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1.
Shock ; 57(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of hypoxemia and treatment strategies for type H and type L acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been elucidated. MAIN TEXT: SARS-CoV-2 mainly targets the lungs and blood, leading to ARDS, and systemic thrombosis or bleeding. Angiotensin II-induced coagulopathy, SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperfibrin(ogen)olysis, and pulmonary and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation due to immunothrombosis contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Type H ARDS is associated with hypoxemia due to diffuse alveolar damage-induced high right-to-left shunts. Immunothrombosis occurs at the site of infection due to innate immune inflammatory and coagulofibrinolytic responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in microvascular occlusion with hypoperfusion of the lungs. Lung immunothrombosis in type L ARDS results from neutrophil extracellular traps containing platelets and fibrin in the lung microvasculature, leading to hypoxemia due to impaired blood flow and a high ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratio. COVID-19-associated ARDS is more vascular centric than the other types of ARDS. D-dimer levels have been monitored for the progression of microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Early anticoagulation therapy in critical patients with high D-dimer levels may improve prognosis, including the prevention and/or alleviation of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left shunts and high VA/Q ratios caused by lung microvascular thrombosis contribute to hypoxemia in type H and L ARDS, respectively. D-dimer monitoring-based anticoagulation therapy may prevent the progression to and/or worsening of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemostasis/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
2.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(9): 1098-1102, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144003

ABSTRACT

The placenta is a captivating multifunctional organ of fetal origin and plays an essential role during pregnancy by intimately connecting mother and baby. This study explicates placental pathology and information about 25 placentas collected from the mothers infected with novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). So far, congenital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be remarkably uncommon in spite of many cases of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Out of the 25 placental tissue samples collected, none has shown gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 when confirmed by RT-PCR. At the same time, nasal and throat swab samples collected from newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers correspondingly tested negative by RT-PCR. The shielding properties of placental barriers against viral infections from mothers to newborns remains a mystery. Major histopathological findings have been recorded as choriodecidual tissue with necrosis, intramural fibrin deposition, chorionic villi with fibrosis, and calcification. Moreover, although recent findings are insufficient to prove direct placental transmission of COVID-19, the abundance of angiotensin-converting enzymes-2 (ACE-2) on the placental surface could potentially contribute to unpleasant outcomes during pregnancy as SARSCoV-2 gains access to human cells via ACE-2. Finally, the significance of these findings is vague and needs further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Angiotensins , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063855, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of fibrinolytic therapy has been proposed in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, anticoagulation has received special attention due to the frequent findings of microthrombi and fibrin deposits in the lungs and other organs. Therefore, the use of fibrinolysis has been regarded as a potential rescue therapy in these patients. In this prospective meta-analysis, we plan to synthesise evidence from ongoing clinical trials and thus assess whether fibrinolytic therapy can improve the ventilation/perfusion ratio in patients with severe COVID-19-caused ARDS as compared with standard of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol was registered in PROSPERO. All randomised controlled trials and prospective observational trials that compare fibrinolytic therapy with standard of care in adult patients with COVID-19 and define their primary or secondary outcome as improvement in oxygenation and/or gas exchange, or mortality will be considered eligible. Safety outcomes will include bleeding event rate and requirement for transfusion. Our search on 25 January 2022 identified five eligible ongoing clinical trials. A formal search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, CENTRAL will be performed every month to identify published results and to search for further trials that meet our eligibility criteria. DISSEMINATION: This could be the first qualitative and quantitative synthesis summarising evidence of the efficacy and safety of fibrinolytic therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We plan to publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021285281.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Fibrin , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(7): 858-868, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050628

