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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 184-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568459

ABSTRACT

Return visits (RV) to a pediatric emergency department (PED) can be secondary to illness progression, parental concerns, call backs or rarely due to a diagnostic error during the first visit. Fever accounts for nearly half of these RVs and is also one of the most common presenting complaints of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Although majority of children with COVID 19 have a mild illness, severe complications such as Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can occur. These children are often critically ill with a mortality rate of 2-4%. Initial symptoms of MIS- C are non- specific and mimic other viral illness making early diagnosis challenging. We report five patients who were evaluated for fever and discharged from our PED and were subsequently diagnosed with MIS-C (n = 3) or Kawasaki Disease (n = 2) during their RV within 7 days. All patients presented with fever during the initial visit and three of the five children had gastrointestinal symptoms. They were all noted have persistent tachycardia during the index visit. Three patients presented in cardiogenic shock and echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in four patients during the RV. Significant interventions were required in majority of these children (PICU admission: 4, inotropes: 3, mechanical ventilation:2). Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for diagnosis of MIS-C especially in those who present with persistent fever and have abnormal vital signs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6671291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the COVID-19 epidemic breakout in China, up to 25% of diagnosed cases are considered to be severe. To effectively predict the progression of COVID-19 via patients' clinical features at an early stage, the prevalence of these clinical factors and their relationships with severe illness were assessed. METHODS: In this study, electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese database) were searched to obtain relevant studies, including information on severe patients. Publication bias analysis, sensitivity analysis, prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, diagnosis odds ratio calculation, and visualization graphics were achieved through software Review Manager 5.3, Stata 15, Meta-DiSc 1.4, and R. RESULTS: Data of 3.547 patients from 24 studies were included in this study. The results revealed that patients with chronic respiratory system diseases (pooled positive likelihood 6.07, 95% CI: 3.12-11.82), chronic renal disease (4.79, 2.04-11.25), cardiovascular disease (3.45, 2.19-5.44), and symptoms of the onset of chest tightness (3.8, 1.44-10.05), shortness of breath (3.18, 2.24-4.51), and diarrhea (2.04, 1.38-3.04) exhibited increased probability of progressing to severe illness. C-reactive protein, ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased a lot in severe patients compared to nonsevere. Yet, it was found that clinical features including fever, cough, and headache, as well as some comorbidities, have little warning value. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features and laboratory examination could be used to estimate the process of infection in COVID-19 patients. The findings contribute to the more efficient prediction of serious illness for patients with COVID-19 to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(7): e277-e281, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497428

ABSTRACT

The article reviews and analyzes the different ear, nose, and throat (ENT)-related manifestations reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive pediatric patients (age <18 years) in peer-reviewed and published literature. We searched the PubMed database using medical subject headings and associated key words, focusing on ENT symptoms in children with COVID-19. We included relevant published and peer-reviewed articles in English and excluded case reports and articles in press. There were 1,140 children positive for COVID-19 (56% boys) in the 23 studies included in this review. Although 11% of patients were asymptomatic, the most common symptoms reported were fever (48%) and cough (37%). Nasal symptoms (stuffy nose, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea) and sore throat occurred in about 22% of all patients. Otitis, dizziness, anosmia, and ageusia are hardly reported in children with COVID-19. Although fever and cough are the most common symptoms, ENT manifestations are frequently observed in pediatric patients with COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(7):e277-e281.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Pharyngitis/virology , Child , Humans , Rhinorrhea/virology
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(1): 106462, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of antibiotics was common in some countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but adequate evaluation remains lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early antibiotic use in patients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. METHODS: This multi-centre retrospective cohort study included 1,373 inpatients with non-severe COVID-19 admitted without bacterial infection. Patients were divided into two groups according to their exposure to antibiotics within 48 h of admission. The outcomes were progression to severe COVID-19, length of stay >15 days and mortality rate. A mixed-effect Cox model and random effect logistic regression were used to explore the association between early antibiotic use and outcomes. RESULTS: During the 30-day follow-up period, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe COVID-19 in the early antibiotic use group was almost 1.4 times that of the comparison group. In the mixed-effect model, the early use of antibiotics was associated with higher probability of developing severe COVID-19 and staying in hospital for >15 days. However, there was no significant association between early use of antibiotics and mortality. Analysis with propensity-score-matched cohorts displayed similar results. In subgroup analysis, patients receiving any class of antibiotic were at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Azithromycin did not improve disease progression and length of stay in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that antibiotic use should be avoided unless absolutely necessary in patients with non-severe COVID-19, particularly in the early stages.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Length of Stay , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009865, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443861

