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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775952

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis. Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50-59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50-59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL. Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Adolescent , China , Cost of Illness , Financial Stress , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Quality of Life
2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 376-385, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774820

ABSTRACT

While the economic burden of influenza infection is well described among adults aged 65 and older, less is known about younger adults. A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the economic burden of seasonal influenza in adults aged 18 to 64 years, to identify the main determinants of direct and indirect costs, and to highlight any gaps in the existing published evidence. MEDLINE and Embase were searched from 2007 to February 7, 2020, for studies reporting primary influenza-related cost data (direct or indirect) or absenteeism data. Of the 2613 publications screened, 51 studies were included in this review. Half of them were conducted in the United States, and 71% of them described patients with influenza-like illness rather than laboratory-confirmed disease. Only 12 studies reported cost data specifically for at-risk populations. Extracted data highlighted that within the 18- to 64-year-old group, up to 88% of the economic burden of influenza was attributable to indirect costs, and up to 75% of overall direct costs were attributable to hospitalizations. Furthermore, within the 18- to 64-year-old group, influenza-related costs increased with age and underlying medical conditions. The reported cost of influenza-related hospitalizations was found to be up to 2.5 times higher among at-risk populations compared with not-at-risk populations. This review documents the considerable economic impact of influenza among adults aged 18 to 64. In this age group, most of the influenza costs are indirect, which are generally not recognized by decision makers. Future studies should focus on at-risk subgroups, lab-confirmed cases, and European countries.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Absenteeism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Financial Stress , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 117, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to find the direct economic losses due to the three viral causes of the avian respiratory syndrome, including Newcastle disease (ND), H9N2 influenza, and infectious bronchitis (IB) in stamped-out broiler farms during 2016-2017 across the country. This study was carried out on the information on cross-sectional monitoring in the years 2016-2017. The statistical society of the study was all the active broiler farms of the country stamped out due to respiratory syndrome. This study used compensation insurance data, and other sources. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed data. In total, during the study period, 132 broiler farms and 1,723,131 fowls were stamped out. According to the results of the present investigation, the sum of costs and losses due to respiratory complex was 9.47 $US Million, 2016-2017 (5.72 from $US Million chicken meat losses and 3.75 $US Million was the total cost). ND was the main cause of economic losses and costs with 3.86 $US equal to 40.8% of the total. Cost of feeding was the highest followed by veterinary services and medicines, vaccination, and 1-day-old chicks costs with 2.27, 1.11, 0.33, and 0.036 $US Million, 2016-2017. In conclusion, we need to improve the preventive measures against respiratory viruses, especially NDV. Additionally, as the cost of feeding was the largest, it is important to shorten the time interval between disease occurrence and stamping out to reduce the cost.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farms , Financial Stress , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
4.
J Epidemiol ; 32(4): 195-203, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected the most vulnerable populations. We assessed the prevalence and disparities of economic hardships and their impact on health deterioration in Japan. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nation-wide, cross-sectional, internet-based, self-reported survey conducted during August-September, 2020 with individuals aged 15-79 years in Japan (n = 25,482). Economic hardships and changes in various physical and mental health status were measured using sample-weighted data. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) were estimated to investigate the associations between economic hardships and health outcomes. RESULTS: During April-September, 2020 in Japan, 25.0%, 9.6%, 7.9%, and 3.1% of the respondents experienced income loss, money shortage, financial anxiety and financial exploitation, respectively, with higher prevalence among workers (vs non-workers). Stratifying by sex and working status, income loss was associated with physical health deterioration (APRs ranged from 1.45-1.95), mental health deterioration (APRs ranged from 1.47-1.68), and having serious psychological distress (APRs ranged from 1.41-2.01) across all strata. Shortage of money and financial anxiety were also associated with increased likelihood of all adverse health outcomes assessed, regardless of whether the hardships were pre-existing or experienced first time. Among non-working individuals, financial exploitation was associated with physical health deterioration among males (APR 1.88) and mental health deterioration among both males (APR 1.80) and females (APR 2.23), while such associations were not observed among working individuals. CONCLUSIONS: During the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, COVID-19-related economic hardships were associated with physical and mental health deterioration in Japan, particularly among the vulnerable populations. Timely and prompt responses are warranted to mitigate both economic and health burdens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Financial Stress , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Young Adult
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 73, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 disease has changed people's work and income. While recent evidence has documented the adverse impact of these changes on mental health outcomes, most research is focused on frontline healthcare workers and the reported association between income loss and mental health comes from high-income countries. In this study we examine the impact of changes in working conditions and income loss related to the COVID-19 lockdown on workers' mental health in Argentina. We also explore the role of psychological detachment from work and work-family interaction in mental health. METHODS: A total of 1049 participants aged between 18 and 65 who were working before the national lockdown in March 2020 were recruited using a national random telephone survey. Work conditions included: working at the usual workplace during the pandemic, working from home with flexible or fixed schedules, and being unemployed or unable to work due to the pandemic. Measures of financial hardship included income loss and self-reported financial problems related to the outbreak. Work-family interface included measures of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC). Mental health outcomes included burnout, life satisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data were collected in October 2020. RESULTS: Home-based telework under fixed schedules and unemployment impact negatively on mental health. Income loss and particularly self-reported financial problems were also associated with deterioration of mental health. More than half of the participants reported financial problems, and those who became unemployed during the pandemic experienced more often financial problems. Finally, psychological detachment from work positively influenced mental health; WFC and FWC were found to negatively impact on mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Countries' policies should focus on supporting workers facing economic hardships and unemployment to ameliorate the COVID-19' negative impact on mental health. Organisations can protect employees' mental health by actively encouraging psychological detachment from work and by help managing work-family interface. Longitudinal studies are needed to more thoroughly assess the long-term impact of the COVID-19-related changes in work and economic turndown on mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Stress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732044

