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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2151-2168, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541485

ABSTRACT

Infection by (re-)emerging RNA arboviruses including Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus primarily cause acute febrile disease and transient polyarthralgia. However, in a significant subset of infected individuals, debilitating arthralgia persists for weeks over months up to years. The underlying immunopathogenesis of chronification of arthralgia upon primary RNA-viral infection remains unclear. Here, we analysed cell-intrinsic responses to ex vivo arthritogenic alphaviral infection of primary human synovial fibroblasts isolated from knee joints, one the most affected joint types during acute and chronic CHIKV disease. Synovial fibroblasts were susceptible and permissive to alphaviral infection. Base-line and exogenously added type I interferon (IFN) partially and potently restricted infection, respectively. RNA-seq revealed a CHIKV infection-induced transcriptional profile that comprised upregulation of expression of several hundred IFN-stimulated and arthralgia-mediating genes. Single-cell virus-inclusive RNA-seq uncovered a fine-tuned switch from induction to repression of cell-intrinsic immune responses depending on the abundance of viral RNA in an individual cell. Specifically, responses were most pronounced in cells displaying low-to-intermediate amounts of viral RNA and absence of virus-encoded, fluorescent reporter protein expression, arguing for efficient counteraction of innate immunity in cells expressing viral antagonists at sufficient quantities. In summary, cell-intrinsic sensing of viral RNA that potentially persists or replicates at low levels in synovial fibroblasts and other target cell types in vivo may contribute to the chronic arthralgia induced by alphaviral infections. Our findings might advance our understanding of the immunopathophysiology of long-term pathogenesis of RNA-viral infections.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/physiology , Arthralgia/virology , Immunity, Innate , RNA, Viral/genetics , Synovial Fluid/immunology , Arbovirus Infections/genetics , Arbovirus Infections/immunology , Arboviruses/genetics , Arthralgia/genetics , Arthralgia/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Synovial Fluid/cytology , Virus Replication
2.
mBio ; 12(4): e0157221, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349194

ABSTRACT

Tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns are highly variable within and across individuals, leading to altered host responses after acute virus infection. Unraveling key tissue-specific response patterns provides novel opportunities for defining fundamental mechanisms of virus-host interaction in disease and the identification of critical tissue-specific networks for disease intervention in the lung. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients, and little is understood about how lung cell types contribute to disease outcomes. MERS-CoV replicates equivalently in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVE) and fibroblasts (FB) and to equivalent peak titers but with slower replication kinetics in human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE). However, only infected MVE demonstrate observable virus-induced cytopathic effect. To explore mechanisms leading to reduced MVE viability, donor-matched human lung MVE, HAE, and FB were infected, and their transcriptomes, proteomes, and lipidomes were monitored over time. Validated functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV-infected MVE were dying via an unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated apoptosis. Pharmacologic manipulation of the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected primary lung cells reduced viral titers and in male mice improved respiratory function with accompanying reductions in weight loss, pathological signatures of acute lung injury, and times to recovery. Systems biology analysis and validation studies of global kinetic transcript, protein, and lipid data sets confirmed that inhibition of host stress pathways that are differentially regulated following MERS-CoV infection of different tissue types can alleviate symptom progression to end-stage lung disease commonly seen following emerging coronavirus outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe atypical pneumonia in infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis remain unknown. While much has been learned from the few reported autopsy cases, an in-depth understanding of the cells targeted by MERS-CoV in the human lung and their relative contribution to disease outcomes is needed. The host response in MERS-CoV-infected primary human lung microvascular endothelial (MVE) cells and fibroblasts (FB) was evaluated over time by analyzing total RNA, proteins, and lipids to determine the cellular pathways modulated postinfection. Findings revealed that MERS-CoV-infected MVE cells die via apoptotic mechanisms downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interruption of enzymatic processes within the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected male mice reduced disease symptoms, virus-induced lung injury, and time to recovery. These data suggest that the UPR plays an important role in MERS-CoV infection and may represent a host target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Unfolded Protein Response/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/virology , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373615

ABSTRACT

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryo, Mammalian , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
4.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 106: 103180, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313048

ABSTRACT

Since the early stages of the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a widely used drug with good safety profile in clinic, has come to the forefront of research on drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment/prevention. Despite the decades-long use of HCQ in the treatment of diseases, such as malaria and autoimmune disorders, the exact mechanisms of action of this drug are only beginning to be understood. To date, no data are available on the genotoxic potential of HCQ in vitro or in vivo. The present study is the first investigation of the DNA damaging- and mutagenic effects of HCQ in mammalian cells in vitro, at concentrations that are comparable to clinically achievable doses in patient populations. We demonstrate significant induction of a representative oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with HCQ at 5 and 25 µM concentrations (P = 0.020 and P = 0.029, respectively), as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we show significant mutagenicity of HCQ, manifest as 2.2- and 1.8-fold increases in relative cII mutant frequency in primary and spontaneously immortalized Big Blue® MEFs, respectively, treated with 25 µM dose of this drug (P = 0.005 and P = 0.012, respectively). The observed genotoxic effects of HCQ in vitro, achievable at clinically relevant doses, are novel and important, and may have significant implications for safety monitoring in patient populations. Given the substantial number of the world's population receiving HCQ for the treatment of various chronic diseases or in the context of clinical trials for COVID-19, our findings warrant further investigations into the biological consequences of therapeutic/preventive use of this drug.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Mammals/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(6): 725-729, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096912

