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1.
Pediatr Rev ; 43(11): 655-658, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242369
2.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324609

ABSTRACT

A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with fever, cough, congestion, abdominal pain, myalgias, and morbilliform rash. Several aspects of the patient's history, including recent travel, living on a farm, exposure to sick contacts, and new medications, resulted in a wide differential diagnosis. Initial laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and elevated atypical lymphocytes, but did not reveal any infectious causes of illness. He was discharged from the hospital, but then represented to the emergency department a day later with worsening rash, continued fever, abdominal pain, and poor intake. He was then admitted. A more comprehensive laboratory evaluation was initiated. During this hospital course, the patient's physical examination changed when he developed head and neck edema, and certain laboratory trends became clearer. With the assistance of several specialists, the team was able to reach a more definitive diagnosis and initiate treatment to appropriately manage his condition.


Subject(s)
Cough , Exanthema , Male , Humans , Child , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Leukocytosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Exanthema/etiology
3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 122(5): 384-392, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies correlating reactogenicity and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines are limited to BNT162b2, with inconsistent results. We investigated whether adverse reactions after other COVID-19 vaccines reliably predict humoral responses. METHODS: Adult volunteers were recruited for homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with adenoviral (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and/or mRNA (mRNA-1273, Moderna) vaccines administered either 4 or 8 weeks apart. Adverse effects were routinely solicited and recorded by subjects in a standard diary card for up to 84 days post booster vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were measured pre- (visit 1), and post-booster dose at days 14 (visit 2) and 28 (visit 3). RESULTS: A total of 399 participants (75% women) with a median age of 41 (interquartile range, 33-48 IQR) years were included. Vaccine-induced antibody titers at days 14 and 28 were significantly higher among subjects who reported local erythema, swelling, pain, as well as systemic fever, chills, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fatigue compared to those who did not experience local or systemic reactogenicity. Post-vaccination humoral responses did not correlate with the occurrence of skin rash and correlated weakly with gastrointestinal symptoms. A significant correlation between post-vaccination peak body temperature and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG at Day 14, independent of vaccine type and schedule, was found. CONCLUSION: Specific symptoms of reactogenicity such as post-vaccination injection site pain, swelling, erythema and fever, myalgia and fatigue are significantly predictive of the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Antibody Formation , Myalgia/etiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Fatigue , Fever/etiology , Antibodies, Viral
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 198, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seizures in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were markedly increased during the Omicron variant surge. Most seizures occurred with fever. New-onset afebrile seizures were rarely reported; therefore, their courses are not well-known. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients (7 and 26 months of age, respectively) with COVID-19 showed recurrent afebrile seizures immediately after resolution of a fever lasting for 2-3 days. Bilateral convulsive seizures lasted for approximately 1 min/episode (6 of 7 total episodes) and occurred 3-4 times within 2-3 h. However, the patients were alert between seizures, which is in contrast to seizures occurring with encephalopathy or encephalitis. Only one episode required acute antiseizure medication. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a reversible splenial lesion in one patient. The serum uric acid level was slightly increased (7.8 mg/dL) in this patient. Electroencephalography findings were all normal. During the follow-up period, no seizures or developmental problems have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated, afebrile benign convulsions with or without a reversible splenial lesion are similar to 'benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis'; therefore, continuation of antiseizure medication does not seem necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uric Acid , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Fever/etiology
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20246, 2020 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285064

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in COVID-19 is a common feature in fatal cases and has been considered as a failure of the immune system to control the virus. Here we report the case of COVID-19 affecting an immunocompromised women and her presumably immunocompetent spouse. A married couple (age 60 years) was simultaneously admitted to the emergency department on 10 March 2020 because of dyspnoea and fever, consistent with COVID-19. The wife (patient 1) was partially immunocompromised as a consequence of a recently started chemotherapy with fulvestrant and abemaciclid for recurring breast cancer, her husband (patient 2) had been healthy except for a history of controlled arterial hypertension. Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine. The clinical course of the immunocompromised partner was benign, without need of intensive care. She was able to leave the hospital on day 6 after admission. In contrast, her husband needed intensive care and his recovery was slow, although eventually successful too. These findings suggest that the course of COVID-19 is not necessarily ominous in the presence of a compromised immune response and tend to reinforce the emerging therapeutic concepts of a controlled mitigation of the immune cascade following SARS CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
7.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 58(2): 89-96, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254240

