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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1079-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524445

ABSTRACT

Fibrinogen-associated protein (FREP) family is a family of proteins with a fibrin domain at the carboxyl terminus. Recent investigations illustrated that two members of FREP family, fibrinogen-like protein-1 (FGL1) and fibrinogen-like protein-2 (FGL2), play crucial roles in cancer by regulating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, or regulating the functions of immune cells in tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, they are potential targets for medical intervention of tumor development. In this review, we discussed the structure, and the roles of FGL1 and FGL2 in tumors, especially the roles in regulating immune cell functions.


Subject(s)
Fibrinogen/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Signal Transduction
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488609

ABSTRACT

A wide range of neurological manifestations have been associated with the development of COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the etiology of the neurological symptomatology is still largely unexplored. Here, we used state-of-the-art multiplexed immunostaining of human brains (n = 6 COVID-19, median age = 69.5 years; n = 7 control, median age = 68 years) and demonstrated that expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is restricted to a subset of neurovascular pericytes. Strikingly, neurological symptoms were exclusive to, and ubiquitous in, patients that exhibited moderate to high ACE2 expression in perivascular cells. Viral dsRNA was identified in the vascular wall and paralleled by perivascular inflammation, as signified by T cell and macrophage infiltration. Furthermore, fibrinogen leakage indicated compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, cerebrospinal fluid from additional 16 individuals (n = 8 COVID-19, median age = 67 years; n = 8 control, median age = 69.5 years) exhibited significantly lower levels of the pericyte marker PDGFRß in SARS-CoV-2-infected cases, indicative of disrupted pericyte homeostasis. We conclude that pericyte infection by SARS-CoV-2 underlies virus entry into the privileged central nervous system space, as well as neurological symptomatology due to perivascular inflammation and a locally compromised blood-brain barrier.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Pericytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Encephalitis, Viral/pathology , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Mice , Pericytes/metabolism , Pericytes/pathology , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/cerebrospinal fluid
3.
Biomark Med ; 15(16): 1519-1528, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477716

ABSTRACT

Aim: In the present study, the relationship between D-dimer/fibrinogen ratio (DFR) and in-hospital outcomes was evaluated in patients with COVID-19 and a diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Materials & methods: In-hospital outcomes were compared in patients with high and low DFR values. Results: With regard to in-hospital outcomes, patients in the third tertile of DFR had a higher rate of mechanical ventilation, cardiogenic shock and death (p < 0.001). The length of ICU stay was longer in the third tertile group (p < 0.001). When evaluated together with infection markers, DFR was found to be an independent predictor of outcomes. Conclusion: DFR can be used as a prognostic marker in patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of HF, and perhaps more valuable than other infection markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
6.
Biosci Rep ; 41(8)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334001

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit as potential inflammagen sui generis. Using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy as well as mass spectrometry, we investigate the potential of this inflammagen to interact with platelets and fibrin(ogen) directly to cause blood hypercoagulation. Using platelet-poor plasma (PPP), we show that spike protein may interfere with blood flow. Mass spectrometry also showed that when spike protein S1 is added to healthy PPP, it results in structural changes to ß and γ fibrin(ogen), complement 3, and prothrombin. These proteins were substantially resistant to trypsinization, in the presence of spike protein S1. Here we suggest that, in part, the presence of spike protein in circulation may contribute to the hypercoagulation in COVID-19 positive patients and may cause substantial impairment of fibrinolysis. Such lytic impairment may result in the persistent large microclots we have noted here and previously in plasma samples of COVID-19 patients. This observation may have important clinical relevance in the treatment of hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology , Adult , Aged , Amyloid/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Complement C3/metabolism , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , Middle Aged , Prothrombin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology , Trypsin/metabolism
7.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(8): 65, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293441