ABSTRACT

Earlier variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been associated with hypercoagulability and an extensive formation of fibrin amyloid microclots, which are considered to contribute to the pathology of the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). The newer omicron variants appear to be far more transmissible, but less virulent, even when taking immunity acquired from previous infections or vaccination into account. We here show that while the clotting parameters associated with omicron variants are significantly raised over those of healthy, matched controls, they are raised to levels significantly lower than those seen with more severe variants such as beta and delta. We also observed that individuals infected with omicron variants manifested less extensive microclot formation in platelet-poor plasma compared with those harboring the more virulent variants. The measurement of clotting effects between the different variants acts as a kind of "internal control" that demonstrates the relationship between the extent of coagulopathies and the virulence of the variant of interest. This adds to the evidence that microclots may play an important role in reflecting the severity of symptoms observed in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Fibrin
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 190, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflammatory molecules, including those that might prevent clot breakdown. Scientifically, the most challenging aspect of this debilitating condition is that traditional pathology tests such as a serum CRP (C-reactive protein) may not show any significant abnormal inflammatory markers, albeit these tests measure only the soluble inflammatory molecules. Elevated, or abnormal soluble biomarkers such as IL-6, D-Dimer or fibrinogen indicate an increased risk for thrombosis or a host immune response in COVID-19. The absence of biomarkers in standard pathology tests, result in a significant amount of confusion for patients and clinicians, as patients are extremely sick or even bed-ridden but with no regular identifiable reason for their disease. Biomarkers that are currently available cannot detect the molecules present in the microclots we identified and are therefore unable to confirm their presence or the mechanisms that drive their formation. METHODS: Here we analysed the protein content of double-digested microclots of 99 long COVID patients and 29 healthy controls. The patients suffering from long COVID reported their symptoms through a questionnaire completed by themselves or their attending physician. RESULTS: Our long COVID cohort's symptoms were found to be in line with global findings, where the most prevalent symptoms were constant fatigue (74%,) cognitive impairment (71%) and depression and anxiety (30%). Our most noteworthy findings were a reduced level of plasma Kallikrein compared to our controls, an increased level of platelet factor 4 (PF4) von Willebrand factor (VWF), and a marginally increased level of α-2 antiplasmin (α-2-AP). We also found a significant presence of antibodies entrapped inside these microclots. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of pro-inflammatory molecules that may also contribute to a failed fibrinolysis phenomenon, which could possibly explain why individuals with long COVID suffer from chronic fatigue, dyspnoea, or cognitive impairment. In addition, significant platelet hyperactivation was noted. Hyperactivation will result in the granular content of platelets being shed into the circulation, including PF4. Overall, our results provide further evidence of both a failed fibrinolytic system in long COVID/PASC and the entrapment of many proteins whose presence might otherwise go unrecorded. These findings might have significant implications for individuals with pre-existing comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Plasma Kallikrein , Platelet Factor 4 , Proteomics , Thrombosis/diagnosis , alpha-2-Antiplasmin , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(12): 2909-2920, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombogenicity is a known complication of COVID-19, resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, with significant effects on morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the effects of COVID-19 on fibrinogen and the resulting effects on clot structure, formation, and degradation. METHODS: Fibrinogen isolated from COVID-19 patients and uninfected subjects was used to form uniformly concentrated clots (2 mg/ml), which were characterized using confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and endogenous and exogenous fibrinolysis assays. Neuraminidase digestion and subsequent NANA assay were used to quantify sialic acid residue presence; clots made from the desialylated fibrinogen were then assayed similarly to the original fibrinogen clots. RESULTS: Clots made from purified fibrinogen from COVID-19 patients were shown to be significantly stiffer and denser than clots made using fibrinogen from noninfected subjects. Endogenous and exogenous fibrinolysis assays demonstrated that clot polymerization and degradation dynamics were different for purified fibrinogen from COVID-19 patients compared with fibrinogen from noninfected subjects. Quantification of sialic acid residues via the NANA assay demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2-positive fibrinogen samples contained significantly more sialic acid. Desialylation via neuraminidase digestion resolved differences in clot density. Desialylation did not normalize differences in polymerization, but did affect rate of exogenous fibrinolysis. DISCUSSION: These differences noted in purified SARS-CoV-2-positive clots demonstrate that structural differences in fibrinogen, and not just differences in gross fibrinogen concentration, contribute to clinical differences in thrombotic features associated with COVID-19. These structural differences are at least in part mediated by differential sialylation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Thrombosis , Humans , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Fibrin/chemistry , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Polymerization , Neuraminidase , SARS-CoV-2 , Fibrinolysis , Thrombosis/metabolism
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 774, 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) displaying some typical histological features. These include diffuse alveolar damage with extensive pulmonary coagulation activation. This results in fibrin deposition in the microvasculature, leading to the formation of hyaline membranes in the air sacs. Well-conducted clinical trials have found that nebulised heparin limits pulmonary fibrin deposition, attenuates progression of ARDS, hastens recovery and is safe in non-COVID ARDS. Unfractionated heparin also inactivates the SARS-CoV-2 virus and prevents entry into mammalian cells. Nebulisation of heparin may therefore limit fibrin-mediated lung injury and inhibit pulmonary infection by SARS-CoV-2. Based on these findings, we designed the CHARTER-Ireland Study, a phase 1b/2a randomised controlled study of nebulised heparin in patients requiring advanced respiratory support for COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This is a multi-centre, phase 1b/IIa, randomised, parallel-group, open-label study. The study will randomise 40 SARs-CoV-2-positive patients receiving advanced respiratory support in a critical care area. Randomisation will be via 1:1 allocation to usual care plus nebulised unfractionated heparin 6 hourly to day 10 while receiving advanced respiratory support or usual care only. The study aims to evaluate whether unfractionated heparin will decrease the procoagulant response associated with ARDS up to day 10. The study will also assess safety and tolerability of nebulised heparin as defined by number of severe adverse events; oxygen index and respiratory oxygenation index of intubated and unintubated, respectively; ventilatory ratio; and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL6, IL-8, IL-10 and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase as well as the ratios of IL-1ß/IL-10 and IL-6/IL-10. These parameters will be assessed on days 1, 3, 5 and 10; time to separation from advanced respiratory support, time to discharge from the intensive care unit and number tracheostomised to day 28; and survival to days 28 and 60 and to hospital discharge, censored at day 60. Some clinical outcome data from our study will be included in the international meta-trials, CHARTER and INHALE-HEP. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to provide evidence of potential therapeutic benefit while establishing safety of nebulised heparin in the management of ARDS associated with SARs-CoV-2 infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04511923 . Registered on 13 August 2020. Protocol version 8, 22/12/2021 Protocol identifier: NUIG-2020-003 EudraCT registration number: 2020-003349-12 9 October 2020.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Animals , Fibrin , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Ireland , Mammals , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 18(4): 516-529, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007252

