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1.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1146-1150, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861996

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) received emergency use authorization for the acute treatment of COVID-19. We are not aware of published data on their use in immunosuppressed people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). We report 23 pwMS (mean age = 49 years, ocrelizumab (n = 19), fingolimod (n = 2), vaccinated with at least an initial series (n = 19)) who received mAb for acute COVID-19. Following mAb receipt, approximately half recovered in <7 days (48%). There were no adverse events or deaths. Use of mAb for pwMS treated with fingolimod or ocrelizumab was not observed to be harmful and is likely helpful for treatment of acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1155-1159, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggested that anti-CD20 and fingolimod may be associated with lower anti-spike protein-based immunoglobulin-G response following COVID-19 vaccination. We evaluated if COVID-19 occurred despite vaccination among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), using the COVISEP registry. CASE SERIES: We report 18 cases of COVID-19 after two doses of BNT162b2-vaccination, 13 of which treated with anti-CD20 and four with fingolimod. COVID-19 severity was mild. DISCUSSION: These results reinforce the recommendation for a third COVID-19 vaccine dose among anti-CD20 treated patients and stress the need for a prospective clinical and biological study on COVID-19 vaccine efficacy among MS and NMO patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , /administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Neuromyelitis Optica/complications , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a third vaccination shows an added effect on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T-cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with ocrelizumab or fingolimod. METHODS: This is a substudy of a prospective multicenter study on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab, fingolimod, and no disease-modifying therapies and healthy controls were included. The number of interferon (IFN)-γ secreting SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells at multiple time points before and after 3 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations were evaluated. RESULTS: In ocrelizumab-treated patients (N = 24), IFN-γ-producing SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were induced after 2 vaccinations with median levels comparable to healthy controls (N = 12) and patients with MS without disease-modifying therapies (N = 10). A third vaccination in ocrelizumab-treated patients (N = 8) boosted T-cell responses that had declined after the second vaccination, but did not lead to higher overall T-cell responses as compared to immediately after a second vaccination. In fingolimod-treated patients, no SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected after second (N = 12) and third (N = 9) vaccinations. DISCUSSION: In ocrelizumab-treated patients with MS, a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had no additive effect on the maximal T-cell response but did induce a boost response. In fingolimod-treated patients, no T-cell responses could be detected following both a second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Multiple Sclerosis , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
4.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2286-2292, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of multiple sclerosis [MS] patients treated with fingolimod fail to develop a protective level of IgG humoral and adaptive cellular immune responses following full BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the third COVID-19 vaccine dose in vaccine non-responders fingolimod-treated MS patients. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective 3-month, single-center, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Twenty relapsing MS patients who had been on fingolimod therapy ≥ 12 months and failed to develop humoral IgG immune response to 2-dose Pfizer BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination were randomized into two groups: fingolimod-continuation group and fingolimod-discontinuation group. Humoral and memory cellular immune responses were assessed within 1 and 3 months following the third Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine dose and compared between the groups. RESULTS: A higher rate of patients in the fingolimod-discontinuation group [n = 8/10] compared to fingolimod-continuation group [n = 2/10] developed positive SARS-COV-2 IgG. Median IgG titer 1 month following the third dose was 202.3 BAU/ml vs. 26.4 BAU/ml, respectively, p = 0.022. The development of IgG humoral response correlated with absolute lymphocyte count. Specific SARS-COV-2 memory B cell and T cell immune responses were not detected in both groups, either at 1 month or 3 months following the third COVID-19 vaccine dose. CONCLUSIONS: Short period of fingolimod treatment discontinuation was associated with the development of humoral protection but not with adaptive cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphocyte Count , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793012