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak, which was followed by home confinement, is expected to have had profound negative impact on the mental health of people. Associated factors, such as losing jobs and income, can be expected to lead to an increased risk of suffering from psychopathological problems. Therefore, this study was aimed at researching the associations of job and income loss with mental health, as well as the possible mediating role of perceived financial stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. The sample included 2381 Spanish workers who were interviewed right after the first COVID-19 lockdown. Measures were taken for generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, working conditions, sociodemographic variables, and perceived financial stress. Logistic regression models were calculated with psychological variables as outcomes, and with job loss and income loss as predictors. Mediation analyses were performed by adding the financial threat as a mediator. Nineteen point six percent and 33.9% of participants reported having lost their jobs and incomes due to the pandemic, respectively. Only income loss was related to a higher risk of suffering from depression and panic attacks. When adding financial stress as a mediator, the indirect effects of job and income loss on the mental health measures were found to be significant, therefore indicating mediation. These findings pinpoint the vulnerability of this population, and highlight the need for interventional and preventive programs targeting mental health in economic crisis scenarios, such as the current one. They also highlight the importance of implementing social and income policies during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Financial Stress/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715378

ABSTRACT

The economic disaster precipitated by the pandemic of COVID-19 changed people's perceptions of ordinary job stability and elevated it to an ultimate high level. To avoid being laid off, employees who are concerned about job stability may engage in unethical activities in the name of their employer. In this study, the influence of job instability on unethical organizational behaviour (UOB) was investigated through the mediating role of family financial pressure and distributive injustice. Perceptions of 830 employees working in hotels (5-star and 4-star) and travel agencies (Category A) were explored and further analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results asserted that family financial pressure and distributive injustice partially mediated the effects of job insecurity on UOB. Important insights on theoretical and practical implications were further deliberated towards the end of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tourism
8.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(3): e22250, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712065

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence that stress exposure increases risk for internalizing symptoms in youth, it remains unclear which youth are most vulnerable. This study examined whether youth's prepandemic late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical marker of sustained attention to affective stimuli, exacerbated the impact of stress on prospective increases in depression and anxiety symptoms from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 29 youth (ages 9-16, 82.8% girls) who completed depression and anxiety symptom measures and an affective words task to assess LPP to positive and negative self-referential stimuli prepandemic onset. Postpandemic onset, approximately 16.03 months (SD = 8.86) after their baseline assessments, youth again completed symptom measures as well as the UCLA Life Stress Interview to assess ongoing social and financial chronic stress. Results indicated a significant interaction between youth LPP to negative words and financial stress. Greater exposure to financial stress during the pandemic predicted greater anxiety symptom increases specifically for youth who demonstrated enhanced prepandemic LPP to negative words. Results were specific to the prediction of anxiety, but not depression, symptoms. If replicated in larger studies, findings highlight enhanced LPP to negative stimuli as a promising target for intervention for youth exposed to greater financial stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Depression/psychology , Female , Financial Stress , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
9.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 170: 106103, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578592

