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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 790-796, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of 71 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The general data, epidemiological data, laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and treatment of 71 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sixth People's Hospital of Zhengzhou from January 19, 2020 to March 3, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 71 COVID-19 patients, the ages were 4-84 (41.29±15.21) years, 38 (53.5%) patients were male, 33 (46.5%) were female, and 52 (73.2%) were in 22 clusters. The main clinical manifestations were fever (78.9%), cough (64.8%), and sputum (38.0%). The fever was mainly low and moderate, with 49 patients (69.0%) at 37.3-39.0 ℃. Most of the leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were normal, accounting for 47 (66.2%), 51 (71.8%), and 51 (71.8%) patients, respectively; a few of them were decreased, accounting for 21 (29.6%), 16 (22.5%), and 20 (28.2%) patients, respectively. There were 38 (53.5%) and 31 (43.7%) patients with the decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, respectively. There were 41 (57.7%), 38 (53.5%), 32 (45.1%), 26(36.6%), 22 (31.0%), 20 (28.2%), 14 (19.7%), 14 (19.7%), and 9 (12.7%) patients with the increased levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, fibrinogen,interleukin 6, lactate dehydrogenase,D-dimer,alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Of the 71 patients, the lung was involved in 60 (84.5%) patients, the double lung was involved in 47 (66.2%) patients, and the single lung was involved in 13 (18.3%) patients. The course of the disease was long, and the time from symptom onset to the second severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid negative transformation was (17.22±6.34) days.There were no significant differences in the incubation period (t=-0.453, P>0.05), the complicates (χ2=0.042, P>0.05), and the time from symptom onset to diagnosis (t=-1.330, P>0.05) in patients between the non-severe group and the severe group. The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05). Among the 71 patients, 4 (5.6%) patients were mild, 59 (83.1%) were normal, and 8 (11.3%) were severe or critical. CONCLUSIONS: The aggregation phenomenon of COVID-19 is obvious. Fever and cough are the main clinical manifestations. White blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the most patients in the early onset are normal. Most COVID-19 patients are light and ordinary type, with good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039177, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 started spreading widely in China in January 2020. Outpatient fever clinics (FCs), instituted during the SARS epidemic in 2003, were upgraded to serve for COVID-19 screening and prevention of disease transmission in large tertiary hospitals in China. FCs were hoped to relieve some of the healthcare burden from emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate the effect of upgrading the FC system on rates of nosocomial COVID-19 infection and ED patient attendance at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6365 patients were screened in the FC. METHODS: The FC of PUMCH was upgraded on 20 January 2020. We performed a retrospective study of patients presenting to the FC between 12 December 2019 and 29 February 2020. The date when COVID-19 was declared an outbreak in Beijing was 20 January 2020. Two groups of data were collected and subsequently compared with each other: the first group of data was collected within 40 days before 20 January 2020; the second group of data was collected within 40 days after 20 January 2020. All necessary data, including patient baseline information, diagnosis, follow-up conditions and the transfer records between the FC and ED, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: 6365 patients were screened in the FC, among whom 2912 patients were screened before 21 January 2020, while 3453 were screened afterward. Screening results showed that upper respiratory infection was the major disease associated with fever. After the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of patients who were transferred from the FC to the ED decreased significantly (39.21% vs 15.75%, p<0.001), and patients generally spent more time in the FC (55 vs 203 min, p<0.001), compared with before the outbreak. For critically ill patients waiting for their screening results, the total length of stay in the FC was 22 min before the outbreak, compared with 442 min after the outbreak (p<0.001). The number of in-hospital deaths of critically ill patients in the FC was 9 out of 29 patients before the outbreak and 21 out of 38 after the outbreak (p<0.05). Nineteen cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in the FC during the period of this study. However, no other patients nor any healthcare providers were cross-infected. CONCLUSION: The workload of the FC increased significantly after the COVID-19 outbreak. New protocols regarding the use of FC likely helped prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the hospital. The upgraded FC also reduced the burden on the ED.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Fever/virology , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Workload , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
3.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
4.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721619

