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1.
Br J Nutr ; 127(10): 1567-1587, 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805502

ABSTRACT

A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose-response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens' eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for 'real-world' cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D's importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , Financial Management , Adolescent , Animals , Chickens , Female , Food, Fortified , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Vitamins
2.
Health Secur ; 20(2): 147-153, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791062

ABSTRACT

Timely access to emergency funding has been identified as a bottleneck for outbreak response in Nigeria. In February 2019, a new revolving outbreak investigation fund (ROIF) was established by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). We abstracted the date of NCDC notification, date of verification, and date of response for 25 events that occurred prior to establishing the fund (April 2017 to August 2019) and for 8 events that occurred after establishing the fund (February to October 2019). The median time to notification (1 day) and to verification (0 days) did not change after establishing the ROIF, but the median time to response significantly decreased, from 6 days to 2 days (P = .003). Response to disease outbreaks was accelerated by access to emergency funding with a clear approval process. We recommend that the ROIF should be financed by the national government through budget allocation. Finally, development partners can provide financial support for the existing fund and technical assistance for protocol development toward financial accountability and sustainability.


Subject(s)
Financial Management , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
4.
Intern Med J ; 52(4): 680-682, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731166

ABSTRACT

The number of Australians affected by kidney disease will increase as the impacts of COVID-19 infection on kidney health are realised. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes significant health and economic burdens from dialysis costs, loss of employment, premature death and increased admissions to hospital. Screening for kidney disease must be integrated into post-COVID-19 care; however, currently there is no reimbursement for kidney health checks in primary care. Early detection can reduce the progression of CKD by as much as 50% and thus the imperative to fund the Kidney Health Check is now.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Australia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology
5.
J Environ Manage ; 305: 114358, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587286

ABSTRACT

Green bonds (GB) are gaining a prominent role in sustainable development because of their ability to fund environment-friendly projects. This study aims to investigate if investors can benefit from the risk diversification properties of including GB with other assets, particularly within the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we utilize a quantile-connectedness approach to examine a set of GB and traditional assets, i.e., commodities, stocks, and bonds, from 2008 to 2020. We find higher total time-varying risk spillovers during extreme high volatility periods than those with average and low volatility. For pairwise risk spillovers, GB offers more diversification opportunities when volatility is very low. Nevertheless, the diversification benefits increase during the COVID period. The strong bidirectional risk spillovers between GB and conventional bonds imply that GB can be considered a good alternative to traditional bonds while benefiting from their diversification potential, particularly with energy and agriculture. Our findings are useful for investors wishing to implement green diversification portfolio strategies in extreme volatility periods and act as an encouragement to policymakers to establish efficient policies to promote green finance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Agriculture , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059734, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546679

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, significant public funds have been invested worldwide into the research, development, and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products to combat the novel coronavirus. Traditionally, intellectual property (IP) rights have been justified in the pharmaceutical sector because of the time and cost associated with drug discovery and development. However, if (a) the cost of research for COVID-19 related innovations have largely been subsidized by the public through public research grants; (b) the time for development has been significantly reduced through publicly funded initiatives; and (c) manufacturing has been de-risked through taxpayer funded advance purchase agreements, should IP rights be asserted on innovations that have largely already been paid for by the public?. There needs to be clear legal and regulatory frameworks, informed by policy objectives such as principles of "responsible research and innovation" and "global public good," to ensure that outcomes of publicly funded efforts can ultimately reach the intended public. Without any access and production conditions associated with the use of public efforts, worldwide supplies to medical solutions that benefited from these public initiatives can be frustrated. This article proposes a legal framework to address future access and availability problems to medical innovations that benefit from publicly funded initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Commerce , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18759, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434154

ABSTRACT

Repayment failures of borrowers have greatly affected the sustainable development of the peer-to-peer (P2P) lending industry. The latest literature reveals that existing risk evaluation systems may ignore important signals and risk factors affecting P2P repayment. In our study, we applied four machine learning methods (random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting tree (XGBT), gradient boosting model (GBM), and neural network (NN)) to predict important factors affecting repayment by utilizing data from Renrendai.com in China from Thursday, January 1, 2015, to Tuesday, June 30, 2015. The results showed that borrowers who have passed video, mobile phone, job, residence or education level verification are more likely to default on loan repayment, whereas those who have passed identity and asset certification are less likely to default on loans. The accuracy and kappa value of the four methods all exceed 90%, and RF is superior to the other classification models. Our findings demonstrate important techniques for borrower screening by P2P companies and risk regulation by regulatory agencies. Our methodology and findings will help regulators, banks and creditors combat current financial disasters caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by addressing various financial risks and translating credit scoring improvements.