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 patients have a procoagulant state with a high prevalence of thrombotic events. The hypothesis of an involvement of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been suggested by several reports. Here, we reviewed 48 studies investigating aPL in COVID-19 patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Prevalence of Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) ranged from 35% to 92% in ICU patients. Anti-cardiolipin (aCL) IgG and IgM were found in up to 52% and up to 40% of patients respectively. Anti-ß2-glycoprotein I (aß2-GPI) IgG and IgM were found in up to 39% and up to 34% of patients respectively. Between 1% and 12% of patients had a triple positive aPL profile. There was a high prevalence of aß2-GPI and aCL IgA isotype. Two cohort studies found few persistent LA but more persistent solid phase assay aPL over time. aPL determination and their potential role is a real challenge for the treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , beta 2-Glycoprotein I/immunology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2270-2280, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217379

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes substantial morbidity. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, might improve outcomes by mitigating inflammation. We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to the University of Washington Hospital system with COVID-19 and requiring supplemental oxygen. Outcomes included clinical improvement, defined as a two-point reduction in severity on a six-point ordinal scale or discharge, and mortality within 28 days. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score inverse probability weighting to compare outcomes in patients who did and did not receive tocilizumab. We evaluated 43 patients who received tocilizumab and 45 who did not. Patients receiving tocilizumab were younger with fewer comorbidities but higher baseline oxygen requirements. Tocilizumab treatment was associated with reduced C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and temperature, but there were no meaningful differences in time to clinical improvement (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-2.22) or mortality (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.21-1.52). A numerically higher proportion of tocilizumab-treated patients had subsequent infections, transaminitis, and cytopenias. Tocilizumab did not improve outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, this study was not powered to detect small differences, and there remains the possibility for a survival benefit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1652-1664, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196493

ABSTRACT

Multiorgan injury has been implicated in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to assess the impact of organ injury (OI) on prognosis according to the number of affected organs at admission. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University from February 17 to March 22, 2020. We classified the patients according to the presence and number of damaged organs (heart, liver, and kidney). The percentage of patients with no, one, two, or three organs affected was 59.75%, 30.46%, 8.07%, and 1.72%, respectively. With the increasing number of OI, there is a tendency of gradual increase regarding the white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and fibrinogen as well as the incidence of most complications. In a Cox regression model, individuals with OI, old age, and an abnormal level of CRP were at a higher risk of death compared with those without. Patients with three organ injuries had the highest mortality rate (57.9%; hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [CI] vs. patients without OI: 22.31 [10.42-47.77], those with two [23.6%; HR = 8.68, 95% CI = 4.58-16.48], one [8.6%; HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7-5.7], or no OI [2.6%]; p < .001). The increasing number of OI was associated with a high risk of mortality in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Leukocyte Count/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): e663-e672, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a lifesaving therapy for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. It is frequently complicated by both thrombosis and hemorrhage. A markedly prothrombotic state associated with high rates of venous thromboembolism has been described in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019) infection. These rates have currently not been described during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in comparison to other viral pneumonias. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Single high-volume tertiary critical care department at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 16 years old or greater receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, with coronavirus disease 2019 were compared with a cohort of patients with influenza pneumonia between June 1, 2012, and May 31, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The rates of venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage were compared in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 against a historic population of patients with influenza pneumonia who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. There were 51 patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to coronavirus disease 2019 and 80 patients with influenza. At cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 37% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with 8% of patients with influenza had filling defects on CT pulmonary angiography (p = 0.0001). Catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis shown on ultrasound Doppler after decannulation was present in 53% with coronavirus disease 2019 versus 25% with influenza (p = 0.01). The rates of intracranial hemorrhage at the time of cannulation were 16% with coronavirus disease 2019 and 14% with influenza (p = 0.8). Elevated d-dimer levels were seen in both conditions and were significantly higher in those with pulmonary thromboembolism than those without in coronavirus disease 2019 (p = 0.02). Fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in those with coronavirus disease 2019 than influenza (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Significant rates of pulmonary thromboembolism and of catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis were seen in both viral infections but were greater in those requiring the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019 than for influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza, Human/therapy , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Tertiary Care Centers , Ultrasonography, Doppler
12.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 77(2): 221-231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a systemic infection with a significant impact on coagulation which manifests in thromboembolism. There is an unknown relationship of which coagulation profile parameter at presentation has an association with poor outcome in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to determine the relationship between fibrinogen and FDP with poor outcome in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search of all observational studies or trials involving adult patients with COVID-19 that had any data fibrinogen or FDP on admission was carried out using the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, ProQuest, and MedRxiv databases. We assessed the methodological quality assessment using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. We performed random-effects inverse-variance weighting analysis using mean difference (MD). RESULTS: A total of 17 studies (1,654 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. It revealed a higher mean of fibrinogen levels on admission in patients with severe case compared to those with non-severe case (MD = 0.69, [95% CI: 0.44 to 0.94], p < 0.05; I2 = 72%, p < 0.05). Non-survivor group had a pooled higher mean difference of fibrinogen values on admission (MD = 0.48 [95% CI: 0.13 to 0.83], p < 0.05; I2 = 38%, p = 0.18). Higher FDP on admission was found in poor outcome (composite of severity, critically ill, and mortality) compared to good outcome (4 studies, MD = 4.84 [95% CI: 0.75 to 8.93], p < 0.05; I2 = 86%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevated fibrinogen and FDP level on admission were associated with an increase risk of poor outcome in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause cytokine storm and may overshoot immunity in humans; however, it remains to be determined whether virus-induced soluble mediators from infected cells are carried by exosomes as vehicles to distant organs and cause tissue damage in COVID-19 patients. We took an unbiased proteomic approach for analyses of exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy volunteers and COVID-19 patients. Our results revealed that tenascin-C (TNC) and fibrinogen-ß (FGB) are highly abundant in exosomes from COVID-19 patients' plasma compared with that of healthy normal controls. Since TNC and FGB stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines via the Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, we examined the status of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) expression upon exposure of hepatocytes to exosomes from COVID-19 patients and observed significant increase compared with that from healthy subjects. Together, our results demonstrate that TNC and FGB are transported through plasma exosomes and potentially trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling in cells of distant organ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Exosomes/chemistry , Exosomes/genetics , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Tenascin/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/ultrastructure , Female , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Proteome/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5190, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117666

