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1.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(11): 1168-1170, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518899
2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02908308.).


Subject(s)
Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e61, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124622

ABSTRACT

A fever clinic within a hospital plays a vital role in pandemic control because it serves as an outpost for pandemic discovery, monitoring and handling. As the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan was gradually brought under control, the fever clinic in the West Campus of Wuhan Union Hospital introduced a new model for construction and management of temporary mobile isolation wards. A traditional battlefield hospital model was combined with pandemic control regulations, to build a complex of mobile isolation wards that used adaptive design and construction for medical operational, medical waste management and water drainage systems. The mobile isolation wards allowed for the sharing of medical resources with the fever clinic. This increased the capacity and efficiency of receiving, screening, triaging and isolation and observation of patients with fever. The innovative mobile isolation wards also controlled new sudden outbreaks of COVID-19. We document the adaptive design and construction model of the novel complex of mobile isolation wards and explain its characteristics, functions and use.


Subject(s)
Fever/therapy , Models, Organizational , Patient Isolation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Patient Isolation/trends
7.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(2): 101-104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940133

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the most disastrous respiratory diseases (after the 1918 influenza outbreak) spreading in the community. So far, it has killed 7,37,417 individuals. High variability in the viral genome and its greater ability to spread in the human community are badly affecting the comorbid individuals. Although infected individuals mainly possess respiratory issues, neurological manifestations in these individuals cannot be overlooked. The literature search is based on the recent development in the concerned field. We searched databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect using the keywords "COVID-19", "neurological manifestations", "CNS", and "PNS". The major neurological complications observed in these patients are encephalitis, necrotising haemorrhagic encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, smell/taste impairment, epileptic seizures, and abnormal states of consciousness. COVID-19 infection is just more than a cough, fever, and respiratory illness; it can cause indirect neurological complications in infected patients. It is therefore advised to treat and have a careful observation of the COVID-19 patients for neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/therapy , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3023-3033, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894515

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has posed a great public health threat to the global community as a pandemic. The origin of the virus has been linked to animals, through a yet-to-be-identified intermediate host. The disease is transmitted to humans mainly through inhalation or contact with infected droplets. The variable clinical presentation of COVID-19 includes fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue and malaise; however, cutaneous, ocular, neurological, and gastrointestinal manifestations have also been reported. There is an urgent need to strengthen One Health surveillance, intervention, and management strategies to understand the ecology of coronaviruses and to prevent epidemics in the future. Global attention toward the development of treatments, immunotherapies, vaccines, and control options to combat the COVID-19 pandemic has been on an increasing trend. Here, we review the current epidemiological status, public health concerns, and mitigation strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/trends , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828187

ABSTRACT

This case aims to remind all providers to scrutinise for atypical presentations of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) which may mimic a more routine diagnosis. In the absence of mucocutaneous symptoms, the diagnosis of MIS-C can be missed. Given the potential for rapid deterioration of patients with MIS-C, early treatment and inpatient interventions are necessary.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Tachycardia/immunology , Abdominal Pain/blood , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Abdominal Pain/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia/blood , Tachycardia/therapy , Tachycardia/virology , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Infect Dis ; 222(8): 1293-1297, 2020 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811301

ABSTRACT

The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has exceeded 10 million. However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infants. We collected medical information of 46 confirmed patients (<1 year old) and retrospectively analyzed epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results. The median age was 5 (interquartile range, 2-7) months. Sixteen cases had fever and 27 cases had cough. Moderate disease was present in 40 cases and cardiac injury occurred in 38 cases, following by liver dysfunction in 20 cases and lymphocytosis in no cases. Of all infant patients, 2 received invasive mechanical ventilation and 1 died with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Hum Antibodies ; 29(1): 49-54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807231