ABSTRACT

There does not appear to be any studies in the published literature on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in climbing chalk powder (magnesium carbonate and/or calcium carbonate), which has been hypothesized to pose a potential risk of fomite transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within climbing gyms. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of a model human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 in the presence of climbing chalk powder on a dry plastic surface. The stability of HCoV-OC43 on a plastic surface dusted with climbing chalk powders (magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate or a blended chalk) was determined by titration on BHK-21 fibroblast cells. No chalk and no virus controls were included. HCoV-OC43 was stable on the plastic surface for 48 h. The stability of HCoV-OC43 was significantly (P ≤ 0·05) reduced in the presence of magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate and the chalk blend; the infectivity was reduced by ≥2·29 log10 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 ) immediately upon on contact and by ≥2·46 log10 TCID50 within 1 h of contact. These findings suggest that the infectivity of coronaviruses is reduced by climbing chalk, limiting the risk of potential fomite transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Animals , Calcium Carbonate , Cell Line , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cricetinae , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Fomites , Powders
6.
FEBS Lett ; 594(20): 3363-3370, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716193

ABSTRACT

We used transcriptomic (RNA-seq) analyses to determine whether patients suffering from all types and subtypes of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a severe inherited metabolic disease, may be more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The expression levels of genes encoding proteins potentially involved in SARS-CoV-2 development were estimated in MPS cell lines. Four genes (GTF2F2, RAB18, TMEM97, PDE4DIP) coding for proteins potentially facilitating virus development were down-regulated, while two genes (FBN1, MFGE8), the products of which potentially interfere with virus propagation, were up-regulated in most MPS types. Although narrowing of respiratory tract and occurrence of thick mucus, characteristic of MPS, are risk factors for COVID-19, transcriptomic analyses suggest that MPS cells might be less, rather than more, susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mucopolysaccharidoses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Mucopolysaccharidoses/metabolism , Mucopolysaccharidoses/pathology , Mucopolysaccharidoses/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcriptome
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7257, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154662

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are speculated to have originated in bats. The mechanisms by which these viruses are maintained in individuals or populations of reservoir bats remain an enigma. Mathematical models have predicted long-term persistent infection with low levels of periodic shedding as a likely route for virus maintenance and spillover from bats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bat cells and MERS coronavirus (CoV) can co-exist in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we established a long-term coronavirus infection model of bat cells that are persistently infected with MERS-CoV. We infected cells from Eptesicus fuscus with MERS-CoV and maintained them in culture for at least 126 days. We characterized the persistently infected cells by detecting virus particles, protein and transcripts. Basal levels of type I interferon in the long-term infected bat cells were higher, relative to uninfected cells, and disrupting the interferon response in persistently infected bat cells increased virus replication. By sequencing the whole genome of MERS-CoV from persistently infected bat cells, we identified that bat cells repeatedly selected for viral variants that contained mutations in the viral open reading frame 5 (ORF5) protein. Furthermore, bat cells that were persistently infected with ΔORF5 MERS-CoV were resistant to superinfection by wildtype virus, likely due to reduced levels of the virus receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and higher basal levels of interferon in these cells. In summary, our study provides evidence for a model of coronavirus persistence in bats, along with the establishment of a unique persistently infected cell culture model to study MERS-CoV-bat interactions.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fibroblasts/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Point Mutation , Animals , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Viral Immunol ; 33(6): 468-476, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-94792

ABSTRACT

As a zoonotic disease, ovine contagious pustular dermatitis (Orf) is a serious threat to sheep as well as humans. Orf virus (ORFV) interferon resistance protein (VIR) is the principal virulence protein that encodes a dsRNA-binding protein to inhibit host antiviral response. p53 is one of the key proteins of the host antiviral innate immunity. It not only enhances type I interferon secretion but also induces apoptosis in infected cells, and plays a crucial role in the immune response against various viral infections. However, it remains to be elucidated what role p53 plays in ORFV replication and whether ORFV's own protein VIR regulates p53 expression to promote self-replication. In this study, we showed that p53 has an antiviral effect on ORFV and can inhibit ORFV replication. In addition, ORFV nonstructural protein VIR interacts with p53 and degrades p53, which inhibits p53-mediated positive regulation of downstream antiviral genes. This study provides new insight into the immune evasion mediated by ORFV and identifies VIR as an antagonistic factor for ORFV to evade the antiviral response.


Subject(s)
Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Orf virus/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Ecthyma, Contagious/virology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Goats , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunity, Innate , Kidney/cytology , Orf virus/physiology , Sheep , Skin/cytology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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