Subject(s)
Financing, Personal/economics , Machine Learning , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Financial Management , Financing, Personal/standards , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Global Health ; 17(1): 110, 2021 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the nearly half century since it began lending for population projects, the World Bank has become one of the largest financiers of global health projects and programs, a powerful voice in shaping health agendas in global governance spaces, and a mass producer of evidentiary knowledge for its preferred global health interventions. How can social scientists interrogate the role of the World Bank in shaping 'global health' in the current era? MAIN BODY: As a group of historians, social scientists, and public health officials with experience studying the effects of the institution's investment in health, we identify three challenges to this research. First, a future research agenda requires recognizing that the Bank is not a monolith, but rather has distinct inter-organizational groups that have shaped investment and discourse in complicated, and sometimes contradictory, ways. Second, we must consider how its influence on health policy and investment has changed significantly over time. Third, we must analyze its modes of engagement with other institutions within the global health landscape, and with the private sector. The unique relationships between Bank entities and countries that shape health policy, and the Bank's position as a center of research, permit it to have a formative influence on health economics as applied to international development. Addressing these challenges, we propose a future research agenda for the Bank's influence on global health through three overlapping objects of and domains for study: knowledge-based (shaping health policy knowledge), governance-based (shaping health governance), and finance-based (shaping health financing). We provide a review of case studies in each of these categories to inform this research agenda. CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rage, and as state and non-state actors work to build more inclusive and robust health systems around the world, it is more important than ever to consider how to best document and analyze the impacts of Bank's financial and technical investments in the Global South.


Subject(s)
Banking, Personal/organization & administration , Healthcare Financing , /methods , Banking, Personal/trends , Financial Management , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , /organization & administration
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403303

ABSTRACT

This paper uses event study based on the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model to study the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on China's financial market. It finds that the pandemic had an overall significant and negative impact on the stock prices of firms listed on SSE, SZSE and ChiNext. However, such impact appeared to be heterogeneous across industries, affecting listed firms in industries such as pharmaceutical and telecommunications positively, but those in services industries such as accommodation, catering, and commercial services negatively. Apparently, a crisis for some had been an opportunity for others. In addition, this paper seeks to understand the micro mechanism behind the heterogeneity of pandemic shock from the perspective of firms' financial position. It finds that listed firms with higher debt level were hit harder, whereas those with more net cash flow had displayed higher resilience against the blow of the pandemic. However, the opposite pattern is found among those listed on ChiNext and in industries severely devastated by the pandemic. These findings have policy implications in terms of preventing systemic financial risks and facilitating recovery during pandemic-induced economic downturns. It also helps investor adjust investment strategies, hedge against risks, and secure gains when the market conditions in general are unfavorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Economic , China/epidemiology , Financial Management , Industry , Investments
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1473-1482, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398942

