall, the most common symptom recorded was fever in 52 (71%), followed by rhinorrhoea or nasal congestion in 32 (44%) and respiratory distress in 19 (26%). Twenty (27%) neonates presented with fever without a source. Seven (10%) neonates were admitted to an intensive care unit (5 for respiratory failure and 2 for monitoring). One (1%) neonate required inotropic support. The median length of hospital stay in term neonates was 4 days (IQR 3-5). Two (3%) were treated with corticosteroids and 1 (1%) with remdesivir. In total, 60 (82%) neonates had contact with a known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 index case. All of the 71 neonates for whom data were available were discharged to their homes without symptoms. CONCLUSION: In neonates, COVID-19 mainly presents with fever, and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract infection. The clinical course is mostly mild, requiring a short period of hospitalisation. COVID-19 needs to be added as a differential diagnosis in neonates who present with fever without a source. However, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 should not deter from the search for a serious bacterial infection. Further data from surveillance studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 in neonates, guide therapy and to evaluate whether the clinical spectrum is changing with new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies
20.
Malar J ; 21(1): 199, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often causes atypical clinical manifestations similar to other infectious diseases. In malaria-endemic areas, the pandemic situation will very likely result in co-infection of COVID-19 and malaria, although reports to date are still few. Meanwhile, this disease will be challenging to diagnose in areas with low malaria prevalence because the symptoms closely resemble COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with fever, anosmia, headache, and nausea 1 week before. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated for approximately 10 days, then discharged to continue self-quarantine at home. 2 weeks later, he returned to the hospital with a fever raised intermittently every 2 days and marked by a chilling-fever-sweating cycle. A laboratory test for malaria and a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS CoV-2 PCR were conducted, confirming both diagnoses. The laboratory examination showed markedly elevated D-dimer. He was treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) 4 tablets per day for 3 days and primaquine 2 tablets per day for 14 days according to Indonesian National Anti-malarial Treatment Guidelines. After 6 days of treatment, the patient had no complaints, and the results of laboratory tests had improved. This report describes the key points in considering the differential diagnosis and prompt treatment of malaria infection during the pandemic of COVID-19 in an endemic country to prevent the worse clinical outcomes. COVID-19 and malaria may also cause a hypercoagulable state, so a co-infection of those diseases may impact the prognosis of the disease. CONCLUSION: This case report shows that considering the possibility of a co-infection in a COVID-19 patient who presents with fever can prevent delayed treatment that can worsen the disease outcome. Paying more attention to a history of travel to malaria-endemic areas, a history of previous malaria infection, and exploring anamnesis regarding the fever patterns in patients are important points in making a differential diagnosis of malaria infection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Malaria, Vivax , Malaria , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Recurrence , Young Adult
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