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic in early 2020. This infectious disorder has a heterogeneous course ranging from asymptomatic disorder to a critical situation needing intensive cares. In the current study, we present a report of affected patients admitted in a single hospital in Iran. Eighty-two hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and paraclinical parameters were gathered and statistically analyzed. The median age (IQR) of the patients was 57.32 (45.75, 70) years. At primary evaluation, fever was present in 45.12% of the affected individuals. The most common clinical symptoms were dyspnea (81.71%) and cough (65.85%). Totally, 12 (14.63%) and 14 (17.07%) of patients had low and high WBC counts, respectively. Lymphopenia was detected in 36 (43.9%) of patients, while 6 (7.32%) of patients had lymphocytosis. High levels of Il-6 were detected in 4 (4.88%) of patients. CRP levels were elevated in 69 (84.1%) of patients. The median (IQR) of hospitalization was 7 (5, 9) days. Totally, 26 patients (31%) were hospitalized in ICU. All patients were discharged with good health conditions except for one patient who died. The current study shows the heterogeneous clinical manifestations and paraclinical parameters of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Lymphocytosis/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cough/mortality , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytosis/mortality , Lymphocytosis/therapy , Lymphocytosis/virology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy , Obesity/virology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
12.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925779, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection commonly presents as fever, cough, and shortness of breath in adults. Children are thought to have milder respiratory symptoms and to recover more quickly. We describe a new presentation of COVID-19 infection in children consisting of multisystem inflammation with decreased left ventricular function and evidence of lung disease. CASE REPORT Three children presented with fever, conjunctivitis, dry and cracked lips, rash, and/or cervical lymphadenopathy for at least 5 days. Two of these children required mechanical ventilation, and 1 of the 2 needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support cardiorespiratory function. All of these children had moderate to severe hyponatremia and lymphopenia, which is usually seen in COVID-19. They were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose aspirin. All of the children recovered. CONCLUSIONS Early recognition of children with multisystem inflammation is important because they are at increased risk for deterioration. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin was used because this regimen has been shown to be beneficial in vasculitis of Kawasaki disease. The development of shock due to cardiac involvement may require ECMO.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis/therapy , Conjunctivitis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Exanthema/therapy , Exanthema/virology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/virology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/virology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vasculitis/therapy , Vasculitis/virology
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e174, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695910

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health threat. A hospital in Zhuhai adopted several measures in Fever Clinic Management (FCM) to respond to the outbreak of COVID-19. FCM has been proved to be effective in preventing nosocomial cross infection. Faced with the emergency, the hospital undertook creative operational steps in relation to the control and spread of COVID-19, with special focuses on physical and administrative layout of buildings, staff training and preventative procedures. The first operational step was to set up triaging stations at all entrances and then complete a standard and qualified fever clinic, which was isolated from the other buildings within our hospital complex. Secondly, the hospital established its human resource reservation for emergency response and the allocation of human resources to ensure strict and standardised training methods through the hospital for all medical staff and ancillary employees. Thirdly, the hospital divided the fever clinic into partitioned areas and adapted a three-level triaging system. The experiences shared in this paper would be of practical help for the facilities that are encountering or will encounter the challenges of COVID-19, i.e. to prevent nosocomial cross infection among patients and physicians.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/therapy , Hospital Design and Construction/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Teaching , Time Factors , Triage/methods , Ventilation/standards , Workflow , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(22): e210, 2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574614

ABSTRACT

We report a rapidly deteriorating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient, a-58-year-old woman, with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock with hyperpyrexia up to 41.8°C, probably due to the cytokine storm syndrome. Considering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as the last resort, we applied therapeutic temperature modulation for management of hyperpyrexia. The patient demonstrated rapid improvement in oxygenation and shock after achieving normothermia, and fully recovered from COVID-19 three weeks later. Therapeutic temperature modulation may have successfully offloaded the failing cardiorespiratory system from metabolic cost and hyperinflammation induced by hyperpyrexia. The therapeutic temperature modulation can safely be applied in a specific group of patients with cytokine storm syndrome and hyperpyrexia, which may reduce the number of patients requiring ECMO in the global medical resource shortage.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cryotherapy/methods , Fever/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
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