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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 309, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919755

ABSTRACT

Blood clot formation induced by dysfunctional coagulation is a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a high-risk factor for severe illness and death. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis. Furthermore, human cathelicidin, a NET component, can perturb the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. At present, however, the levels of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides after SARS-CoV-2 infection and their role in COVID-19 thrombosis formation remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed coagulation function and found a decrease in thrombin time but an increase in fibrinogen level, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 was upregulated by the spike protein and significantly elevated in the plasma of patients. Furthermore, LL-37 levels were negatively correlated with thrombin time but positively correlated with fibrinogen level. In addition to platelet activation, cathelicidin peptides enhanced the activity of coagulation factors, such as factor Xa (FXa) and thrombin, which may induce hypercoagulation in diseases with high cathelicidin peptide levels. Injection of cathelicidin peptides promoted the formation of thrombosis, whereas deletion of cathelicidin inhibited thrombosis in vivo. These results suggest that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is elevated during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may induce hypercoagulation in COVID-19 patients by activating coagulation factors.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinogen , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/virology
2.
Clin Lab ; 68(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic roles of hemostatic tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, and antithrombin III in the progression of disease, monitorization of severe, mild and moderate cases, and also to show their relationship with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS: The study comprised 604 patients (360 men and 244 women) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to Emergency Department of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between March 15 and April 15, 2020. The variations in the concentration of coagulation tests and inflammatory markers were observed from the admission to hospital to the 10th day with three-day periods. RESULTS: PT level and PT activity of severe cases were significantly different compared to mild cases (p = 0.012, p = 0.010, respectively). Similarly, aPTT and D-dimer levels in severe cases were significantly higher compared to the mild cases. However, fibrinogen levels of mild cases were significantly lower compared to either moderate or severe cases (p < 0.001, for both). The PT, PT activity, aPTT, and D-Dimer levels in severe cases were significantly different compared with the mild cases. However, fibrinogen level was the highest in severe cases, and higher than either mild or moderate cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal the vital importance of measuring coagulation parameters at the time of admission and monitoring them at regular intervals in clinical monitoring of COVID-19 patients, in determining the severity of the disease in terms of the patient's prognosis, and in choosing and applying the appropriate treatment at the right time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Electrophoresis ; 43(15): 1647-1654, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825937

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and d-dimer are determined in the human plasma of 2745 hospitalized patients with and without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by automated-latex enhanced immunoassay and immuno-turbidimetric assay. SARS-COV-2 RNA qualitative test, real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based, is performed in nasopharyngeal swabs to confirm those with SARS-COV-2 positivity. Furthermore, serum proteins are separated and quantified in all the patients by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE). A new SPE parameter, inflammatory protein ratio (IPR), is elaborated for the first time by a mathematical equation that considers the albumin, α1-globulin, and α2-globulin. IPR normal reference range (10.7%-28.3%) is calculated considering the normal reference range of albumin, α1-globulin, and α2-globulin obtained for controls. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's tests application show that IPR significantly correlates with direct proportionality with d-dimer, CRP, and fibrinogen. Significant (p < 0.001) increase of these parameters, IPR included, is detected in COVID-19 patients only. Our results show that IPR is more specific for monitoring inflammatory status thanks to its correlation with the only three serum proteins involved in inflammation: albumin, α1-globulin, and α2-globulin. Furthermore, IPR can simplify the interpretation of SPE results about inflammatory status, being of unique value compared to the six-serum protein classes separately presented in the typical SPE clinical reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Albumins , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrinogen , Humans , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(11): 1102-1112, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780095