ABSTRACT

Clinical features of COVID-19 range from mild respiratory symptoms to fatal outcomes. Autopsy findings are important for understanding COVID-19-related pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. This systematic study aims to evaluate autopsy findings in paediatric cases. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database Reviews. We included studies that reported autopsy findings in children with COVID-19. A total of 11 studies (24 subjects) were included. The mean age of patients was 5.9 ± 5.7 years. Grossly, there was pericardial and pleural effusion, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, heavy soft lung, enlarged kidney, and enlarged brain. The autopsy findings of the lungs were diffuse alveolar damage (78.3%), fibrin thrombi (43.5%), haemorrhage (30.4%), pneumonia (26%), congestion and oedema (26%), angiomatoid pattern (17.4%), and alveolar megakaryocytes (17.4%). The heart showed interstitial oedema (80%), myocardial foci of band necrosis (60%), fibrin microthrombi (60%), interstitial and perivascular inflammation (40%), and pancarditis (30%). The liver showed centrilobular congestion (60%), micro/macrovesicular steatosis (30%), and arterial/venous thrombi (20%). The kidney showed acute tubular necrosis (75%), congestion (62.5%), fibrin thrombi in glomerular capillaries (37.5%), and nephrocalcinosis, mesangial cell hyperplasia, tubular hyaline/granular casts (25% each). The spleen showed splenitis (71.4%), haemorrhage (71.4%), lymphoid hypoplasia (57.1%), and haemophagocytosis (28.6%). The brain revealed oedema (87.5%), congestion (75%), reactive microglia (62.5%), neuronal ischaemic necrosis (62.5%), meningoencephalitis (37.5%), and fibrin thrombi (25%). SARS-CoV-2 and CD68 were positive by immunohistochemistry in 85.7% and 33.3% cases, respectively. Autopsy findings of COVID-19 in children are variable in all important organs. It may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Fibrin , Necrosis/pathology
9.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006219

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family. Other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, were associated with complications in pregnant women. Therefore, this study aimed to report the clinical history of five pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 (four symptomatic and one asymptomatic who gave birth to a stillborn child) during the COVID-19 pandemic. They gave birth between August 2020 to January 2021, a period in which there was still no vaccination for COVID-19 in Brazil. In addition, their placental alterations were later investigated, focusing on macroscopic, histopathological, and ultrastructural aspects compared to a prepandemic sample. Three of five placentas presented SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by RT-PCRq at least two to twenty weeks after primary pregnancy infection symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected in all placentas by immunoperoxidase assay. The macroscopic evaluation of the placentas presented congested vascular trunks, massive deposition of fibrin, areas of infarctions, and calcifications. Histopathological analysis showed fibrin deposition, inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis, and blood vessel thrombosis. Ultrastructural aspects of the infected placentas showed a similar pattern of alterations between the samples, with predominant characteristics of apoptosis and detection of virus-like particles. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in placental tissue, vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2022: 8061112, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001964