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous virus but can lead to deleterious clinical manifestations due to its predilection for the pediatric central nervous system. Despite significant literature describing its common clinical course, it is rarely considered as a causative agent in CSF pleocytosis in the setting of craniotomy and external ventricular drainage device. Identification of a primary HHV-6 infection allowed for timely treatment with an antiviral agent along with earlier discontinuation of antibiotic regimen and expedited placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. CASE PRESENTATION: A two-year-old girl presented with 3 months of progressive gait disturbance and intranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Following craniotomy for removal of 4th ventricular pilocytic astrocytoma and decompression of hydrocephalus, she suffered a prolonged clinical course due to persistent fevers and worsening CSF leukocytosis despite multiple antibiotic regimens. The patient was admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic and isolated with her parents in the intensive care unit with strict infection control measures. FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FAME) panel ultimately detected HHV-6. Clinical confirmation of HHV-6-induced meningitis was proposed given improvement in CSF leukocytosis and fever reduction following the initiation of antiviral medications. Pathologic analysis of brain tumor tissue failed to show HHV-6 genome positivity, suggesting a primary peripheral etiology of infection. CONCLUSION: Here, we present the first known case of HHV-6 infection detected by FAME following intracranial tumor resection. We propose a modified algorithm for persistent fever of unknown origin which may decrease symptomatic sequelae, minimize additional procedures, and shorten length of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Leukocytosis , Pandemics , Astrocytoma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Disease Progression , Fever/etiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e232328, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282932

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 variants have not been systematically compared in children. Objective: To compare symptoms, emergency department (ED) chest radiography, treatments, and outcomes among children with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study was performed at 14 Canadian pediatric EDs. Participants included children and adolescents younger than 18 years (hereinafter referred to as children) tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in an ED between August 4, 2020, and February 22, 2022, with 14 days of follow-up. Exposure(s): SARS-CoV-2 variants detected on a specimen collected from the nasopharynx, nares, or throat. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was presence and number of presenting symptoms. The secondary outcomes were presence of core COVID-19 symptoms, chest radiography findings, treatments, and 14-day outcomes. Results: Among 7272 participants presenting to an ED, 1440 (19.8%) had test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 801 (55.6%) were boys, with a median age of 2.0 (IQR, 0.6-7.0) years. Children with the Alpha variant reported the fewest core COVID-19 symptoms (195 of 237 [82.3%]), which were most often reported by participants with Omicron variant infection (434 of 468 [92.7%]; difference, 10.5% [95% CI, 5.1%-15.9%]). In a multivariable model with the original type as the referent, the Omicron and Delta variants were associated with fever (odds ratios [ORs], 2.00 [95% CI, 1.43-2.80] and 1.93 [95% CI, 1.33-2.78], respectively) and cough (ORs, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.06-1.91] and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.13-2.17], respectively). Upper respiratory tract symptoms were associated with Delta infection (OR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.38-2.79]); lower respiratory tract and systemic symptoms were associated with Omicron variant infection (ORs, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.04-1.92] and 1.77 [95% CI, 1.24-2.52], respectively). Children with Omicron infection most often had chest radiography performed and received treatments; compared with those who had Delta infection, they were more likely to have chest radiography performed (difference, 9.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-14.8%]), to receive intravenous fluids (difference, 5.6% [95% CI, 1.0%-10.2%]) and corticosteroids (difference, 7.9% [95% CI, 3.2%-12.7%]), and to have an ED revisit (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, 3.5%-14.1%]). The proportions of children admitted to the hospital and intensive care unit did not differ between variants. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 variants suggest that the Omicron and Delta variants were more strongly associated with fever and cough than the original-type virus and the Alpha variant. Children with Omicron variant infection were more likely to report lower respiratory tract symptoms and systemic manifestations, undergo chest radiography, and receive interventions. No differences were found in undesirable outcomes (ie, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission) across variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Adolescent , Male , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(9): 3549-3554, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282485