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is a major health concern globally and has been estimated to cause 10 million deaths worldwide by year 2050 if the current trend of inappropriate and excessive use of antibiotics continues. Although, the discovery of antibiotics has saved countless of lives for the past 80 years, increasing levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics would jeopardize the progress in clinical and agricultural sectors and may cause life-threatening situations even for previously treatable bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance would increase the levels of poverty of low-middle income countries mostly due to extended hospital stays, higher cost of treatment and untimely deaths that directly affect the total productivity rate. Recent incidences of antibiotic resistance have been gradually increasing globally and this may potentiate horizontal transmission of the resistant gene and have been linked with cross-resistance to other antibiotic families as well. This review summarizes the global burden of antibiotic resistance from the economic viewpoint, highlights the recent incidences of antibiotic resistance mainly related to Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus, describes the common mechanistic actions of antibiotic resistance and potential strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Financial Stress , Humans , Prevalence
10.
Public Health ; 203: 65-74, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the socio-economic burden imposed on the Chinese healthcare system during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate how COVID-19 impacted health and medical costs in China. Data were derived from a subdivision of the Centers for Disease control and Prevention of China. METHODS: We prospectively collected information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the designated hospitals to determine the cost of public health care and hospitalisation due to COVID-19. We estimated the resource use and direct medical costs associated with public health. RESULTS: The average costs, per case, for specimen collection and nucleic acid testing (NAT [specifically, polymerase chain reaction {PCR}]) in low-risk populations were $29.49 and $53.44, respectively; however, the average cost of NAT in high-risk populations was $297.94 per capita. The average costs per 1000 population for epidemiological surveys, disinfectant, health education and centralised isolation were $49.54, $247.01, $90.22 and $543.72, respectively. A single hospitalisation for COVID-19 in China cost a median of $2158.06 ($1961.13-$2325.65) in direct medical costs incurred only during hospitalisation, whereas the total costs associated with hospitalisation of patients with COVID-19 were estimated to have reached nearly $373.20 million in China as of 20, May, 2020. The cost of public health care associated with COVID-19 as of 20, May, 2020 ($6.83 billion) was 18.31 times that of hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the magnitude of resources needed to treat patients with COVID-19 and control the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures implemented by the Chinese government have been valuable in reducing the infection rate and may be cost-effective ways to control emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Financial Stress , Health Care Costs , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(12): 1785-1804, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591692

