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Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114035, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560787


Many populations suffer from thrombotic disorders such as stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina and thromboembolic disease. Thrombus is one of the major threatening factors to human health and the prevalence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases induced by thrombus is growing worldwide, even some persons got rare and severe blood clots after receiving the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine unexpectedly. In terms of mechanism of thrombosis, antithrombotic drugs have been divided into three categories including anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors and fibrinolytics. Nowadays, a large number of new compounds possessing antithrombotic activities are emerging in an effort to remove the inevitable drawbacks of previously approved drugs such as the high risk of bleeding, a slow onset of action and a narrow therapeutic window. In this review, we describe the causes and mechanisms of thrombus formation firstly, and then summarize these reported active compounds as potential antithrombotic candidates based on their respective mechanism, hoping to promote the development of more effective bioactive molecules for treating thrombotic disorders.

Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346502


Thrombosis is a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate in many countries. Even though anti-thrombotic drugs are available, their serious side effects compel the search for safer drugs. In search of a safer anti-thrombotic drug, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) could be useful to identify crucial pharmacophoric features. The present work is based on a larger data set comprising 1121 diverse compounds to develop a QSAR model having a balance of acceptable predictive ability (Predictive QSAR) and mechanistic interpretation (Mechanistic QSAR). The developed six parametric model fulfils the recommended values for internal and external validation along with Y-randomization parameters such as R2tr = 0.831, Q2LMO = 0.828, R2ex = 0.783. The present analysis reveals that anti-thrombotic activity is found to be correlated with concealed structural traits such as positively charged ring carbon atoms, specific combination of aromatic Nitrogen and sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, etc. Thus, the model captured reported as well as novel pharmacophoric features. The results of QSAR analysis are further vindicated by reported crystal structures of compounds with factor Xa. The analysis led to the identification of useful novel pharmacophoric features, which could be used for future optimization of lead compounds.

Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Heterocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033055


Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25-200 µg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Water Microbiology