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is, at present, one of the most relevant global health problems. In the literature hepatic alterations have been described in COVID-19 patients, and they are mainly represented by worsening of underlying chronic liver disease leading to hepatic decompensation and liver failure with higher mortality. Several potential mechanisms used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to cause liver damage have been hypothesized. COVID-19 primary liver injury is less common than secondary liver injury. Most of the available data demonstrate how liver damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection is likely due to systemic inflammation, and it is less likely mediated by a cytopathic effect directed on liver cells. Moreover, liver alterations could be caused by hypoxic injury and drugs (antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, remdesivir, tocilizumab, tofacitinib and dexamethasone). SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce multiple vascular district atherothrombosis by affecting simultaneously cerebral, coronary and peripheral vascular beds. Data in the literature highlight how the virus triggers an exaggerated immune response, which added to the cytopathic effect of the virus can induce endothelial damage and a prothrombotic dysregulation of hemostasis. This leads to a higher incidence of symptomatic and confirmed venous thrombosis and of pulmonary embolisms, especially in central, lobar or segmental pulmonary arteries, in COVID-19. There are currently fewer data for arterial thrombosis, while myocardial injury was identified in 7%-17% of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 22%-31% in the intensive care unit setting. Available data also revealed a higher occurrence of stroke and more serious forms of peripheral arterial disease in COVID-19 patients. Hemostasis dysregulation is observed during the COVID-19 course. Lower platelet count, mildly increased prothrombin time and increased D-dimer are typical laboratory features of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, described as "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." These alterations are correlated to poor outcomes. Moreover, patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are characterized by high levels of von Willebrand factor with subsequent ADAMTS13 deficiency and impaired fibrinolysis. Platelet hyperreactivity, hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis during SARS-CoV-2 infection induce a pathological state named as "immuno-thromboinflammation." Finally, liver dysfunction and coagulopathy are often observed at the same time in patients with COVID-19. The hypothesis that liver dysfunction could be mediated by microvascular thrombosis has been supported by post-mortem findings and extensive vascular portal and sinusoidal thrombosis observation. Other evidence has shown a correlation between coagulation and liver damage in COVID-19, underlined by the transaminase association with coagulopathy, identified through laboratory markers such as prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products and platelet count. Other possible mechanisms like immunogenesis of COVID-19 damage or massive pericyte activation with consequent vessel wall fibrosis have been suggested.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinogen , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 807332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753361

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most cases are identified as mild or moderate illnesses. Approximately 20% of hospitalised patients become severe or critical at the middle or late stage of the disease. The predictors and risk factors for prognosis in those with mild or moderate disease remain to be determined. Of 694 patients with COVID-19, 231 patients with mild or moderate disease, who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in Wenzhou and nearby counties in China, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 17 January to 20 March 2020. The outcomes of these patients included progression from mild/moderate illness to severe or critical conditions. Among the 231 patients, 49 (21.2%) had a poor prognosis in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher inflammation/coagulopathy/immunology responsive index (ICIRI=[c-reactive protein × fibrinogen × D-dimer]/CD8 T cell count) on admission (OR=345.151, 95% CI=23.014-5176.318) was associated with increased odds ratios for poor prognosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICIRI predicting severe and critical condition progression was 0.65 (95% CI=0.519-0.782) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.647-0.954), with cut-off values of 870.83 and 535.44, respectively. Conversely, age, sex, comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CD8 T cell count, and c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels alone at admission were not good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. At admission, a novel index, ICIRI, tends to be the most promising predictor of COVID-19 progression from mild or moderate illness to severe or critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/virology , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(4): 712-721, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735925