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an inflammatory condition associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is characterized by fever, gastro-intestinal symptoms, cardiovascular complications, conjunctivitis, skin involvement, elevated inflammatory markers, and coagulation abnormalities. The current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic causes an increased alertness to MIS-C. In combination with the heterogeneous clinical spectrum, this could potentially lead to diagnostic blindness, misdiagnosis of MIS-C, and overtreatment with expensive IVIG treatment. This report demonstrates the challenge of accurately distinguishing MIS-C from other more common inflammatory pediatric diseases, and the need to act with caution to avoid misdiagnoses in the current pandemic. We present a case series of 11 patients suspected of MIS-C based on the current definitions. Three of them were eventually diagnosed with a different disease. CONCLUSION: Current definitions and diagnostic criteria lack specificity which potentially leads to misdiagnosis and overtreatment of MIS-C. We emphasize the need to act with caution in order to avoid MIS(-C)-taken diagnoses in the current pandemic. WHAT IS KNOWN: • A pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 has been described (MIS-C). • There are three definitions being used for MIS-C, all including fever for at least 24 h, laboratory evidence of inflammation, clinically severe illness with multi-organ (≥ 2) involvement, and no alternative plausible diagnosis. WHAT IS NEW: • MIS-C has a heterogeneous clinical spectrum without distinctive features compared to more common childhood diseases. Current definitions and diagnostic criteria for MIS-C lack specificity which leads to misdiagnosis and overtreatment. • Amid the current excessive attention to COVID-19 and MIS-C, pediatricians should remain vigilant to avoid mistaken diagnoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Fever/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
10.
Wiad Lek ; 75(10): 2544-2548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267008

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease is an acute systemic disease characterized by the predominant lesions of middle and small arteries, alongside destructive and proliferative vasculitis development. The aetiology is currently being discussed. Infectious factors are mostly preferred, in addition, autoimmune mechanisms and genetic heredity are considered. The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is established by clinical signs; laboratory changes are usually taken into account as are ancillary criteria. The article discusses the clinical case of Kawasaki disease in an 8-year-old boy. Given the variety and inconsistency of the clinical symptoms (the child had four of the five mandatory criteria together with prolonged fever), there was a late diagnosis, namely on day 10 of the disease. Due to the high risk of cardiovascular complications in the differential diagnosis of children with fever lasting more than 3 days should be considered Kawasaki disease, followed by mandatory heart echocardiography during the first 10 days of the disease, especially if the fever is accompanied by the increase of acute phase reactants. When treating children with chronic fever without a specific source, the doctor should be wary of Kawasaki disease, as it can clinically simulate acute respiratory viral disease, the onset of diffuse connective tissue disease, and infectious endocarditis, and can have common features and require differential diagnostics with coronavirus associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Heart Diseases , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Vasculitis , Child , Male , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Vasculitis/complications
11.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(4): e280122200652, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We reported a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) with persistent symptomatic COVID-19, which was complicated by new-appearing severe pneumonia 40 days after disease onset. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old man with a history of multiple sclerosis referred to our hospital with fever, shaking chills, cough, and dyspnea. In his history, the patient had developed mild COVID-19 from 40 days ago. After 7 days of disease onset, the COVID symptoms had been subsided partially, but fatigue, myalgia, intermittent fever, and loss of taste and smell had been continued. In physical examinations, his oral temperature was 39.4 °C. He had respiratory distress, and his blood oxygen saturation on the room air was 90%. The spiral chest CT scan was performed, which revealed bilateral ground-glass and alveolar opacities in favor of COVID-19 pneumonia. The result of the RT-PCR test for SARS-COV-2 was reported positive subsequently. His current MS medication was rituximab and he had received the last dose of rituximab two months before developing COVID-19. The patient was admitted to the COVID ward and put on Remdesivir, subcutaneous interferon-beta1b, and dexamethasone. He improved gradually and was discharged from the hospital with the favorable condition after 10 days. This patient had a rare protracted disease course. We presumed that prolonged high degree fever (above 38 °C) in our patient is beyond the diagnosis of the post-COVID-19 syndrome and is more compatible with persistent infection. CONCLUSION: Although most immunocompromised patients effectively clear SARS-CoV-2 infection, this case report highlights the risk of persistent infection associated with recurrence of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
13.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 946, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been increasingly recognized but fever with isolated tender cervical lymphadenitis as the initial presentation has been rarely reported. We present 2 female patients one a child and the other an adolescent. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 13-year-old girl who presented with tender cervical lymphadenopathy and fever 3-weeks post-COVID-19, and then developed features of MIS 5 days later. Case 2, also female, was 18 years old. She had no history of COVID-19 infection or immunization but had a serologic diagnosis of COVID-19. She similarly presented with fever and tender cervical lymphadenopathy, and then progressed rapidly to develop features of MIS. Both patients responded well to treatment with immunosuppressants and intravenous immunoglobulin. CONCLUSION: Tender cervical lymphadenopathy could be the herald of multi-system inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 infection among children and adolescents, which the clinicians must have a good suspicion about.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenitis , Lymphadenopathy , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Syndrome , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Fever/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 902, 2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sotrovimab neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 remained effective at the advent of B.1 lineage of the Omicron variant in outpatients. Primarily for hospitalized patients, however, the Japanese government regulated to administer this antibody agent. As this regulation enabled close monitoring in inpatients to investigate post-infusion adverse events (AEs) and efficacy, we attempted a retrospective study while the Omicron BA.1 lineage was dominant regionally. METHODS: Subjects were inpatients with COVID-19 who received infusion of sotrovimab in our institute. In line with previous clinical trials, we included patients at risk of COVID-19 worsening and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, who were hospitalized as directed by the government. For statistical analyses, we reviewed background factors of demographics, imaging, and laboratory findings for the outcome infusion-related reactions including post-infusion pyrexia over 38 degrees Celsius and/or pulse oximetry below 94%. RESULTS: In a total of 139 patients, the follow-up period had a median of 200 days (range, 154-248 days). Among 119 patients (85.6%) fully vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2, 86 (61.9% of all) underwent 2 doses while 33 (23.7% of all) received 3 doses. For the outcome of pyrexia and/or dyspnea (N = 40, 28.8%), multivariate analysis showed that significant risk factors were pre-infusion lowered oximetry below 96.5% (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.344, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.139-0.851, P = 0.021) and pre-infusion temperature more than 36.7 degrees Celsius (OR 4.056, 95% CI 1.696-9.701, P = 0.002). Infusion-related reactions included vomiting immediately after infusion, chill/shivering, dizziness, rash, pruritus, pyrexia, and dyspnea. The number of patients with any of these events was 44 (31.6%). Three patients (2.2%) showed worsening of COVID-19; one developed hypoxia and two died. Limitations for this study included no genome typing whether BA.1 or BA.2 lineage of the Omicron variant but the local epidemiology indicated the prevalence of BA.1. Another was sotrovimab administration for inpatients that allow precise detection of post-infusion events, confounding previous exacerbation definition including hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: For 24 h after infusion of sotrovimab, COVID-19 patients showing pre-infusion lowered oximetry below 96.5% and/or temperature more than 36.7 degrees Celsius may have temperature elevation or dyspnea, warranting close monitoring for these risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Inpatients , Retrospective Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Fever/etiology , Dyspnea
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 985553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163174