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) might affect immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 exposure or vaccination in patients with MS (PwMS). We evaluated the effect of DMTs on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to 2 and 3 vaccinations and the longevity of SARS-Cov-2 IgG levels in PwMS. Methods: 522 PwMS and 68 healthy controls vaccinated with BNT162b2-Pfizer mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, or recovering from COVID-19, were recruited in a nation-wide multi-center study. Blood was collected at 3 time-points: 2-16 weeks and ~6 months post 2nd vaccination and 1-16 weeks following 3rd vaccination. Serological responses were measured by quantifying IgG levels against the spike-receptor-binding-domain of SARS-CoV-2, and cellular responses (in a subgroup analysis) by quantifying IFNγ secretion in blood incubated with COVID-19 spike-antigen. Results: 75% PwMS were seropositive post 2nd or 3rd vaccination. IgG levels decreased by 82% within 6 months from vaccination (p<0.0001), but were boosted 10.3 fold by the 3rd vaccination (p<0.0001), and 1.8 fold compared to ≤3m post 2nd vaccination (p=0.025). Patients treated with most DMTs were seropositive post 2nd and 3rd vaccinations, however only 38% and 44% of ocrelizumab-treated patients and 54% and 46% of fingolimod-treated patients, respectively, were seropositive. Similarly, in COVID-19-recovered patients only 54% of ocrelizumab-treated, 75% of fingolimod-treated and 67% of cladribine-treated patients were seropositive. A time interval of ≥5 months between ocrelizumab infusion and vaccination was associated with higher IgG levels (p=0.039 post-2nd vaccination; p=0.036 post-3rd vaccination), and with higher proportions of seropositive patients. Most fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treated patients responded similarly to 2nd and 3rd vaccination. IFNγ-T-cell responses were detected in 89% and 63% of PwMS post 2nd and 3rd vaccination, however in only 25% and 0% of fingolimod-treated patients, while in 100% and 86% of ocrelizumab-treated patients, respectively. Conclusion: PwMS treated with most DMTs developed humoral and T-cell responses following 2 and 3 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Fingolimod- or ocrelizumab-treated patients had diminished humoral responses, and fingolimod compromised the cellular responses, with no improvement after a 3rd booster. Vaccination following >5 months since ocrelizumab infusion was associated with better sero-positivity. These findings may contribute to the development of treatment-stratified vaccination guidelines for PwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Israel , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Real-world clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) receiving high efficacy (HE) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) such as Ocrelizumab (OCR) and Fingolimod (FNG). Long-term humoral response in pwMS treated with these HE-DMTs has been poorly investigated. The aim of our study was to explore: i) the humoral response up to six months after a full cycle of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG and to compare it to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs); ii) the relationship between humoral response and clinical and immunological characteristics of the studied population. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from HCs and pwMS treated with OCR or FNG at the following time points: before BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (T0), and 4 (T1), 8 (T2), 16 (T3) and 24 (T4) weeks after the first dose. Sera were stored at -20 °C and tested for the quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein (Anti-TSP IgG) expressed in binding antibody units (BAU). At T1 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titres were assessed. The relationship between Anti-TSP IgG at each time-point and clinical and laboratoristic analyses were analysed by the Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS: 47 HCs and 50 pwMS (28 on OCR and 22 on FNG) were included in the study. All HCs mounted a positive humoral response at T1 and preserved it up to six months. At T1 only 57.1% pwMS on OCR (p < 0.001 compared with HCs) and 40.9% on FNG (p < 0.001) had a positive humoral response at T1, with only 39.3% and 27.3% maintaining a positive response at sixth months (T4), respectively. A strong positive correlation was observed between Nabs titres and Anti-TSP IgG at T1 (rho 0.87, p < 0.0001) with NAbs titres significantly higher in HCs compared with pwMS on OCR and FNG (p<0.0001). We also found a strong positive correlation between time-window since last OCR infusion and anti-TSP IgG titres at all time-points (T1 rho=0.58, p = 0.001; T2 rho=0.59, p = 0.001; T3 rho=0.53, p = 0.004; T4 rho=0.47, p = 0.01). In the FNG group we observed a significant correlation between the humoral response measured from T1 to T4 and: i) treatment duration (T1: rho -0.65, p = 0.001; T2: rho -0.8 p< 0.001; T3: rho -0.72, p=<0.001; T4: rho -0.67, p<0.001), ii) disease duration (T1: rho -0.5, p = 0.017; T2: rho -0.6, p = 0.003; T3: rho -0.58, p = 0.005; T4: rho -0.57, p = 0.006), and iii) baseline total lymphocyte count (T1: rho 0.37, p = 0.08; T2: rho 0.45, p = 0.03; T3: rho 0.43, p = 0.04; T4: rho 0.45, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term data show a weakened and short-lasting humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG when compared with HCs. MS neurologists should take into account the time elapsed since the last infusion for pwMS on OCR, and the lymphocyte count as well as the disease and treatment duration for those on FNG when called to counsel such pwMS regarding the vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(2)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have assessed risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The potential role of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and demographic and clinical factors on the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been evaluated so far. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection in PwMS by using data collected in the Italian MS Register (IMSR). METHODS: A case-control (1:2) study was set up. Cases included PwMS with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, and controls included PwMS without a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Both groups were propensity score-matched by the date of COVID-19 diagnosis, the date of last visit, and the region of residence. No healthy controls were included in this study. COVID-19 risk was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models including demographic and clinical covariates. The impact of DMTs was assessed in 3 independent logistic regression models including one of the following covariates: last administered DMT, previous DMT sequences, or the place where the last treatment was administered. RESULTS: A total of 779 PwMS with confirmed COVID-19 (cases) were matched to 1,558 PwMS without COVID-19 (controls). In all 3 models, comorbidities, female sex, and a younger age were significantly associated (p < 0.02) with a higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Patients receiving natalizumab as last DMT (OR [95% CI]: 2.38 [1.66-3.42], p < 0.0001) and those who underwent an escalation treatment strategy (1.57 [1.16-2.13], p = 0.003) were at significantly higher COVID-19 risk. Moreover, PwMS receiving their last DMT requiring hospital access (1.65 [1.34-2.04], p < 0.0001) showed a significant higher risk than those taking self-administered DMTs at home. DISCUSSION: This case-control study embedded in the IMSR showed that PwMS at higher COVID-19 risk are younger, more frequently female individuals, and with comorbidities. Long-lasting escalation approach and last therapies that expose patients to the hospital environment seem to significantly increase the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection in PwMS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that among patients with MS, younger age, being female individuals, having more comorbidities, receiving natalizumab, undergoing an escalating treatment strategy, or receiving treatment at a hospital were associated with being infected with COVID-19. Among patients with MS who were infected with COVID-19, a severe course was associated with increasing age and having a progressive form of MS, whereas not being on treatment or receiving an interferon beta agent was protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors
8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103524, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of disease-modifying treatments on humoral response induced by inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines is understudied. METHODS: We recruited 34 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) under fingolimod treatment and 25 healthy individuals. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG indices were measured by ELISA in sera of participants after CoronaVac vaccinations. RESULTS: Persons with MS displayed significantly lower antibody levels and seropositivity prevalence. Persons with MS with longer fingolimod treatment durations displayed lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 indices. CONCLUSION: Our results support previous findings regarding humoral response impairing effect of fingolimod after vaccinations. Patients under fingolimod treatment may require closer monitoring for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Mult Scler ; 28(1): 132-138, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses unique challenges in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVES: To collect data about the impact of COVID-19 emergency on access to care for PwMS and on MS treatment practices. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) promoted an online survey covering patient access to care, management of relapses and visits, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and experience with COVID-19. RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty neurologists from 52 countries (68% from Europe) completed the survey. 98% reported COVID-19-related restrictions. Telemedicine was adopted to overcome the limited access to care and was newly activated (73%) or widely implemented (17%). 70% reported changes in DMT management. Interferons and glatiramer were considered safe. Dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod were considered safe except for patients developing lymphopenia. No modifications were considered for natalizumab in 64%, cladribine in 24%, anti-CD20 in 22% and alemtuzumab in 17%; 18% (for alemtuzumab and cladribine) and 43% (for anti-CD20) considered postponing treatment. CONCLUSION: The ECTRIMS survey highlighted the challenges in keeping standards of care in clinical practice. Telemedicine clearly needs to be implemented. Gathering data on DMT safety will remain crucial to inform treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103581, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affects immune response to antigens. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech,Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx,Inc). A blood collection before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche-Diagnostics). The log-transform of the antibody levels was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariable analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (201-fold decrease (95%CI=128-317), p < 0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease (95%CI=16-42), p < 0·001) and rituximab (20-fold decrease (95%CI=10-43), p < 0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in a systematically 3·25-fold higher antibody level (95%CI=2·46-4·27) than with the BNT162b2 vaccine (p < 0·001). The antibody levels on anti-CD20 therapies correlated to the time since last infusion, and rituximab had longer intervals (mean=386 days) than ocrelizumab patients (mean=129 days). INTERPRETATION: In pwMS, anti-CD20 treatment and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·25-higher antibody levels than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 treatment or fingolimod. Combining our data with those on the cellular immune response to vaccines, and including clinical follow-up, will contribute to better define the most appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies in the context of DMTs and MS. FUNDING: FISM[2021/Special-Multi/001]; Italian Ministry of Health'Progetto Z844A 5 × 1000'.