ABSTRACT

We examine how firms' prepandemic investments in human capital influence their use of workforce reductions and layoffs (hereafter, workforce reductions) as a response to financial pressures during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We contend that workforce reductions must be examined in the context of firms' broader financial and resource orchestration environments. First, we suggest that firms' relative exposure to pandemic financial pressures (PFPs) will determine their need to cut costs during the pandemic. Second, we argue that a firm's prior investments in employees' human capital will reduce the attractiveness of workforce reductions as a cost-cutting response to PFPs, as human capital investment (HCI) increases the value of employees' knowledge, skills, and abilities and motivation, thus inducing firms to seek alternative measures to reduce costs. We then argue that the attenuating influence of HCI on the effect of PFPs on workforce reductions will be stronger when HCI is matched with greater investments in physical capital, as employees' human capital will create more value-and will translate to a bigger loss following employee departures-in such circumstances. We demonstrate support for our hypotheses in a sample of 1,364 U.S. banks using data from quarterly Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) reports, news articles, and Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notifications (WARN) Act filings through the fourth quarter of 2020. We discuss implications for our understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organizations and employees and for research on resource orchestration and human capital. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Financial Stress , Humans , Investments , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
12.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 49-54, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an uptake of telehealth in cystic fibrosis care. Previous studies show disparities in telehealth use based on socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to: (1) understand telehealth use and perceptions and (2) identify the facilitators and barriers to telehealth use among people with CF and their families (PwCF) from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the 2020 Cystic Fibrosis State of Care surveys completed by PwCF (PFSoC), CF Care Programs (SoC1) and the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR). RESULTS: A total of 424 PwCF and 286 programs responded to the PFSoC and SoC1. Among PwCF, 90% self-identified as White, 6% as Hispanic/Latino, and 2% as Black. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to have had a telehealth visit (p=.015). This difference was pronounced among the Hispanic/Latino population (p<.01). Telehealth use did not differ by health insurance and was similarly offered independent of financial status. Compared to PwCF who denied financial constraints, those who reported financial difficulties found telehealth more difficult to use (p=.018) and were less likely to think that their concerns (p=.010) or issues that mattered most to them (p=.020) were addressed during telehealth. Programs perceived lack of technology, language barriers, and home conditions as barriers to telehealth in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: PFSoC and SoC1 identified differences in telehealth use and care perceptions by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. Further studies are needed to understand how telehealth can change access to CF care in diverse subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Minority Health , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/economics , Cystic Fibrosis/ethnology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Financial Stress/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Minority Health/ethnology , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581772

ABSTRACT

There has been resistance to COVID-19 public health restrictions partly due to changes and reductions in work, resulting in financial stress. Psychological reactance theory posits that such restrictions to personal freedoms result in anger, defiance, and motivation to restore freedom. In an online study (N = 301), we manipulated the target of COVID-19 restrictions as impacting self or community. We hypothesized that (a) greater pandemic-related financial stress would predict greater reactance, (b) the self-focused restriction condition would elicit greater reactance than the community-focused restriction condition, (c) reactance would be greatest for financially-stressed individuals in the self-focused condition, and (d) greater reactance would predict lower adherence to social distancing guidelines. Independent of political orientation and sense of community, greater financial stress predicted greater reactance only in the self-focused condition; the community-focused condition attenuated this association. Additionally, greater reactance was associated with lower social distancing behavior. These findings suggest that economic hardship exacerbates negative responses to continued personal freedom loss. Community-focused COVID-19 health messaging may be better received during continued pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Public Health/trends , Adult , Aged , Anger , Female , Financial Stress/economics , Freedom , Health Policy/economics , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics/economics , Physical Distancing , Psychological Theory , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23957, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau provided updates on the novel coronavirus and the government's responses to the pandemic in his daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020, delivered on the official Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) YouTube channel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine comments on Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings by YouTube users and track these comments to extract the changing dynamics of the opinions and concerns of the public over time. METHODS: We used machine learning techniques to longitudinally analyze a total of 46,732 English YouTube comments that were retrieved from 57 videos of Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020. A natural language processing model, latent Dirichlet allocation, was used to choose salient topics among the sampled comments for each of the 57 videos. Thematic analysis was used to classify and summarize these salient topics into different prominent themes. RESULTS: We found 11 prominent themes, including strict border measures, public responses to Prime Minister Trudeau's policies, essential work and frontline workers, individuals' financial challenges, rental and mortgage subsidies, quarantine, government financial aid for enterprises and individuals, personal protective equipment, Canada and China's relationship, vaccines, and reopening. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to longitudinally investigate public discourse and concerns related to Prime Minister Trudeau's daily COVID-19 briefings in Canada. This study contributes to establishing a real-time feedback loop between the public and public health officials on social media. Hearing and reacting to real concerns from the public can enhance trust between the government and the public to prepare for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Natural Language Processing , Public Health , Public Opinion , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Emigration and Immigration , Financial Stress , Financing, Government , Government , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Unsupervised Machine Learning
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(1): 123-124, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480367

ABSTRACT

Protecting the citizens who are living abroad has been a challenge for many countries during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In Bhutan, since the start of the pandemic, it has repatriated its citizens living and working abroad and putting them into a 21-day state-sponsored quarantine. They were also tested for COVID-19 on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that was funded by the government. While this measure is a blessing for its people, for the government it is a huge economic challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bhutan/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Government , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Osteoporos Int ; 33(3): 637-647, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459950