ABSTRACT

Background: Vertical transmission of several viruses during pregnancy has been shown to cause adverse fetal outcomes. The question about the possibility of a similar outcome in association with SARS-CoV-2 has been raised in recently published articles. Indeed, the rate of transmission through the placenta to the fetus reported in women with COVID-19 has been shown to form a minority. The aim of this study was to explore the possible histopathological changes in the placenta of pregnant women with COVID-19 after delivery and those changes in the umbilical cord. Methods: A case-control study including a total of 50 full-term pregnant women with COVID-19 and 60 control pregnant females. Histopathological evaluation of placental tissues and umbilical cords were reported. Results: The main findings in the umbilical cord were increased thickness of vessels, thrombus formation, endothelins, and narrow lumen; except for the increased thickness of blood vessels, these findings were more frequently seen in women with COVID-19, in comparison with control women in a significant manner (p < 0.05). Increased thickness of blood vessels was more significantly observed in the control group compared to the COVID-19 group (p < 0.01). Findings of the placenta included avascular villi, fibrin, thrombosis, and meconium macrophage in various combinations. Except for fibrin as the sole findings, all other findings including combinations were more frequently encountered in the study group in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pregnant women with COVID-19 have significant pathological alterations in the placenta and umbilical cord. These findings reflect the capability of SARS-CoV-2 in causing immunological reactions to the placenta, either directly or indirectly, and these pathologies may be linked to the higher rate of adverse neonatal outcomes and maternal admission to the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Hematol ; 116(6): 937-946, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000116

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has been associated with fibrin-mediated hypercoagulability and thromboembolic complications. To evaluate potential biomarkers of coagulopathy and disease severity in COVID-19, we measured plasma levels of eight biomarkers potentially associated with coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function in 43 controls and 63 COVID-19 patients, including 47 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 16 non-ICU patients. COVID-19 patients showed significantly elevated levels of fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and its inhibitor plasminogen activation inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as well as ST2 (the receptor for interleukin-33) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) compared to the control group. We found that higher levels of t-PA, ST2, and vWF at the time of admission were associated with lower survival rates, and that thrombotic events were more frequent in patients with initial higher levels of vWF. These results support a predictive role of specific biomarkers such as t-PA and vWF in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. The data provide support for the case that hypercoagulability in COVID-19 is fibrin-mediated, but also highlights the important role that vWF may play in the genesis of thromboses in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Interventions designed to enhance fibrinolysis might prove to be useful adjuncts in the treatment of coagulopathy in a subset of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , von Willebrand Factor , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein , Thrombosis/etiology , Fibrinolysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Biomarkers , Thrombophilia/complications , Fibrin
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997643

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) as a model of acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by inflammation, complex coagulation, and hematologic abnormalities which result in the formation of fibrin-platelet microthrombi in the pulmonary vessels with the rapid development of progressive respiratory dysfunction. We hypothesize that a nebulized fibrinolytic agent, non-immunogenic staphylokinase (nSta), may be useful for ALI therapy. First, the effect of the nebulized nSta (0.2 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, or 2.0 mg/kg) on the coagulogram parameters was studied in healthy rats. ALI was induced in mice by nebulized administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of 10 mg/kg. nSta (0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg or 0.6 mg/kg) was nebulized 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after LPS administration. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined in the blood on the 8th day after LPS and nSta administration. The assessment of lung damage was based on their weighing and microscopic analysis. Fibrin/fibrinogen deposition in the lungs was determined by immunohistochemistry. After nSta nebulization in healthy rats, the fibrinogen blood level as well as activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time did not change. In the nebulized ALI model, the mice showed an increase in lung weight due to their edema and rising fibrin deposition. An imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines was also found. Forty percent of mice with ALI without nSta nebulization had died. Nebulized nSta at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg reduced the severity of ALI: a decrease in interstitial edema and inflammatory infiltration was noted. At a dose of 0.4 mg/kg of nebulized nSta, the animals showed no peribronchial edema and the bronchi had an open clear lumen. At a dose of 0.6 mg/kg of nebulized nSta, the manifestations of ALI were completely eliminated. A significant dose-dependent reduction of the fibrin-positive areas in the lungs of mice with ALI was established. Nebulized nSta had a normalizing effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in blood- interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-17A, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). These data showed the effectiveness of nebulized nSta and the perspectives of its clinical usage in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrin/pharmacology , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung , Metalloendopeptidases , Mice , Rats , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 148, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/PASC Registry was subsequently established as an online platform where patients can report Long COVID/PASC symptoms and previous comorbidities. METHODS: In this study, we report on the comorbidities and persistent symptoms, using data obtained from 845 South African Long COVID/PASC patients. By using a previously published scoring system for fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet pathology, we also analysed blood samples from 80 patients, and report the presence of significant fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet pathology in all cases. RESULTS: Hypertension, high cholesterol levels (dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were found to be the most important comorbidities. The gender balance (70% female) and the most commonly reported Long COVID/PASC symptoms (fatigue, brain fog, loss of concentration and forgetfulness, shortness of breath, as well as joint and muscle pains) were comparable to those reported elsewhere. These findings confirmed that our sample was not atypical. Microclot and platelet pathologies were associated with Long COVID/PASC symptoms that persisted after the recovery from acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin amyloid microclots that block capillaries and inhibit the transport of O2 to tissues, accompanied by platelet hyperactivation, provide a ready explanation for the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. Removal and reversal of these underlying endotheliopathies provide an important treatment option that urgently warrants controlled clinical studies to determine efficacy in patients with a diversity of comorbidities impacting on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. We suggest that our platelet and clotting grading system provides a simple and cost-effective diagnostic method for early detection of Long COVID/PASC as a major determinant of effective treatment, including those focusing on reducing clot burden and platelet hyperactivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Amyloid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Placenta ; 127: 1-7, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937084