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 39-43, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent observations suggest a lack of humoral response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with fingolimod or ocrelizumab OBJECTIVES: To assess serological response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in MS patients receiving these disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) in a real-life setting. METHODS: Retrospective clinical data collection from MS patients followed at San Raffaele Hospital MS Centre (Milan, Italy). All patients treated with fingolimod or ocrelizumab who had received a complete anti-COVID-19 vaccination course, with no clinical history suggestive of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and with an available post-vaccination serological assay obtained at least 14 days after vaccination completion were considered for the study. RESULTS: We collected data from 32 MS patients, 16 treated with fingolimod and 16 receiving ocrelizumab. Among the fingolimod group 10 patients (62.5%) had a positive serological response after vaccination and among ocrelizumab-treated patients a positive serological test was found in six cases (37.5%). No relation between serological response and clinical features (i.e., treatment duration, time between vaccination and last treatment dose, and white blood cells count) was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial real-life experience suggests a variable antibody production in MS patients receiving these DMTs. At present, there are no sufficient data to do not recommend anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Italy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
12.
CNS Drugs ; 35(3): 317-330, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) target immunity and have the potential to increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and alter its clinical course. We assessed these risks in patients with MS (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the overall risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, severe disease course, and potential population-level predictors of COVID-19 infection in PwMS, and to provide a context using a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, the association of different MS DMTs with the incidence and clinical course of COVID-19 was evaluated. Safety data from the Biogen Global Safety Database are also presented on reported cases of COVID-19 in patients treated with Biogen MS therapies. METHODS: The IBM® Explorys electronic health record database of > 72,000,000 patients from US healthcare networks identified patients with MS or SLE, with and without polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19. COVID-19 cumulative incidence, hospitalization, and deaths among DMT classes were compared using logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and race/ethnicity). As a secondary data source to assess safety data, COVID-19 reports for Biogen MS therapies were extracted and described from Biogen's Global Safety Database. RESULTS: 30,478 PwMS with an open DMT prescription were identified within Explorys; 344 were COVID-19 positive. The most significant risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 were comorbidity score ≥ 1, body mass index ≥ 30, and Black/African ancestry. Similar risk factors were also identified for patients with SLE. Patients with MS were less likely to develop COVID-19 when treated with interferons (0.61%) and glatiramer acetate (0.51%), vs all other MS DMTs (both p < 0.001); anti-CD20 therapy was associated with the highest risk (3.45%; p < 0.0001). In the Biogen Global Safety Database, we identified 1217 patients who were COVID-19 positive treated with intramuscular interferon beta-1a, peginterferon beta-1a, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, diroximel fumarate, or fampridine. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, obesity, and Black/African ancestry, but not age, were associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PwMS. Interferons and glatiramer acetate were associated with a reduced COVID-19 risk, whereas anti-CD20 therapies were associated with an increased risk, within the treated MS cohort. COVID-19 safety reports for patients receiving Biogen MS therapies were consistent with the Explorys database and MS literature, illustrating the replicability and power of this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mitoxantrone/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Nitriles , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Toluidines/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 780-789, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of PwMS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. All the patients had complete follow-up to death or recovery. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a 3-level variable: mild disease not requiring hospitalization versus pneumonia or hospitalization versus intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We evaluated baseline characteristics and MS therapies associated with severe COVID-19 by multivariate and propensity score (PS)-weighted ordinal logistic models. Sensitivity analyses were run to confirm the results. RESULTS: Of 844 PwMS with suspected (n = 565) or confirmed (n = 279) COVID-19, 13 (1.54%) died; 11 of them were in a progressive MS phase, and 8 were without any therapy. Thirty-eight (4.5%) were admitted to an ICU; 99 (11.7%) had radiologically documented pneumonia; 96 (11.4%) were hospitalized. After adjusting for region, age, sex, progressive MS course, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration, body mass index, comorbidities, and recent methylprednisolone use, therapy with an anti-CD20 agent (ocrelizumab or rituximab) was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-4.74, p = 0.015) with increased risk of severe COVID-19. Recent use (<1 month) of methylprednisolone was also associated with a worse outcome (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.20-12.53, p = 0.001). Results were confirmed by the PS-weighted analysis and by all the sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: This study showed an acceptable level of safety of therapies with a broad array of mechanisms of action. However, some specific elements of risk emerged. These will need to be considered while the COVID-19 pandemic persists. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:780-789.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Interferons/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e84-e87, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044364