ABSTRACT

Fragility fractures are a frequent and costly event. In Austria, 92,835 fragility fractures occurred in patients aged ≥ 50 years in 2018, accruing direct costs of > 157 million €. Due to demographic aging, the number of fragility fractures and their associated costs are expected to increase even further. INTRODUCTION: Fragility fractures are frequently associated with long hospital stays, loss of independence, and increased need for care in the elderly, with consequences often leading to premature death. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of fragility fractures and associated healthcare costs in Austria in 2018. METHODS: The number of in-patient cases with relevant ICD-10 diagnoses in all Austrian public hospitals was derived from discharge documentation of diagnoses and procedures covering all public hospitals in Austria. Fractures resulting from falls from standing height in patients aged ≥ 50 years were used as a proxy for fragility fractures, and the number of in-patient and out-patient cases was estimated. The direct costs of these cases were calculated using the average cost of the corresponding in-patient hospital stay and the average cost for the out-patient stay. RESULTS: The present study estimated the number of fragility fractures (pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebra, hip, humerus, rib, forearm, and tibia) for 2018 at 92,835 or just over half of all fractures in patients aged ≥ 50 years, corresponding to a prevalence of 2,600 per 100,000 inhabitants of this age group. A constant increase in the proportion of fragility fractures among all fractures was observed with increasing age in both men and women. These fractures amounted to direct costs of > 157 million €. CONCLUSION: Fragility fractures are a frequent and costly event in Austria. Due to the aging of the population, the number of fragility fractures and their associated costs is expected to increase even further.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Hip Fractures , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Aged , Austria/epidemiology , Female , Financial Stress , Health Care Costs , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology
19.
Child Abuse Negl ; 121: 105258, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has exacerbated material hardship among grandparent-headed kinship families. Grandparent-headed kinship families receive financial assistance, which may mitigate material hardship and reduce child neglect risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine (1) the association between material hardship and child neglect risk; and (2) whether financial assistance moderates this association in a sample of kinship grandparent-headed families during COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from a convenience sample of grandparent-headed kinship families (not necessarily child welfare involved) (N = 362) in the United States via Qualtrics Panels online survey. METHODS: Descriptive, bivariate, and negative binomial regression were conducted using STATA 15.0. RESULTS: Experiencing material hardship was found to be associated with an increased risk of child neglect, and receiving financial assistance was associated with a decreased risk of child neglect in the full sample and a subsample with household income > $30,000. Receiving financial assistance buffered the negative effect of material hardship on child neglect risk across analytic samples, and receiving SNAP was a significant moderator in the full sample. Among families with a household income ≤ $30,000, receiving SNAP and foster care payments was associated with a decreased risk of child neglect, while receiving TANF and unemployment insurance was associated with an increased risk of child neglect. Among families with household income > $30,000, only receiving SNAP was associated with a decreased risk of child neglect. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the potential importance of providing concrete financial assistance, particularly SNAP and foster care payments, to grandparent-headed kinship families in efforts to decrease child neglect risk during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse , Financial Stress , Grandparents , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Foster , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360744

ABSTRACT

Several countries, including India, imposed mandatory social distancing, quarantine, and lockdowns to stop the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Although these measures were effective in curbing the spread of the virus, prolonged social distancing, quarantine, and the resultant economic disruption led to an increase in financial stress and mental health concerns. Prior studies established a link between the first lockdown and an increase in mental health issues. However, few studies investigated the association between post-lockdown financial hardship, job loss, and mental health. In this study, we examined the association between COVID-19-related financial hardship, job loss, and mental health symptoms approximately nine months after the end of the first nationwide lockdown in India. Job loss was associated with higher reporting of mental health symptoms among men (aIRR = 1.16) while financial hardship was associated with poor mental health symptoms among women (aIRR = 1.29). Conversely, social support and government aid were associated with better mental health symptoms among women. Our findings highlight the need for financial assistance and job creation programs to aid families in the recovery process. There is also an urgent need for improving the availability and affordability of mental health services in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Financial Stress , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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