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 723-731, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to retrospectively analyze the evolution of clinical features and thin-section computed tomography (CT) imaging of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in 17 discharged patients. METHODS: Serial thin-section CT scans of 17 discharged patients with COVID-19 were obtained during recovery. Longitudinal changes of clinical parameters and a CT pattern were documented in all patients during the 4 weeks after admission. A CT score was used to evaluate the extent of the disease. RESULTS: There were marked improvements of fever, lymphocyte counts, C-reactive proteins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates within the first 2 weeks after admission. However, the mean CT score rapidly increased from the first to the third week, with a top score of 8.2 obtained in the second week. During the first week, the main CT pattern was ground-glass opacities (GGO; 76.5%). The frequency of GGO (52.9%) decreased in the second week. Consolidation and mixed patterns (47.0%) were noted in the second week. Thereafter, consolidations generally dissipated into GGO, and the frequency of GGO increased in the third week (76.5%) and fourth week (71.4%). Opacities were mainly located in the peripheral (76.5%) and subpleural (47.1%) zones of the lungs; they presented as focal (35.3%) or multifocal (29.4%) in the first week and became more diffuse in the second (47.1%) and third weeks (58.8%), then showed a reduced extent in fourth week (50%). CONCLUSIONS: The progression course of the CT pattern was later than the progression of the clinical parameters within the first 2 weeks after admission; however, there were synchronized improvements in both the clinical and radiologic features in the fourth week.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925779, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection commonly presents as fever, cough, and shortness of breath in adults. Children are thought to have milder respiratory symptoms and to recover more quickly. We describe a new presentation of COVID-19 infection in children consisting of multisystem inflammation with decreased left ventricular function and evidence of lung disease. CASE REPORT Three children presented with fever, conjunctivitis, dry and cracked lips, rash, and/or cervical lymphadenopathy for at least 5 days. Two of these children required mechanical ventilation, and 1 of the 2 needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support cardiorespiratory function. All of these children had moderate to severe hyponatremia and lymphopenia, which is usually seen in COVID-19. They were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose aspirin. All of the children recovered. CONCLUSIONS Early recognition of children with multisystem inflammation is important because they are at increased risk for deterioration. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin was used because this regimen has been shown to be beneficial in vasculitis of Kawasaki disease. The development of shock due to cardiac involvement may require ECMO.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis/therapy , Conjunctivitis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Exanthema/therapy , Exanthema/virology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/virology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/virology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vasculitis/therapy , Vasculitis/virology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 706-712, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of imported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with World Health Organization interim guidance in 3 grade IIIA hospitals of Jiangsu from 22 January to 14 February 2020. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients infected with COVID-19, 41 were female, with a median age of 46.1 years. Except for 3 severe patients, the rest of the 77 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. Nine patients were unconfirmed until a third nucleic acid test; 38 cases had a history of chronic diseases. The main clinical manifestations of the patients were fever and cough, which accounted for 63 (78.75%) and 51 (63.75%) cases, respectively. Only 3 patients (3.75%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 55 patients (68.75%) showed abnormal density shadow and 25 cases (31.25%) had no abnormal density shadow in the parenchyma of both lungs. Currently, 21 cases have been discharged from the hospital, and no patient died. The average length of stay for discharged patients was 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the cases in Wuhan, the cases in Jiangsu exhibited mild or moderate symptoms and no obvious gender susceptibility. The proportion of patients having liver dysfunction and abnormal CT imaging was relatively lower than that in Wuhan. Notably, infected patients may be falsely excluded based on 2 consecutively negative respiratory pathogenic nucleic acid test results.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 564, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched from January 1, 2020, to April 16, 2020. Case reports and case series of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included. Two reviewers screened 366 studies and 14 studies were included. Four reviewers independently extracted the features from the studies. We used a random-effects model to analyse the incidence (P) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 236 pregnant women with COVID-19. The results were as follows: positive CT findings (71%; 95% CI, 0.49-0.93), caesarean section (65%; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87), fever (51%; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67), lymphopenia (49%; 95% CI, 0.29-0.70), coexisting disorders (33%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.44), cough (31%; 95% CI, 0.23-0.39), fetal distress (29%; 95% CI, 0.08-0.49), preterm labor (23%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.32), and severe case or death (12%; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20). The subgroup analysis showed that compared with non-pregnant patients, pregnant women with COVID-19 had significantly lower incidences of fever (pregnant women, 51%; non-pregnant patients, 91%; P < 0.00001) and cough (pregnant women, 31%; non-pregnant patients, 67%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of fever, cough and positive CT findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are less than those in the normal population with COVID-19, but the rate of preterm labor is higher among pregnant with COVID-19 than among normal pregnant women. There is currently no evidence that COVID-19 can spread through vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Obstetric Labor, Premature/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(13): 2052-2062, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707618