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims at observing placental pathologies in COVID-19 infected women, and analyzing its impact on pregnancy outcome. METHOD: This is a descriptive-analytical study done at a tertiary centre of Northern India. All COVID-19 positive pregnant women with gestational age ≥20 weeks, with placental histopathological reporting, were included in this study. A total of 173 COVID-19 pregnant women were included in the study. RESULTS: Placental abnormalities were noticed in 49·16% of total 179 placentae examined. Maternal vascular malperfusion (27·93%) was the most observed placental pathology followed by villous fibrin deposits (22·90%), fetal vasculopathy (16·75%), and acute inflammation (6·70%). Stillbirths were 22 and NICU admissions were seen in 50 neonates. Abnormal placental abnormalities led to higher stillbirths (p value 0·011) and lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min (p-value 0·028; p-value 0·002, respectively). Intervillous fibrin deposits had higher risk associated with lower Apgar score at 1 and 5 min [RR 2·05 (95% CI 1·21-3·48, p-value 0·010) and RR 5·52 (95% CI 2·58-11·81, p-value <0·001), respectively]. RP clot/hemorrhage was also associated with lower Apgar score at 1 and 5 min [RR 2·61 (95% CI 1·52-4·49, p-value 0·002) and RR 3.54 (95% CI 1·66-7·55, p-value 0·001), respectively]. DISCUSSION: Placental abnormalities in COVID-19 infection were associated with significant higher incidence of unexplained stillbirths, and lower Apgar scores. Although, this is the largest descriptive-analytical study done so far, comparative studies are required to draw a clear conclusion regarding the impact of COVID-19 infection on human placenta and its effect on pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Placenta/pathology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Stillbirth/epidemiology
15.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 749-758, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916373