ABSTRACT

In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) subjects, recent evidence suggests the presence of unique coagulation abnormalities. In this study, we performed clot waveform analyses to investigate whether specific modulations are observed in COVID-19 subjects. We analyzed the second derivative of the absorbance in routine APTT tests performed using an ACL-TOP system. We observed high frequencies of abnormal patterns in APTT second-derivative curves that could be classified into an early shoulder type, a late shoulder type, or a biphasic type, high maximum first-derivative and second-derivative peak levels, and a low minimum second-derivative peak level in COVID-19 subjects. These modulations were not observed in subjects with disseminated intravascular coagulation. These abnormal patterns are also observed in patients with lupus anticoagulant, hemophilia, or factor IX deficiency. The plasma fibrinogen levels might also be involved in the abnormal APTT waveforms, especially the high maximum first-derivative and second-derivative peak levels. The abnormal patterns in the APTT second-derivative curves appear with highest frequency at around 2 weeks after the onset of COVID-19 and were not associated with the severity of COVID-19. These results suggest the possible presence of a specific abnormal coagulopathy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Aged , Blood Coagulation Tests , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organometallic Compounds , Triazoles
15.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 18-21, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107856

ABSTRACT

As patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) have high rates of thrombosis, high doses of thromboprophylaxis have been proposed. The associated bleeding risk remains unknown. We investigated major bleeding complications in ICU COVID-19 patients and we examined their relationship with inflammation and thromboprophylaxis. Retrospective monocentric study of consecutive adult patients admitted in ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Data collected included demographics, anticoagulation status, coagulation tests and outcomes including major bleeding and thrombotic events. Among 56 ICU COVID-19 patients, 10 (18%) patients had major bleeding and 16 (29%) thrombotic events. Major bleeding occurred later than thrombosis after ICU admission [17(14-23) days versus 9(3-11) days respectively (p = 0.005)]. Fibrinogen concentration always decreased several days [4(3-5) days] before bleeding; D-dimers followed the same trend. All bleeding patients were treated with anticoagulants and anticoagulation was overdosed for 6 (60%) patients on the day of bleeding or the day before. In the whole cohort, overdose was measured in 22 and 78% of patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation during fibrinogen increase and decrease respectively (p < 0.05). Coagulation disorders had biphasic evolution during COVID-19: first thrombotic events during initial hyperinflammation, then bleeding events once inflammation reduced, as confirmed by fibrinogen and D-dimers decrease. Most bleeding events complicated heparin overdose, promoted by inflammation decrease, suggesting to carefully monitor heparin during COVID-19. Thromboprophylaxis may be adapted to this biphasic evolution, with initial high doses reduced to standard doses once the high thrombotic risk period ends and fibrinogen decreases, to prevent bleeding events.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(6): 689-695, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: D-dimer concentration has been used by institutions to identify candidates for intensified anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism prevention and for the mitigation of the microthrombotic complications associated with COVID-19. Thromboelastography (TEG) maximum amplitude (MA) has been validated as a marker of hypercoagulability and MA ≥68 mm has been utilized as a marker of hypercoagulability in other conditions. METHODS: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between coagulation, inflammatory, and TEG parameters in patients with COVID-19 on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of consecutive patients that received ECMO for the treatment of COVID-19. TEG, inflammatory, and coagulation markers were compared in patients with and without a thrombotic complication. Correlation tests were performed to identify the coagulation and inflammatory markers that best predict hypercoagulability as defined by an elevated TEG MA. RESULTS: A total of 168 TEGs were available in 24 patients. C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were significantly higher in patients that developed a thrombotic event versus those that did not (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04 respectively). D-dimer was negatively correlated with TEG MA (P < 0.01), while fibrinogen was positively correlated (P < 0.01). A fibrinogen >441 mg/dL was found to have a sensitivity of 91.2% and specificity of 85.7% for the detection of MA ≥68 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with ECMO, D-dimer concentration had an inverse relationship with degree of hypercoagulability as measured by TEG MA. D-dimer elevation may potentially reflect hemostatic perturbation in patients on ECMO or the severity of COVID-19 related sepsis rather than designate patients likely to benefit from anticoagulation. Fibrinogen concentration may represent a more useful marker of hypercoagulability in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/virology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thrombelastography
17.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(4): 542-547, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072521

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Recently, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been recognized in association with coronavirus disease 2019 as a cytokine storm syndrome. MIS-C presents with symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). We aimed to better understand this cytokine storm syndrome by comparing the initial laboratory findings of MIS-C and MAS. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with MAS due to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in our clinic between March 2002 and November 2020 and with MIS-C between 20 September and 20 October 2020 were enrolled into the study. The medical files of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 13 MAS (9 boys, 4 girls) and 26 MIS-C (16 boys,10 girls) patients were included in the study. Hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels showed significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). Patients with MAS had lower hemoglobin (10.10 g/dL) and fibrinogen (2.72 g/dL), but higher ferritin (17 863 mg/dL) and LDH (890.61 U/L) at the time of diagnosis. Patients with MIS-C had higher absolute neutrophil count (12 180/mm3 ) and CRP (194.23 mg/dL) values, but lower absolute lymphocyte count (1140/mm3 ) at the time of diagnosis. Left ventricle ejection fraction was significantly lower in the MIS-C group in echocardiographic evaluation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Ferritin, hemoglobin, LDH, and fibrinogen levels were significantly changed in MAS compared with MIS-C. However, patients with MIS-C have more severe signs than MAS, such as cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins/blood , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(2): 115169, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064997