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly turning into a pandemic. We aimed to further clarify the clinical characteristics and the relationship between these features and disease severity. Methods: In this retrospective single-center study, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed among moderate, severe and critically ill group patients. Results: 88 hospitalization patients confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. The average age of the patients was 57.11 years (SD, ±15.39). Of these 88 patients, the median body mass index (BMI) was 24.03 (IQR, 21.64-26.61; range 15.05-32.39), the median duration from disease onset to hospital admission were 11 days (IQR, 6.50-14.50). 46.59% patients had one or more comorbidities, with hypertension being the most common (26.14%), followed by diabetes mellitus (12.50%) and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) (7.95%). Common symptoms at onset of disease were fever (71.59%), cough (59.09%), dyspnea (38.64%) and fatigue (29.55%). 88 patients were divided into moderate (47 [53.41%]), severe (32 [36.36%]) and critically ill (9 [10.23%]) groups. Compared with severe and moderate patients, lymphocytopenia occurred in 85.71% critically ill patients, and serum IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, LDH, and cTnI were also increased in 71.42%, 83.33%, 57.14%, 71.43%, 100% and 42.86% in critically ill patients. Through our analysis, the age, comorbidities, lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, ferritin, CRP, LDH, PT and inflammatory cytokines were statistically significant along with the disease severity. Conclusion: We found some clinical characteristic and inflammatory cytokines could reveal the severity of COVID-19 during the outbreak phage. Our research could assist the clinicians recognize severe and critically ill patients timely and focus on the expectant treatment for each patient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leukocyte Count , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 335-340, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699403

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is rarely reported in children and they are mildly affected in most cases. The most common clinical presentation of COVID-19 is cough, fever and sore throat; severe cases show tachypnea. The course of the disease is from one to two weeks. Laboratory findings are nonspecific; lymphopenia, elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been described. Early chest X-ray is usually normal, and the most common tomographic findings are consolidations with halo, ground-glass opacities and tiny nodules which mainly affects subpleural areas. Management of the disease is supportive; in severe cases, it should be focused on respiratory support. It is recommended to limit the handling of respiratory secretions and to follow the same preventive measures provided to adults.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Child , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 567, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories. METHODS: Fifty-three discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled at Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, between January 21 and March 10, 2020. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between CT scores and laboratory indicators. Patients were divided into the Wuhan group (lived in or with travel to Wuhan, numbering 30 cases) and non-Wuhan group (close contacts or unknown exposure, totaling 23 cases). The CT and laboratory findings were compared between and within groups during the clinical process. RESULTS: Fever (88.7%), cough (64.2%), fatigue (34%), and abnormal laboratory indicators, including lymphopenia, reduced albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), were mainly observed. Subpleural ground-glass opacities (86.8%) were usually detected at admission. The CT scores were highly correlated with lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G at initial and follow-ups (all p < 0.05). Four days after admission, most patients (66.7% Wuhan, 47.8% non-Wuhan) showed progression, and the CT scores of Wuhan significantly increased (p = 0.015). Eight days after admission, the vast majority of patients (69.2% Wuhan, 100% non-Wuhan, p = 0.006) presented improvement, and the CT scores of non-Wuhan were significantly lower than Wuhan (p = 0.006). Pneumonia was completely absorbed in most patients 2-4 weeks after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: CT plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in COVID-19. Lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G are expected to predict disease severity and prognosis. Viral pathogenicity in non-endemic areas may be weaker than core-infected areas. In most patients, lung lesions can disappear around 4 weeks after discharge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Serum Globulins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel
14.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 89: 104096, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688201