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Overview of the coagulation abnormalities, including elevated D-dimers widely reported with COVID-19, often labelled as COVID coagulopathy. What advances does it highlight? The review highlights the changes in bronchoalveolar haemostasis due to apoptosis of alveolar cells, which contributes to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; the pathophysiological mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction and damage responsible for thrombosis of pulmonary microcirculation and potential contribution to the hypoxaemia of COVID-19 acute lung injury; and changes in coagulation proteins responsible for the hypercoagulability and increased risk of thrombosis in other venous and arterial beds. The rationale for anticoagulation and fibrinolytic therapies is detailed, and potential confounders that might have led to less than expected improvement in the various randomised controlled trials are considered. ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) causes acute lung injury with diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, thrombin generation and alveolar fibrin deposition. Clinically, hypoxaemia is associated with preserved lung compliance early in the disease, suggesting the lack of excessive fluid accumulation typical of other lung injuries. Notably, autopsy studies demonstrate infection of the endothelium with extensive capillary thrombosis distinct from the embolic thrombi in pulmonary arteries. The inflammatory thrombosis in pulmonary vasculature secondary to endothelial infection and dysfunction appears to contribute to hypoxaemia. This is associated with elevated D-dimers and acquired hypercoagulability with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Hypercoagulability is secondary to elevated plasma tissue factor levels, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, reduced ADAMTS-13 with platelet activation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Multi-platform randomised controlled studies of systemic therapeutic anticoagulation with unfractionated and low molecular mass heparins demonstrated a survival benefit over standard care with full-dose anticoagulation in patients with non-severe disease who require supplemental oxygen, but not in severe disease requiring ventilatory support. Late intervention and the heterogeneous nature of enrolled patients can potentially explain the apparent lack of benefit in severe disease. Improvement in oxygenation has been demonstrated with intravenous fibrinolytics in small studies. Inhaled anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents and non-specific proteolytic drugs in clinical trials for decreasing alveolar fibrin deposition might benefit early disease. Essentially, COVID-19 is a multi-system disorder with pulmonary vascular inflammatory thrombosis that requires an interdisciplinary approach to combination therapies addressing both inflammation and intravascular thrombosis or alveolar fibrin deposits to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrin/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2394-2406, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with thrombotic complications and extensive fibrin deposition. This study investigates whether the hemostatic complications in COVID-19 disease arise due to dysregulation of the fibrinolytic system. METHODS: This prospective study analyzed fibrinolytic profiles of 113 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 disease with 24 patients with non-COVID-19 respiratory infection and healthy controls. Antigens were quantified by Ella system or ELISA, clot lysis by turbidimetric assay, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)/plasmin activity using chromogenic substrates. Clot structure was visualized by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: PAI-1 and its cofactor, vitronectin, are significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19 disease compared with those with non-COVID-19 respiratory infection and healthy control groups. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator were elevated in patients with COVID-19 disease relative to healthy controls. PAI-1 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were associated with more severe COVID-19 disease severity. Clots formed from COVID-19 plasma demonstrate an altered fibrin network, with attenuated fiber length and increased branching. Functional studies reveal that plasmin generation and clot lysis were markedly attenuated in COVID-19 disease, while PAI-1 activity was elevated. Clot lysis time significantly correlated with PAI-1 levels. Stratification of COVID-19 samples according to PAI-1 levels reveals significantly faster lysis when using the PAI-1 resistant (tPA) variant, tenecteplase, over alteplase lysis. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the suboptimal fibrinolytic response in COVID-19 disease is directly attributable to elevated levels of PAI-1, which attenuate plasmin generation. These data highlight the important prognostic potential of PAI-1 and the possibility of using pre-existing drugs, such as tenecteplase, to treat COVID-19 disease and potentially other respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carboxypeptidase B2 , Hemostatics , Thrombosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromogenic Compounds , Fibrin , Fibrinolysin/pharmacology , Fibrinolysis , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Humans , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Prospective Studies , Tenecteplase , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/pharmacology , Vitronectin
17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
18.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(15): 1643-1653, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873578

ABSTRACT

We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection during pregnancy. Searches for articles in English included PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists (up to April 2021). Studies presenting data on placental histopathology according to the Amsterdam Consensus Group criteria in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative pregnancies were identified. Lesions were categorized into: maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion (MVM and FVM, respectively), acute placental inflammation with maternal and fetal inflammatory response (MIR and FIR, respectively), chronic inflammatory lesions (CILs), and increased perivillous fibrin deposition (PVFD). A total of 15 studies reporting on 19,025 placentas, n = 699 of which were derived from women who were identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 18,326 as SARS-CoV-2-negative controls, were eligible for analysis. No significant difference in incidence of MVM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.90), FVM (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.63-2.42), MIR (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.29-1.52) or FIR (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.44-1.63), and CILs (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.55-1.72) was found between placentae from gravida identified as being SARS-CoV-2 infected. However, placenta from gravida identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were associated with significantly increased occurrence of PVFD (OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.06-7.27). After subgroup analyses based on clinical severity of COVID-19 infection, no significant difference was observed in terms of reported placental pathology between symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 gravidae placenta. Current evidence based on the available literature suggests that the only pathologic finding in the placentae of women who are pregnant identified as having been infected with SARS-CoV-2 was an increased prevalence of PVFD. KEY POINTS: · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal placental malperfusion.. · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal inflammatory response.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with increased perivillous fibrin deposition in placenta..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrin , Inflammation/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e1176-e1179, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868257

ABSTRACT

We observed an increased frequency of massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) during the second coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wave dominated by the Alpha variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MPFD associated with 100% reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and detection by immunohistochemistry. The Alpha variant was identified in all placentas with MPFD that could be sequenced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Humans , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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