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1.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 39-45, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, mortality related to hospitalized patients with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is approximately 4-5%. However, data on COVID-19 admissions from sub-Saharan Africa are scanty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile and determinants of outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted at a hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study involving 25 patients with real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the treatment centre of the University Hospital, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana from 1st June to 27th July, 2020. They were managed and followed up for outcomes. Data were analysed descriptively, and predictors of mortality assessed using a multivariate logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 20.6 years, and 14 (56%) were males. The main symptoms at presentation were breathlessness (68%) followed by fever (56%). The cases were categorized as mild (6), moderate (6), severe (10) and critical (3). Hypertension was the commonest comorbidity present in 72% of patients. Medications used in patient management included dexamethasone (68%), azithromycin (96%), and hydroxychloroquine (4%). Five of 25 cases died (Case fatality ratio 20%). Increasing age and high systolic blood pressure were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Case fatality in this sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was high. Thorough clinical assessment, severity stratification, aggressive management of underlying co-morbidities and standardized protocols incountry might improve outcomes. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323020

ABSTRACT

The natural history of COVID-19 and predictors of mortality in older adults need to be investigated to inform clinical operations and healthcare policy planning. A retrospective study took place in 80 long-term nursing homes in Catalonia, Spain collecting data from March 1st to May 31st, 2020. Demographic and clinical data from 2,092 RT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were registered, including structural characteristics of the facilities. Descriptive statistics to describe the demographic, clinical, and molecular characteristics of our sample were prepared, both overall and by their symptomatology was performed and an analysis of statistically significant bivariate differences and constructions of a logistic regression model were carried out to assess the relationship between variables. The incidence of the infection was 28%. 71% of the residents showed symptoms. Five major symptoms included: fever, dyspnea, dry cough, asthenia and diarrhea. Fever and dyspnea were by far the most frequent (50% and 28%, respectively). The presentation was predominantly acute and symptomatology persisted from days to weeks (mean 9.1 days, SD = 10,9). 16% of residents had confirmed pneumonia and 22% required hospitalization. The accumulated mortality rate was 21.75% (86% concentrated during the first 28 days at onset). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a positive predictive value for mortality for some variables such as age, pneumonia, fever, dyspnea, stupor refusal to oral intake and dementia (p<0.01 for all variables). Results suggest that density in the nursing homes did not account for differences in the incidence of the infection within the facilities. This study provides insights into the natural history of the disease in older adults with high dependency living in long-term nursing homes during the first pandemic wave of March-May 2020 in the region of Catalonia, and suggests that some comorbidities and symptoms have a strong predictive value for mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Fever , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220448

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viremia/pathology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/mortality , Tachypnea/pathology , Tachypnea/virology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/virology
5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 86-93, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90 ± 16.76 years. The most common initial symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. In 21 patients (5.8%), the initial symptom was neurological. History of dementia was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio = 1.28). During the course of the disease, 186 patients (51.52%) had at least one neurological symptom, the most common being headache (109 [30.2%]), followed by anosmia/ageusia (69, [19.1%]), and dizziness (54, [15%]). Also, 31 patients had neurological complications (8.58%). Anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, and headache were associated with favorable outcome (P < 0.001), while altered mental status and hemiparesis were associated with poor outcome. The mortality rate of patients who had neurological complications was more than twice than that of patients without neurological complication (P = 0.008). Almost half of the patients experienced at least one neurological symptom, which may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Dementia appears to be associated with severe COVID-19. Mortality was higher in patients with neurological complications, and these patients needed more intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dementia/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Headache/complications , Paresis/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/mortality , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/mortality , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/mortality , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresis/diagnosis , Paresis/mortality , Paresis/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(4): 484-493, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While fever may be a presenting symptom of COVID-19, fever at hospital admission has not been identified as a predictor of mortality. However, hyperthermia during critical illness among ventilated COVID-19 patients in the ICU has not yet been studied. We sought to determine mortality predictors among ventilated COVID-19 ICU patients and we hypothesized that fever in the ICU is predictive of mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 103 ventilated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between March 14 and May 27, 2020. Final follow-up was June 5, 2020. Patients discharged from the ICU or who died were included. Patients still admitted to the ICU at final follow-up were excluded. RESULTS: 103 patients were included, 40 survived and 63(61.1%) died. Deceased patients were older {66 years[IQR18] vs 62.5[IQR10], (p = 0.0237)}, more often male {48(68%) vs 22(55%), (p = 0.0247)}, had lower initial oxygen saturation {86.0%[IQR18] vs 91.5%[IQR11.5], (p = 0.0060)}, and had lower pH nadir than survivors {7.10[IQR0.2] vs 7.30[IQR0.2] (p < 0.0001)}. Patients had higher peak temperatures during ICU stay as compared to hospital presentation {103.3°F[IQR1.7] vs 100.0°F[IQR3.5], (p < 0.0001)}. Deceased patients had higher peak ICU temperatures than survivors {103.6°F[IQR2.0] vs 102.9°F[IQR1.4], (p = 0.0008)}. Increasing peak temperatures were linearly associated with mortality. Febrile patients who underwent targeted temperature management to achieve normothermia did not have different outcomes than those not actively cooled. Multivariable analysis revealed 60% and 75% higher risk of mortality with peak temperature greater than 103°F and 104°F respectively; it also confirmed hyperthermia, age, male sex, and acidosis to be predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to identify ICU hyperthermia as predictive of mortality in ventilated COVID-19 patients. Additional predictors included male sex, age, and acidosis. With COVID-19 cases increasing, identification of ICU mortality predictors is crucial to improve risk stratification, resource management, and patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Fever/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care Outcomes , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2857-2862, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935140