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an international problem and factors associated with increased risk of mortality have been reported. However, there exists limited statistical method to estimate a comprehensive risk for a case in which a patient has several characteristics and symptoms concurrently. We applied Boolean Monte Carlo method (BMCM) to the Novel Corona Virus 2019 Dataset to determine interrelation of patient's characteristics and symptoms. In the analyses, age, fever as an onset symptom, and sex were used as explanatory variables, and death as the objective variable. Among 265 patients included in the analysis, the interrelations for estimating death were determined as age "and" fever "and" sex (p < 0.0001 for both operators). This result indicates that satisfying the three conditions of age, fever, and sex concurrently may be associated with an increased risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
15.
Invest Radiol ; 55(5): 257-261, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate its relationship with clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 80 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 from January to February 2020. The chest CT images and clinical data were reviewed, and the relationship between them was analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, 80 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 58 (73%) of the 80 patients had cough, and 61 (76%) of the 80 patients had high temperature levels. The most frequent CT abnormalities observed were ground glass opacity (73/80 cases, 91%), consolidation (50/80 cases, 63%), and interlobular septal thickening (47/80, 59%). Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12 ± 6 lung segments involved. The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%), and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). The average pulmonary inflammation index value was (34% ± 20%) for all the patients. Correlation analysis showed that the pulmonary inflammation index value was significantly correlated with the values of lymphocyte count, monocyte count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, days from illness onset, and body temperature (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple ground glass opacity, consolidation, and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura. There are significant correlations between the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the main clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Computed tomography plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of this emerging global health emergency.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
16.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 497-506, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS: By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1103-1107, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663915

ABSTRACT

The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown clinically effective for treatment of COVID-19. We here demonstrate suppressive but not curative effect of remdesivir in an immunocompromised patient. A man in his fifties treated with chemoimmunotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia experienced a 9-week course of COVID-19 with high fever and severe viral pneumonia. During two 10-day courses of remdesivir starting 24 and 45 days after fever onset, pneumonia and spiking fevers remitted, but relapsed after discontinuation. Kinetics of temperature, C-reactive protein, and lymphocyte counts mirrored the remitting/relapsing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Combination therapy or longer treatment duration may be needed in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 572-576, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656493

ABSTRACT

A surgeon failed to heed his own misgivings on taking a family vacation cruise. Despite scrupulous hand-washing and antiseptic precautions with anything within reach, he contracts COVID-19. His anxiety increased as his condition became increasingly serious: uncontrollable dry coughing spells, spiking fevers, and his worst symptom, progressive dyspnea and chest pain. From what he knew about the disease, he feared admission to the intensive care unit, a step that portended a significantly worse prognosis. After a week-and-a-half of illness, misery, and fear, he began to improve: first, his fevers diminished, breathing came more easily, and coughing spells occurred less frequently, if still unpredictably. Now with his strength slowly returning, he contemplated returning to work but was frustrated when tests showed he was still shedding active virions. Under quarantine and with time to reflect, he cautions against complacency with regard to the infectiousness of COVID-19. His own denial led to the loss of his health and livelihood. At home but still separated from his wife and children in a basement bedroom, the bittersweet circumstances of his reunion with them is a reminder of the preciousness of life and love of family.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Denial, Psychological , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Surgeons/psychology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , Chest Pain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Family , Fear , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 517, 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR assays are recommended for diagnosis of COVID-19. Here we report a rare case of COVID-19 with multiple negative results for PCR assays outside Wuhan, China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year old male was admitted to our hospital because of 6 days of unexplained fever on January 29, 2020. He had come from Wuhan city 10 days before admission. Five days before admission, no abnormality was noted in laboratory test, chest radiography, and nasopharyngeal swab test for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever. On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. COVID-19 was suspected. Three times of nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected after admission. However, none of the specimens were positive. The patient was confirmed with COVID-19 after fifth SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone. After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab. CONCLUSION: This case reminds clinician that a patient with high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 but multiple negative RT-PCR result should not be taken out of isolation. A combination of patient's exposure history, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and typical imaging findings plays a vital role in making preliminary diagnosis and guide early isolation and treatment. Repeat swab tests are helpful in diagnosis for this kind of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Negative Results , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine , Radiography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Uncertainty
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e265-e267, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643142

ABSTRACT

We present a preterm infant who developed a fever and mild respiratory disease on the second day of life. Infant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharyngeal testing was positive at 24 and 48 hours of life. Placenta histopathology revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Further understanding of the risk factors that lead to in utero transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors
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