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coagulation dysfunction and thromboembolism emerge as strong comorbidity factors in severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear when particularly platelet activation markers and coagulation factors dysregulated during the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here, we sought to assess the levels of coagulation and platelet activation markers at moderate and severe stages of COVID-19 to understand the pathogenesis. METHODS: To understand this, hospitalized COVID-19 patients with (severe cases that required intensive care) or without pneumonia (moderate cases) were recruited. Phenotypic and molecular characterizations were performed employing basic coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-Dimer, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The flow cytometry-based multiplex assays were performed to assess FXI, anti-thrombin, prothrombin, fibrinogen, FXIII, P-selectin, sCD40L, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and D-Dimer. RESULTS: The investigations revealed induction of plasma P-selectin and CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in moderate COVID-19 cases, which were significantly abolished with the progression of COVID-19 severity. Moreover, a profound reduction in plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and FXIII were identified particularly in the severe COVID-19. Further analysis revealed fibrinogen induction in both moderate and severe patients. Interestingly, an elevated PAI-1 more prominently in moderate, and tPA particularly in severe COVID-19 cases were observed. Particularly, the levels of fibrinogen and tPA directly correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, induction of soluble P-selectin, sCD40L, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 suggests the activation of platelets and coagulation system at the moderate stage before COVID-19 patients require intensive care. These findings would help in designing better thromboprophylaxis to limit the COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Platelet Activation , Biomarkers , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , P-Selectin , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
8.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(6): 901-909, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) is a poorly known entity. An underlying chronic, low-grade inflammation (LGI) has been theorized as a pathophysiological mechanism. Available data on biomarkers in PCS show conflicting results. Our aim was to know whether subjects with PCS present higher levels of inflammatory markers, after a mild COVID-19. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study. Cases of mild COVID-19 in a community setting were included. We collected epidemiological data (age, sex, BMI, smoking, comorbidities), variables of the acute COVID-19 (duration, symptoms), and data at 3 months after the acute phase (symptoms and laboratory test). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels were analysed. LGI was defined as CRP >0.3 and <1.0 mg/dL. A subject was classified as PCS + if presented signs and symptoms >12 weeks after an infection consistent with COVID-19. Five composite indices (C1-C5) were developed, combining the upper ranges of biomarkers distributions. Multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: We analysed 121 mild COVID-19 cases (mean age = 45.7 years, 56.2% women). Among the acute symptoms, women presented a higher frequency of fatigue (54.4% vs 30.2%; p = .008). PCS affected 35.8% of women and 20.8% of men (p = .07), and the most reported symptoms were fatigue (42.8%), anosmia (40%), ageusia (22.8%), dyspnea (17.1%) and myalgia (11.4%). Neutrophil count, NLR, CRP and fibrinogen showed the best correlations with PCS and were selected to develop the indices. In women PCS+, C1, C3 and C4 indices were more frequently met, while in men PCS+, C2, C5 and CRP were in the range of LGI. Anosmia, ageusia and fatigue were related to higher neutrophil counts, with sex differences. Fibrinogen levels were higher in persistent myalgia (510 ± 82 mg/dL vs 394 ± 87; p = .013). In multivariable analysis, a woman with a neutrophil count above the median, or with fibrinogen level or NLR in the highest tertile, had a 4-5-fold increased risk of prevalent PCS. A man with CRP in the range of LGI, or fibrinogen level or a neutrophil count in the highest tertile, had a 10-17-fold increased risk of prevalent PCS. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in the present cross-sectional study seems to demonstrate a consistent association between PCS and upper ranges of the neutrophil count, NLR, fibrinogen, and CRP in the LGI range. Furthermore, composite indices appear useful in detecting relationships between slight elevations of biomarkers and PCS, and our study identifies relevant sex differences in symptoms and markers regarding the PCS.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Anosmia , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue , Female , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia , Neutrophils/metabolism
9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211010973, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582642

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 triggers abnormalities in coagulation parameters that can contribute to thrombosis. The goals of this research were to determine the levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer and FDP in COVID-19 patients. Following a systematic study, among 1198 articles, 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in both severe and non-severe groups. The funnel plot, Egger's regression asymmetry test, and Begg's test used to measure the bias of publications. All meta-analysis performed by comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 (CMA2). The pooled findings of fibrinogen levels revealed a significant rise in fibrinogen levels in severe COVID-19 than non-severe patients with COVID-19. The D-dimer and FDP levels were significantly higher in severe patients than non-severe patients with COVID-19 were. The levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP have increased significantly in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. Although, levels of clotting parameters do not always correlate with the severity of disease, these findings showed the diagnostic importance for fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP in COVID-19. The presence of a continuous rise in serial measurements of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP may predict that patients with COVID-19 may become critically ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hemostasis , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
10.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 136-140, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555809

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability that may cause thromobembolic complications. We describe our recent studies investigating the mechanisms of hypercoagulability in patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation during the COVID-19 crisis in New York City in spring 2020. Using rotational thombelastometry we found that almost all patients with severe COVID-19 had signs of hypercoagulability compared with non-COVID-19 controls. Specifically, the maximal clot firmness in the fibrin-based extrinsically activated test was almost twice the upper limit of normal in COVID patients, indicating a fibrin-mediated cause for hypercoagulability. To better understand the mechanism of this hypercoagulability we measured the components of the fibrinolytic pathways. Fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, but not plasminogen levels were elevated in patients with severe COVID-19. Our studies indicate that hypercoagulability in COVID-19 may be because of decreased fibrinolysis resulting from inhibition of plasmin through high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Clinicians creating treatment protocols for anticoagulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients should consider these potential mechanisms of hypercoaguability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Critical Illness , Fibrinogen , Fibrinolysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(8): 653-660, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521954