ABSTRACT

While evidence exists supporting the potential for aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the infectious dose by inhalation remains unknown. In the present study, the probability of infection following inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 was dose-dependent in a nonhuman primate model of inhalational COVID-19. The median infectious dose, assessed by seroconversion, was 52 TCID50 (95% CI: 23-363 TCID50), and was significantly lower than the median dose for fever (256 TCID50, 95% CI: 102-603 TCID50), resulting in a group of animals that developed an immune response post-exposure but did not develop fever or other clinical signs of infection. In a subset of these animals, virus was detected in nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs, suggesting that infected animals without signs of disease are able to shed virus and may be infectious, which is consistent with reports of asymptomatic spread in human cases of COVID-19. These results suggest that differences in exposure dose may be a factor influencing disease presentation in humans, and reinforce the importance of public health measures that limit exposure dose, such as social distancing, masking, and increased ventilation. The dose-response data provided by this study are important to inform disease transmission and hazard modeling, and, ultimately, mitigation strategies. Additionally, these data will be useful to inform dose selection in future studies examining the efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against inhalational COVID-19, and as a baseline in healthy, young adult animals for assessment of the importance of other factors, such as age, comorbidities, and viral variant, on the infectious dose and disease presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Seroconversion , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fever/virology , Inhalation Exposure , Male , Vero Cells , Viral Load
9.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 401-404, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441450

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 was found in a recovered patient's stool specimen by combining quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and genome sequencing. The patient was virus positive in stool specimens for at least an additional 15 days after he was recovered, whereas respiratory tract specimens were negative. The discovery of the complete genome of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool sample of the recovered patient demonstrates a cautionary warning that the potential mode of the virus transmission cannot be excluded through the fecal-oral route after viral clearance in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Feces/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/transmission , China , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Biological , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , Appetite , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Chills/diagnosis , Chills/etiology , Chills/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/virology , England , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/virology , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine
11.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 39-45, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, mortality related to hospitalized patients with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is approximately 4-5%. However, data on COVID-19 admissions from sub-Saharan Africa are scanty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile and determinants of outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted at a hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study involving 25 patients with real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the treatment centre of the University Hospital, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana from 1st June to 27th July, 2020. They were managed and followed up for outcomes. Data were analysed descriptively, and predictors of mortality assessed using a multivariate logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 20.6 years, and 14 (56%) were males. The main symptoms at presentation were breathlessness (68%) followed by fever (56%). The cases were categorized as mild (6), moderate (6), severe (10) and critical (3). Hypertension was the commonest comorbidity present in 72% of patients. Medications used in patient management included dexamethasone (68%), azithromycin (96%), and hydroxychloroquine (4%). Five of 25 cases died (Case fatality ratio 20%). Increasing age and high systolic blood pressure were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Case fatality in this sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was high. Thorough clinical assessment, severity stratification, aggressive management of underlying co-morbidities and standardized protocols incountry might improve outcomes. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1059-1065, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405467

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Information on the clinical characteristics of local patients with confirmed COVID-19 is limited. This study aims to report the clinical characteristics of 147 patients admitted and receiving treatment at a teaching hospital. METHODOLOGY: Patients' socio-demographic and epidemiological data, clinical features, laboratory findings and clinical outcomes were extracted using a data sheet. RESULTS: The median patient age was 25 [interquartile range (IQR)] 20-44) years, and most of patients were male (68.7%) and of Malaysian nationality (88.4%). Almost half of the patients were from a case cluster related to a religious event (48.3%) and 12.9% had a history of overseas travel. A total of 33.3% of patients were not related to any case cluster, i.e. sporadic cases. Radiological investigation showed that 13.6% of the patients had chest X-ray changes and all laboratory parameters were within the normal ranges. Sixty-six patients (44.9%) experienced symptoms. The most common symptoms were rhinitis (66.7%), followed by fever (19.7%) and cough (15.2%). Age, gender, case cluster, comorbidity status, haemoglobin, albumin, total protein, bilirubin total and alkaline phosphatase level were associated with symptomatic status. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-centre study, COVID-19 infection led not only to case clusters, but also to sporadic infections, with patients being either symptomatic or asymptomatic. These sporadic cases and asymptomatic patients may hamper effective contact tracing, leading to rapid human-to-human transmission in our population. Future studies on the prevalence and clinical significance of asymptomatic and presymptomatic COVID-19 patients would pre-emptively address issues on further containment of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Nausea/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/chemically induced
16.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 697-702, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295587