ABSTRACT

People of color, immigrants, and those relying on the safety net have experienced a disproportionate share of the death and disease resulting from COVID-19 in the US. At the same time, Congress delegated great power to the Trump administration to distribute $178 billion in funding to health care providers. We studied the relationship between the relief received by 2,709 hospitals and community- and hospital-level characteristics. Funding through early February 2021 averaged $25.7 million per hospital. Our findings offer a mixed picture. Some correlates of real-world need, including serving a community with a very high share of Black residents or having a very high ratio of Medicaid revenue to beds, were associated with meaningfully increased funding. Other correlates of need-including serving a very high share of Hispanic residents or a Medically Underserved Area-were associated with decreased funding or no difference in funding. Our findings emphasize that funding formulas reflect consequential political judgments. In future allocations, the relationship between need and aid should be strengthened by de-emphasizing historical net patient revenue in favor of a broader set of community and hospital characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Hospitals , Humans , Medicaid , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255704, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Governments commonly fund research with specific applications in mind. Such mechanisms may facilitate 'research translation' but funders may employ strategies that can also undermine the integrity of both science and government. We estimated the prevalence and investigated correlates of funder efforts to suppress health behaviour intervention trial findings. METHODS: Our sampling frame was lead or corresponding authors of papers (published 2007-2017) included in a Cochrane review, reporting findings from trials of interventions to improve nutrition, physical activity, sexual health, smoking, and substance use. Suppression events were based on a previous survey of public health academics. Participants answered questions concerning seven suppression events in their efforts to report the trial, e.g., [I was…] "asked to suppress certain findings as they were viewed as being unfavourable." We also examined the association between information on study funder, geographical location, targeted health behaviour, country democracy rating and age of publication with reported suppression. FINDINGS: We received responses from 104 authors (50%) of 208 eligible trials, from North America (34%), Europe (33%), Oceania (17%), and other countries (16%). Eighteen percent reported at least one of the seven suppression events relating to the trial in question. The most commonly reported suppression event was funder(s) expressing reluctance to publish because they considered the results 'unfavourable' (9% reported). We found no strong associations with the subject of research, funding source, democracy, region, or year of publication. CONCLUSIONS: One in five researchers in this global sample reported being pressured to delay, alter, or not publish the findings of health behaviour intervention trials. Regulation of funder and university practices, establishing study registries, and compulsory disclosure of funding conditions in scientific journals, are needed to protect the integrity of public-good research.


Subject(s)
Financial Management/trends , Health Behavior , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Research Personnel/economics , /economics , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Europe , Exercise , Government Programs/economics , Humans , North America , Preventive Medicine/methods , Sexual Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0007956, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339406

ABSTRACT

In 2018, the government of the Republic of Korea (ROK), South Korean life science companies, and a group of international funders led by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a new and innovative funding agency to support neglected-disease research and development (R&D). The new venture is known as the Research Investment for Global Health Technology (RIGHT) Fund.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology/economics , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Biomedical Technology/organization & administration , Biomedical Technology/trends , Financial Management , Global Health/economics , Humans , Neglected Diseases/economics , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249852, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190167

ABSTRACT

This paper employs the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) model to estimate the nonlinear relationship between the money market rate and stock market liquidity in China from a multifractal perspective, leading to a better understanding of the complexity in the relationship between the interest rate and stock market liquidity. The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between the money market rate and stock market liquidity present antipersistence in the long run and that they tend to be positively persistent in the short run. The negative cross-correlations between the interest rate and stock market liquidity are more significant than the positive cross-correlations. Furthermore, the cross-correlations between the money market rate and stock market liquidity display multifractal characteristics, explaining the variations in the relationship between the interest rate and stock market liquidity at different time scales. In addition, the lower degree of multifractality in the cross-correlations between the money market rate and stock market liquidity confirms that it is effective for the interest rate to control stock market liquidity. The Chinese stock market liquidity is more sensitive to fluctuations in the money market rate in the short term and is inelastic in response to the money market rate in the long term. In particular, the positive cross-correlations between the money market rate and stock market liquidity in the short run become strong in periods of crises and emergencies. All the evidence proves that the interest rate policy is an emergency response rather than an effective response to mounting concerns regarding the economic impact of unexpected exogenous emergencies and that the interest rate cut policy will not be as effective as expected.


Subject(s)
Commerce/economics , Financial Management/economics , Models, Economic , China , Nonlinear Dynamics
20.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 46(5): 785-809, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150454

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The CARES Act of 2020 allocated provider relief funds to hospitals and other providers. We investigate whether these funds were distributed in a way that responded fairly to COVID-19-related medical and financial need. The US health care system is bifurcated into the "haves" and "have nots." The health care safety net hospitals, which were already financially weak, cared for the bulk of COVID-19 cases. In contrast, the "have" hospitals suffered financially because their most profitable procedures are elective and were postponed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: To obtain relief fund data for each hospital in the United States, we started with data from the HHS website. We use the RAND Hospital Data tool to analyze how fund distributions are associated with hospital characteristics. FINDINGS: Our analysis reveals that the "have" hospitals with the most days of cash on hand received more funding per bed than hospitals with fewer than 50 days of cash on hand (the "have nots"). CONCLUSIONS: Despite extreme racial inequities, which COVID-19 exposed early in the pandemic, the federal government rewards those hospitals that cater to the most privileged in the United States, leaving hospitals that predominantly serve low-income people of color with less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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