ABSTRACT

Coagulation disturbances are common in severe COVID-19 infection. We examined laboratory markers in COVID-19 patients during the first wave of the pandemic in Finland. We analysed a wide panel of coagulation tests (IL ACL TOP 750/500®) from anonymously collected samples of 78 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs; n = 34) or medical wards (n = 44) at Helsinki University Hospital in April-May 2020. These coagulation data were supplemented with the laboratory information system results, including complete blood count and C reactive protein (CRP). Coagulation and inflammatory markers were elevated in most: FVIII in 52%, fibrinogen 77%, D-dimer 74%, CRP 94%, platelet count 37%. Anaemia was common, especially in men (73% vs. 44% in women), and overall weakly correlated with FVIII (women R2 = 0.48, men R2 = 0.24). ICU patients had higher fibrinogen and D-dimer levels (p < .01). Men admitted to the ICU also had higher platelet count, leukocytes and FVIII and lower haemoglobin than the non-ICU patients. None of the patients met the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) criteria, but 31% had a D-dimer level of at least 1.5 mg/L. Presence of both anaemia and high D-dimer together with FVIII is independently associated with ICU admission. Antithrombin was reduced in 47% of the patients but did not distinguish severity. Overall, CRP was associated with coagulation activation. Elevated FVIII, fibrinogen and D-dimer reflected a strong inflammatory response and were characteristic of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The patients were often anaemic, as is typical in severe inflammation, while anaemia was also associated with coagulation activity.


Subject(s)
Anemia/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antithrombins , Big Data , Blood Coagulation Tests , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1079-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524445

ABSTRACT

Fibrinogen-associated protein (FREP) family is a family of proteins with a fibrin domain at the carboxyl terminus. Recent investigations illustrated that two members of FREP family, fibrinogen-like protein-1 (FGL1) and fibrinogen-like protein-2 (FGL2), play crucial roles in cancer by regulating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, or regulating the functions of immune cells in tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, they are potential targets for medical intervention of tumor development. In this review, we discussed the structure, and the roles of FGL1 and FGL2 in tumors, especially the roles in regulating immune cell functions.


Subject(s)
Fibrinogen/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Signal Transduction
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488609

ABSTRACT

A wide range of neurological manifestations have been associated with the development of COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the etiology of the neurological symptomatology is still largely unexplored. Here, we used state-of-the-art multiplexed immunostaining of human brains (n = 6 COVID-19, median age = 69.5 years; n = 7 control, median age = 68 years) and demonstrated that expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is restricted to a subset of neurovascular pericytes. Strikingly, neurological symptoms were exclusive to, and ubiquitous in, patients that exhibited moderate to high ACE2 expression in perivascular cells. Viral dsRNA was identified in the vascular wall and paralleled by perivascular inflammation, as signified by T cell and macrophage infiltration. Furthermore, fibrinogen leakage indicated compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, cerebrospinal fluid from additional 16 individuals (n = 8 COVID-19, median age = 67 years; n = 8 control, median age = 69.5 years) exhibited significantly lower levels of the pericyte marker PDGFRß in SARS-CoV-2-infected cases, indicative of disrupted pericyte homeostasis. We conclude that pericyte infection by SARS-CoV-2 underlies virus entry into the privileged central nervous system space, as well as neurological symptomatology due to perivascular inflammation and a locally compromised blood-brain barrier.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Pericytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Encephalitis, Viral/pathology , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Mice , Pericytes/metabolism , Pericytes/pathology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/cerebrospinal fluid
15.
Biomark Med ; 15(16): 1519-1528, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477716