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, started in December 2019 and has spread across the world. Materials & methods: We analyzed real-time PCR results of 10,000 samples from 2 April to 30 May 2020 in three neighbor cities located in the East of Turkey. The final study population was 7853 cases, after excluding screening tests. Results: Real-time PCR was performed to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase gene fragment. The number of total positive samples out of 7853 were 487; however, the number of nonrepeating positive patient was 373 (4.8%). Cough and fever were the most common symptoms in positive cases. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies should be performed about the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection to better understand the effect of the virus across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infants hospitalized for a serious bacterial infection (SBI) evaluation and clinically characterize young infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on infants <90 days of age hospitalized for an SBI evaluation. The study was conducted at 4 inpatient facilities in New York City from March 15, 2020, to December 15, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 148 SBI evaluation infants who met inclusion criteria. A total of 22 infants (15%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; 31% of infants admitted during periods of high community SARS-CoV-2 circulation tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 3% when community SARS-CoV-2 circulation was low (P < .001). The mean age of infants with SARS-CoV-2 was higher than that of SARS-CoV-2-negative infants (33 [SD: 17] days vs 23 [SD: 23] days, respectively; P = .03), although no age difference was observed when analysis was limited only to febrile infants. An isolated fever was the most common presentation of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 13; 59%). Admitted infants with SARS-CoV-2 were less likely to have positive urine culture results (n = 1 [5%] versus n = 25 [20%], respectively; P = .002), positive cerebrospinal culture results (n = 0 [0%] versus n = 5 [4%], respectively; P = .02), or be admitted to intensive care (n = 2 [9%] versus n = 47 [37%]; P < .001), compared with infants without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 was common among young infants hospitalized for an SBI evaluation during periods of high but not low community SARS-CoV-2 circulation in New York City, although most infants did not require intensive care admission.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Age of Onset , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/microbiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4063-4072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is an FDA-approved broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS: This clinical trial included 114 patients diagnosed as mild COVID-19. Patients were divided randomly into two age and sex-matched groups; group A comprising 57 patients received ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray twice daily plus the Egyptian protocol of treatment for mild COVID-19 and group B comprising 57 patients received the Egyptian protocol for mild COVID-19 only. Evaluation of the patients was performed depending on improvement of presenting manifestations, negativity of two consecutive pharyngeal swabs for the COVID-19 nucleic acid via rRT-PCR and assessments of hematological and biochemical parameters in the form of complete blood counts, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and d-dimer which were performed at presentation and 7 days later. RESULTS: Of the included patients confirmed with mild COVID-19, 82 were males (71.9%) and 32 females (28.1%) with mean age 45.1 ± 18.9. In group A, 54 patients (94.7%) achieved 2 consecutive negative PCR nasopharyngeal swabs in comparison to 43 patients (75.4%) in group B with P = 0.004. The durations of fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia were significantly shorter in group A than group B, without significant difference regarding the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms. Duration taken for nasopharyngeal swab to be negative was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (8.3± 2.8 days versus 12.9 ± 4.3 days; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Local use of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension nasal spray is safe and effective in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19 with rapid viral clearance and shortening the anosmia duration. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT04716569; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04716569.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Egypt , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nasal Sprays , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Theranostics ; 11(15): 7379-7390, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266907

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel strain of highly contagious coronaviruses that infects humans. Prolonged fever, particularly that above 39.5 °C, is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little is known about the pathological effects of fever caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Primary bovine alveolar macrophages (PBAMs), RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, and THP-1 human cells were transfected with plasmids carrying the genes encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein or receptor-binding domain (RBD). Proteins in the macrophages interacting with S-RBD at 39.5 °C or 37 °C were identified by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown, surface plasmon resonance, and immunofluorescence were performed to evaluate the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) interaction with SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD at 39.5 °C. Using an RNA sequencing-based approach, cytokine gene expression induced by SARS-CoV-2 S transfection at 39.5 °C and 37.5 °C in primary alveolar macrophages was measured. Fluo-4 staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess the regulatory function of TRPV2 in intracellular Ca 2+ and cytokines under SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD at 39.5 °C. Additionally, cytokine release was examined after TRPV2 knockdown with shRNA oligonucleotides or inhibition using the SKF-96365 antagonist. Results: We identified an interaction between the primary alveolar macrophage receptor TRPV2 and S-RBD under febrile conditions. Febrile temperature promotes Ca2+ influx through SARS-CoV-2 infection in PBAMs, further activates the NF-κB p65 signaling pathway, and enhances the secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, knockdown or antagonist (with SKF-96365) of TRPV2 significantly decreased the release of cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings identified TRPV2 as a receptor of SARS-CoV-2 in conditions of febrile temperature, providing insight into critical interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with macrophages, as well as a useful resource and potential drug target for coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fever/virology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cattle , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Kinetics , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , THP-1 Cells , Temperature , Virus Internalization/drug effects
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1230-1235, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 is a contagious disease, and it is characterised by different symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Rising concerns about Covid-19 have severely affected the healthcare system in all countries as the Covid-19 outbreak has developed at a rapid rate all around the globe. Intriguing, a clinically used drug, acetazolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, CA, EC 4.2.1.1), is used to treat high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE), showing a high degree of clinical similarities with the pulmonary disease caused by Covid-19. In this context, this preliminary study aims to provide insights into some factors affecting the Covid-19 patients, such as hypoxaemia, hypoxia as well as the blood CA activity. We hypothesise that patients with Covid-19 problems could show a dysregulated acid-base status influenced by CA activity. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CA inhibitors as a pharmacological treatment for Covid-19 may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbonic Anhydrases/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Altitude Sickness/blood , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Bicarbonates/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cough/blood , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Oximetry , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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