ABSTRACT

Fever screening is an effective method to detect infectors associated with different variants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on the fact that most infectors with COVID-19 have fever symptoms. Non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) are widely used in fever screening. Nevertheless, authoritative data is lacking in defining "fever" at different body surface sites when using NCITs. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal diagnostic threshold for fever screening using NICTs at different body surface sites, to improve the accuracy of fever screening and provide theoretical reference for healthcare policy. Participants (n = 1860) who were outpatients or emergency patients at Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital were recruited for this prospective investigation from March 1 to June 30, 2021. NCITs and mercury axillary thermometers were used to measure neck, temple, forehead and wrist temperatures of all participants. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to reflect the accuracy of NCITs. Linear correlation analysis was used to show the effect of age on body temperature. Multilinear regression analysis was used to explore the association between non-febrile participant's covariates and neck temperature. The mean age of participants was 3.45 ± 2.85 years for children and 28.56 ± 7.25 years for adults. In addition 1,304 (70.1%) participants were children (≤12), and 683 (36.7%) were male. The neck temperature exhibited the highest accuracy among the four sites. Further the optimal fever diagnostic thresholds of NCITs at the four body surface measurement sites were neck (36.75 °C, sensitivity: 0.993, specificity: 0.858); temple (36.55 °C, sensitivity: 0.974, specificity: 0.874); forehead (36.45 °C, sensitivity: 0.961, specificity: 0.813); and wrist (36.15 °C, sensitivity: 0.951, specificity: 0.434). Based on the findings of our study, we recommend 36.15, 36.45, 36.55, and 36.75 °C as the diagnostic thresholds of fever at the wrist, forehead, temple and neck, respectively. Among the four surface sites, neck temperature exhibited the highest accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Female , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Temperature , Health Policy
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137567