ABSTRACT

Aim: In the present study, the relationship between D-dimer/fibrinogen ratio (DFR) and in-hospital outcomes was evaluated in patients with COVID-19 and a diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Materials & methods: In-hospital outcomes were compared in patients with high and low DFR values. Results: With regard to in-hospital outcomes, patients in the third tertile of DFR had a higher rate of mechanical ventilation, cardiogenic shock and death (p < 0.001). The length of ICU stay was longer in the third tertile group (p < 0.001). When evaluated together with infection markers, DFR was found to be an independent predictor of outcomes. Conclusion: DFR can be used as a prognostic marker in patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of HF, and perhaps more valuable than other infection markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 646-662, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439746

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients demonstrate hypercoagulability, necessitating thromboprophylaxis. However, less is known about the haemostatic profile in mild COVID-19 patients. We performed an age and gender-matched prospective study of 10 severe and 10 mild COVID-19 patients. Comprehensive coagulation profiling together with Thromboelastography and Clot Waveform Analysis were performed. FBC, PT, APTT, D-dimer, fibrinogen and CWA were repeated every 3 days for both groups and repeat TEG was performed for severe patients up till 15 days. On recruitment, severe patients had markers reflecting hypercoagulability including raised median D-dimer 1.0 µg/mL (IQR 0.6, 1.4) (p = 0.0004), fibrinogen 5.6 g/L (IQR 4.9, 6.6) (p = 0.002), Factor VIII 206% (IQR 171, 203) and vWF levels 265.5% (IQR 206, 321). Mild patients had normal values of PT, aPTT, fibrinogen and D-dimer, and slightly elevated median Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. Repeated 3-day assessments for both groups showed declining trends in D-dimer and Fibrinogen. CWA of severe COVID-19 group demonstrated hypercoagulability with an elevated median values of aPTT delta change 78.8% (IQR 69.8, 85.2) (p = 0.001), aPTT clot velocity (min1) 7.8%/s (IQR 6.7, 8.3) (p = 0.001), PT delta change 22.4% (IQR 19.4, 29.5) (p = 0.004), PT min1 7.1%/s (IQR 6.3, 9.0) (p = 0.02), PT clot acceleration (min 2) 3.6%/s2 (IQR 3.2, 4.5) (p = 0.02) and PT clot deceleration (max2) 2.9%/s2 (IQR 2.5, 3.5) (p = 0.02). TEG of severe patients reflected hypercoagulability with significant increases in the median values of CFF MA 34.6 mm (IQR 27.4,38.6) (p = 0.003), CRT Angle 78.9° (IQR 78.3, 80.0) (p = 0.0006), CRT A10 67.6 mm (IQR 65.8, 69.6) (p = 0.007) and CFF A10 32.0 mm (IQR 26.8, 34.0) (p = 0.003). Mild COVID-19 patients had absent hypercoagulability in both CWA and TEG. 2 severe patients developed thromboembolic events while none occurred in the mild COVID-19 group. Mild COVID-19 patients show absent parameters of hypercoagulability in global haemostatic tests while those with severe COVID-19 demonstrated parameters associated with hypercoagulability on the global haemostatic tests together with raised D-Dimer, fibrinogen, Factor VIII and vWF levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Factor VIII , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , von Willebrand Factor
17.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
19.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 734005, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365536

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is characterized with intense inflammatory response, cardiac involvement, and coagulopathy. Fibrinogen, as a biomarker for inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and coagulation, has not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical application of fibrinogen in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and laboratory characteristics of 119 COVID-19 patients in the University of Alabama of Birmingham Medical Center. Correlations of fibrinogen on admission with intensive care unit (ICU) admission, disease severity, and laboratory parameters were analyzed. Results: Among the 119 COVID-19 patients, 77.3% (92/119) had severe disease, and 59.5% (71/119) patients were admitted to the ICU. Elevated fibrinogen was detected in 67.2% (80/119) of the patients. Fibrinogen levels were significantly associated with inflammatory markers and disease severity, but not with cardiac injury biomarker high sensitivity troponin I. Patients with severe disease had increased fibrinogen levels upon admission compared to patients with non-severe disease (P = 0.001). Fibrinogen level at 528.0 mg/dl was the optimal cutoff to predict disease severity, with a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% and 70.3% (area undty -60er the curve [AUC] 0.72, P = 0.0006). Conclusions: Fibrinogen is commonly elevated in COVID-19 patients, especially in those with severe disease. Elevated fibrinogen correlates with excessive inflammation, disease severity, and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinogen , Humans , Inflammation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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