ABSTRACT

Despite the recent announcement of promising drug candidates to treat COVID-19, there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. There is strong evidence that acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), likely triggered by a cytokine storm, is responsible for the severity of disease seen in COVID-19 patients. In support of this hypothesis, pilot studies using IL-6 receptor inhibitors such as tocilizumab have shown promising results. Therefore, the use of drugs or cocktails of drugs with broader ability to inhibit these cytokine receptors is likely to be effective. In this article, we propose the use of sphingosine analogues, which have been shown to mitigate acute lung damage in animal models of ALI/ARDS, as early adjuvant therapies to prevent and/or mitigate the cytokine response in COVID-19 patients. This proposal is based on the ability of these drugs to decrease the production of IL-6 and other cytokines. The potential application of fingolimod (FTY720), the oldest sphingosine analogue approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, in the early stages of COVID-19 is discussed in more detail as a prototype drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102754, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raises particular concerns for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) on disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), and for physicians caring for them. The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on PwMS receiving DMTs that inhibit immune cell trafficking, such as natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY), remains to be determined, as do the possible effects of these drugs on both the infection and the related disease. AIMS: To describe self-reported COVID-19 symptoms and disease severity in PwMS on NTZ or FTY who received serology confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 27th April to 3rd May 2020, telephone interviews were conducted with 140 PwMS under treatment with NTZ or FTY in order to collect structured data on multiple sclerosis (MS) and COVID-19. The patients, all followed at our center, were classified as symptomatic, paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic on the basis of their self-reported clinical characteristics. COVID-19 severity was rated on a 7-point ordinal scale. In addition, in the period 4th May to 3rd June 2020 SARS-CoV-2 serology testing, using the Roche SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (ElecsysⓇ), was performed in 104/140 (74.2%) of the interviewed PwMS (50 treated with NTZ and 54 with FTY). RESULTS: 14/104 (13.4%) PwMS on NTZ or FTY had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: 8 met the criteria for asymptomatic, 3 for paucisymptomatic and 3 for symptomatic COVID-19 (COVID-19 severity score lower than 3). None of them required hospitalization or showed severe COVID-19 complications. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively high SARS CoV-2 seroprevalence found in this sample of PwMS, all the positive cases showed either no or only mild COVID-19 symptoms. These reassuring findings indicate a lack of COVID-19 complications in PwMS on DMTs and support the hypothesis that it is safe to maintain ongoing treatment with these drugs in the current setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Natalizumab/adverse effects , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102437, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688895

ABSTRACT

We encourage studies on the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis drugs for the treatment of ARDS in COVID-19 infection. These drugs, through the inhibition of the RhoA/actin-dependent expression of virus receptors in the macrophages and macrophage recruitment to the lungs, have the potential to inhibit cytokine storm of lung macrophages, reduce or eliminate ARDS and improve the outcome of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Benzyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 546-549, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636250

ABSTRACT

The role of disease-modifying therapies in patients with autoimmune disorders during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection is controversial. Immunocompromised patients could have a more severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) due to the absence of an adequate immune response against the SARS-CoV-2. However, therapies that act on immune response could play a protective role by dampening the cytokine-release syndrome. Fingolimod is a drug used for immune therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) through the sequestration of activated lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with relapsing-remitting MS treated with fingolimod that showed a reactivation of COVID-19 with signs of hyperinflammation syndrome after fingolimod withdrawal. Our case suggests that discontinuation of fingolimod during COVID-19 could imply a worsening of SARS-CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral
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