ABSTRACT

We evaluated simple laboratory variables to discriminate COVID-19 from bacterial pneumonia or influenza and for the prospective grading of COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to estimate the diagnostic performance of the significant discriminating variables. A comparative analysis was performed with different severity. The leukocytosis (P = 0.017) and eosinopenia (P = 0.001) were discriminating variables between COVID-19 and bacterial pneumonia with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.778 and 0.825. Monocytosis (P = 0.003), the decreased lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (P < 0.001), and the increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P = 0.028) were predictive of influenza with AUC of 0.723, 0.895, and 0.783, respectively. Serum amyloid protein, lactate dehydrogenase, CD3+ cells, and the fibrinogen degradation products had a good correlation with the severity of COVID-19 graded by age (≥50) and NLR (≥3.13). Simple laboratory variables are helpful for rapid diagnosis on admission and hierarchical management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Amyloidogenic Proteins/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophilia/pathology , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocytosis/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12466-12479, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection may yield a hypercoagulable state with fibrinolysis impairment. We conducted a single-center observational study with the aim of analyzing the coagulation patterns of intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients with both standard laboratory and viscoelastic tests. The presence of coagulopathy at the onset of the infection and after seven days of systemic anticoagulant therapy was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty consecutive SARS-CoV-2 patients, admitted to the ICU of a University hospital in Italy between 29th February and 30th March 2020 were enrolled in the study, providing they fulfilled the acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria. They received full-dose anticoagulation, including Enoxaparin 0.5 mg·kg-1 subcutaneously twice a day, unfractionated Heparin 7500 units subcutaneously three times daily, or low-intensity Heparin infusion. Thromboelastographic (TEG) and laboratory parameters were measured at admission and after seven days. RESULTS: At baseline, patients showed elevated fibrinogen activity [rTEG-Ang 80.5° (78.7 to 81.5); TEG-ACT 78.5 sec (69.2 to 87.9)] and an increase in the maximum amplitude of clot strength [FF-MA 42.2 mm (30.9 to 49.2)]. No alterations in time of the enzymatic phase of coagulation [CKH-K and CKH-R, 1.1 min (0.85 to 1.3) and 6.6 min (5.2 to 7.5), respectively] were observed. Absent lysis of the clot at 30 minutes (LY30) was observed in all the studied population. Standard coagulation parameters were within the physiological range: [INR 1.09 (1.01 to 1.20), aPTT 34.5 sec (29.7 to 42.2), antithrombin 97.5% (89.5 to 115)]. However, plasma fibrinogen [512.5 mg·dl-1 (303.5 to 605)], and D-dimer levels [1752.5 ng·ml-1 (698.5 to 4434.5)], were persistently increased above the reference range. After seven days of full-dose anticoagulation, average TEG parameters were not different from baseline (rTEG-Ang p = 0.13, TEG-ACT p = 0.58, FF-MA p = 0.24, CK-R p = 0.19, CKH-R p  = 0.35), and a persistent increase in white blood cell count, platelet count and D-dimer was observed (white blood cell count p < 0.01, neutrophil count p = 0.02, lymphocyte count p < 0.01, platelet count p = 0.13 < 0.01, D-dimer levels p= 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome show elevated fibrinogen activity, high D-dimer levels and maximum amplitude of clot strength. Platelet count, fibrinogen, and standard coagulation tests do not indicate a disseminated intravascular coagulation. At seven days, thromboelastographic abnormalities persist despite full-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Thrombelastography , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antithrombins/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 505-513, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this review we described the values of commonly available HScore laboratory markers in patients with coronavirus-19 (COVID-19)-pneumonia associated cytokine storm syndrome (CPN-CSS) and compared results with those of other forms cytokine storm syndrome (O-CSS) to determine a pattern for CPN-CSS. Twelve CPN-CSS studies and six O-CSS studies were included. CPN-CSS typically obtained a single HScore value (e.g., aspartate transaminase > 30 U/L) while failing all other HScore criteria. A typical pattern for CPN-CSS was revealed when compared to O-CSS: lymphopenia vs. pancytopenia and increased vs. decreased fibrinogen. Findings, other than HScore commonly found in CPN-CSS studies, showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein. Although CPN-CSS studies describe severely ill patients, the HScore markers are typically less toxic that O-CSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/virology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphopenia/virology , Pancytopenia/etiology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
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