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy Japanese woman in her 20s was admitted to our hospital with a 2-week history of fever (39.0°C) and a 1-week history of painful cervical lymphadenopathy. The day before fever onset, she had received her first Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in her left arm. She had previously been treated with empirical antibiotics with no improvement. Physical examination revealed painful lymphadenopathy in both posterior cervical regions. CT showed symmetrical lymphadenopathies in the neck, supraclavicular, axillary and inguinal regions as well as hepatosplenomegaly. We suspected lymphoma and performed a lymph node biopsy in the right inguinal region, which revealed necrotising histiocytic lymphadenitis. The patient was, therefore, diagnosed with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). She improved after the corticosteroid therapy. This report highlights the importance of including KFD as a differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Additionally, lymph node biopsy is helpful for diagnosing KFD because it rules out other entities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Fever/etiology , Pain/complications
18.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(11): 3394-3408, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is a public health problem. This meta-analysis reviewed the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on clinical features of infants with SARS-CoV-2 published before May 1, 2022. Two authors screened and extracted data on the number of infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features, and number of clinical features. The proportion of asymptomatic infection, mild symptoms, moderate symptoms, severe symptoms, and the clinical features were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-four studies with 6,304 infants with SARS-CoV-2 infections were included in this study. The proportion of asymptomatic infection was 20% (95% CI: 11-28%, I2=97%, P<0.01) in infants with SARS-CoV-2 infections. The proportion of infants with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms was 48% (95% CI: 30-65%, I2=96%, P<0.01), 27% (95% CI: 10-44%, I2=93%, P<0.01), and 8% (95% CI: 0-16%, I2=90%, P<0.01), respectively. Notably, the most common clinical features of infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection were fever (64%), cough (34%), and nasal symptoms (31%). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that 20% of infants with SARS-CoV-2 infections were asymptomatic, while most infants with COVID-19 presented with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 432, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has changed the pattern of some diseases in the world, especially in pediatrics. Despite data suggesting that the pediatric population is less affected by coronavirus disease-19 infection, new concerns have been raised owing to reported cases with hyperinflammatory conditions such as Kawasaki disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report herein the case of a pediatric patient diagnosed and treated for classic Kawasaki disease in the setting of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection. She was an 8-year-old, previously healthy, and fully immunized Iranian girl who initially presented to the pediatric emergency department with 5 days of intermittent fever, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was admitted for fever and abdominal pain to the surgery service of Akbar Hospital with suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case report may serve as a useful reference to other clinicians caring for pediatric patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Standard therapeutic interventions for Kawasaki disease must be performed to prevent critical coronary aneurysm-related complications in the coronavirus disease 2019 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Female , Child , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Iran , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Fever/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31361, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115854

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Paxlovid has shown the potential decreasing the hospitalization rate of mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death in few of clinical trials, and is expected to the most promising medicine targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SRAS-COV-2). However, there are no enough evidences to show it effectiveness for all patients with SARS-COV-2, especially among elderly patients and newest Omicron variant. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 79 year's old female patient was admitted to hospital because of the moderate COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant BA2.0. He presented the initial syndromes including Xerostomia, cough and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at admission showed the exudation lesions on lung. The laboratory examination revealed that there are increased C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin and erythrocytesedimentationrate (ESR) and decreased white blood cells. INTERVENTIONS: The oral Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) was administrated on second day after admission. OUTCOMES: The syndromes of Xerostomia, cough and fever was improved on third day after use of Paxlovid. The levels of CRP, ESR and counts of white blood cells returned the normal after three days of admission. The chest CT scanned on the third and sixth day after Paxlovid used showed the absorption of lesions. The examination of SARS-COVS viral nucleic acid turned negative at fifth day of admission. LESSONS: As a result, we would consider that Paxlovid is a suitable oral drug for elderly patients with SARS-COV2 even Omicron variant, it's benefit to improve patient's symptom and signs and can prevents COVID-19 with the high-risk factors from severe disease, although it didn't shorten the time for viral nucleic acid to turn negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Male , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/etiology , RNA, Viral , Fever/etiology
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