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health emergency, in which its effective treatment and prevention remain obscured. Hyperpyrexia is an elevation of body temperature above 106.7°F (41.5°C) due to an abnormally increased hypothalamic-thermoregulatory set. The pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of hyperpyrexia in patients with COVID-19 have not yet been studied. Herein, we present clinical features and outcomes of six patients with COVID-19 who had developed hyperpyrexia during hospitalization. All patients expired shortly after the onset of hyperpyrexia. Hyperpyrexia seems to adversely impact the outcomes and mortality in patients with COVID-19. The underlying mechanisms of developing hyperpyrexia in COVID-19 are mysterious. We propose it may be caused by SARS-CoV-2-related brain injury, exuberant immune response, and thrombus formation. More research is needed to verify our results. Understanding the association between hyperpyrexia and SARS-CoV-2 will help to elucidate the COVID-19 pathogenesis, which is mandatory for developing effective treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fever/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fever/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Radiography , Risk Factors
8.
Hum Antibodies ; 29(1): 49-54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807231

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic in early 2020. This infectious disorder has a heterogeneous course ranging from asymptomatic disorder to a critical situation needing intensive cares. In the current study, we present a report of affected patients admitted in a single hospital in Iran. Eighty-two hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and paraclinical parameters were gathered and statistically analyzed. The median age (IQR) of the patients was 57.32 (45.75, 70) years. At primary evaluation, fever was present in 45.12% of the affected individuals. The most common clinical symptoms were dyspnea (81.71%) and cough (65.85%). Totally, 12 (14.63%) and 14 (17.07%) of patients had low and high WBC counts, respectively. Lymphopenia was detected in 36 (43.9%) of patients, while 6 (7.32%) of patients had lymphocytosis. High levels of Il-6 were detected in 4 (4.88%) of patients. CRP levels were elevated in 69 (84.1%) of patients. The median (IQR) of hospitalization was 7 (5, 9) days. Totally, 26 patients (31%) were hospitalized in ICU. All patients were discharged with good health conditions except for one patient who died. The current study shows the heterogeneous clinical manifestations and paraclinical parameters of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Lymphocytosis/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cough/mortality , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytosis/mortality , Lymphocytosis/therapy , Lymphocytosis/virology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy , Obesity/virology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
9.
Infection ; 48(5): 715-722, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The medical data of 89 COVID-19 patients admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 3, 2020 to February 26, 2020 were collected. Eighty-nine cases were divided into survival group (53 cases) and non-survival group (36 cases) according to the results of 28-day follow-up. The SAA levels of all patients were recorded and compared on 1 day after admission (before treatment) and 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment. The ROC curve was drawn to analyze the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 by SAA. RESULTS: The difference of comparison of SAA between survival group and non-survival group before treatment was not statistically significant, Z1 = - 1.426, P = 0.154. The Z1 values (Z1 is the Z value of the rank sum test) of the two groups of patients at 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment were - 5.569, - 6.967, and - 7.542, respectively. The P values were all less than 0.001, and the difference was statistically significant. The ROC curve results showed that SAA has higher sensitivity to the prognostic value of 1 day (before treatment), 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment, with values of 0.806, 0.972, 0.861, and 0.961, respectively. Compared with SAA on the 7th day and C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and hemoglobin on the 7th day, the sensitivities were: 96.1%, 83.3%, 88.3%, 83.3%, 67.9%, and 83.0%, respectively, of which SAA has the highest sensitivity. CONCLUSION: SAA can be used as a predictor of the prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/blood , Cough/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/mortality , Fever/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/blood , Pharyngitis/mortality , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
11.
Infection ; 48(5): 687-694, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of 194 cases coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Huanggang, Hubei and Taian, Shandong. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, laboratory characteristics and CT imaging of confirmed cases of COVID-19 from January 22 to February 28, 2020 in Huanggang Central Hospital and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University. Real time PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of ACE2 in tissues. RESULTS: Among the 194 patients infected with COVID-19, 108 patients were male, with a median age of 48.3 years. The average preclinical period was 7.44 day. Except for 37 severe or critically ill patients, the rest of the 157 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. 190 (97.94%) patients were confirmed during the three times nucleic acid test. The main clinical symptom of the patients were fever, sore throat and cough, which accounted for 146 cases (75.26%), 98 (50.52%) and 86 cases (44.33%), respectively. 30 patients (15.46%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 141 patients (72.68%) showed abnormal density shadow, while 53 cases (27.32%) had no obvious abnormality in the parenchyma of both lungs. Up to now, 109 cases have been discharged from the hospital, and 9 patients died. The ACE2 expression levels were up-regulated in patients of severe type and critically ill type. CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and CT imaging should be combined for comprehensive analysis to diagnose COVID-19. ACE2 may be the receptor of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/mortality , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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