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1.
J Wound Care ; 31(10): 824-831, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: More specific strategies are needed to support children requiring skin grafting. Our goal was to identify procedures that reduce operating times, post-operative complications, pain and length of hospital stay. Patient safety, optimal wound bed support and quick micro-debridement with locoregional anaesthesia were prioritised. Ultimately, a novel acellular fish skin graft (FSG) derived from north Atlantic cod was selected for use. METHOD: We admitted consecutive paediatric patients with various lesions requiring skin grafting for definitive wound closure. All FSGs were applied and bolstered in the operating room following debridement. RESULTS: In a cohort of 15 patients, the average age was 8 years and 9 months (4 years 1 month-13 years 5 months). Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was given to 12 patients. Rapid wound healing was observed in all patients, with a wound area coverage of 100% and complete healing in 95% of wounds. Time until engraftment in patients receiving NPWT was reduced by about a half (to an average 12 days) from our standard experience of 21 days. Ten patients received locoregional anaesthesia and were discharged after day surgery. The operating time was <60 minutes, and no complications or allergic reactions were reported. Excellent pliability of the healed wound was achieved in all patients, without signs of itching and scratching in the postoperative period. This case series is the first and largest using FSG to treat paediatric patients with different wound aetiologies. We attribute the rapid transition to acute wound status and the good pliability of the new epidermal-dermal complex to the preserved molecular components of the FSG, including omega-3. CONCLUSION: FSG represents an innovative and sustainable solution for paediatric wound care that results in shorter surgery time and reduced hospital stays, with accelerated wound healing times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Skin Transplantation/methods , Wound Healing
2.
Harmful Algae ; 118: 102287, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061194

ABSTRACT

A bloom of the fish-killing haptophyte Chrysochromulina leadbeateri in northern Norway during May and June 2019 was the most harmful algal event ever recorded in the region, causing massive mortalities of farmed salmon. Accordingly, oceanographic and biodiversity aspects of the bloom were studied in unprecedented detail, based on metabarcoding and physico-chemical and biotic factors related with the dynamics and distribution of the bloom. Light- and electron-microscopical observations of nanoplankton samples from diverse locations confirmed that C. leadbeateri was dominant in the bloom and the primary cause of associated fish mortalities. Cell counts by light microscopy and flow cytometry were obtained throughout the regional bloom within and adjacent to five fjord systems. Metabarcoding sequences of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene from field material collected during the bloom and a cultured isolate from offshore of Tromsøy island confirmed the species identification. Sequences from three genetic markers (18S, 28S rRNA gene and ITS region) verified the close if not identical genetic similarity to C. leadbeateri from a previous massive fish-killing bloom in 1991 in northern Norway. The distribution and cell abundance of C. leadbeateri and related Chrysochromulina species in the recent incident were tracked by integrating observations from metabarcoding sequences of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene. Metabarcoding revealed at least 14 distinct Chrysochromulina variants, including putative cryptic species. C. leadbeateri was by far the most abundant of these species, but with high intraspecific genetic variability. Highest cell abundance of up to 2.7 × 107 cells L - 1 of C. leadbeateri was found in Balsfjorden; the high cell densities were associated with stratification near the pycnocline (at ca. 12 m depth) within the fjord. The cell abundance of C. leadbeateri showed positive correlations with temperature, negative correlation with salinity, and a slightly positive correlation with ambient phosphate and nitrate concentrations. The spatio-temporal succession of the C. leadbeateri bloom suggests independent initiation from existing pre-bloom populations in local zones, perhaps sustained and supplemented over time by northeastward advection of the bloom from the fjords.


Subject(s)
Haptophyta , Animals , Fishes , Genetic Markers , Haptophyta/genetics , Nitrates , Phosphates , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055223

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern in which fish consumption is an important key element. In Spain, fish intake is the second highest in Europe. Dietary guidelines recommend an intake of 1-3 portions a week of fish. However, Spanish fish sales have been decreasing since 2008. The unexpected pandemic spread of the SARS-CoV-2 in 2020 led the Spanish Government to take restrictive measures that had an impact on people's behavior, including food purchases and consumption. The aim of the study was to analyze purchase data of fish, seafood, and fish products during the lockdown in Spain, using data from loyalty card holders (>5,000,000 participants) from a hypermarket chain in Spain. The results show a 45% increase in the purchase of all types of fish, seafood, and fish products, with the highest increment observed in the retiree (+65 years) as compared to the younger populations. Moreover, the retiree, in spite of the digital divide, were also the ones that most increased online shopping. These data should be considered since events like COVID-19 confinement can have a permanent impact on people's dietary habits, a possibility that should be monitored in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Fish Products , Fishes , Habits , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seafood , Spain/epidemiology
4.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(3): 423-435, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on aquaculture input supply, production, distribution, and consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns, social distancing, supply chain disruptions, and transport restrictions affect seafood production, distribution, marketing, and consumption. Recommendations are suggested to overcome these challenges. The COVID-19 has led to disruption of aquaculture practices worldwide. The pandemic has adversely affected the aquaculture input supply of fish stocking and feeding, which, in turn, has impacted aquaculture production. Moreover, the COVID-19 crisis has had adverse effects on value addition to aquaculture products, through the restrictions of seafood marketing and exporting. Aquatic food production is vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19 outbreak; hence, adaptation strategies must be developed to cope with the challenges. There is an urgent need for collaboration among key stakeholders to rebuild the supply chain of inputs and fish marketing for sustainable aquaculture practices. International agencies, donors, government and non-governmental organizations, researchers, and policymakers need to develop policies to support aquaculture production and supply chains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Aquaculture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Fishes , Food Supply , Pandemics
5.
Mar Drugs ; 20(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979311

ABSTRACT

Lectins are a unique group of nonimmune carbohydrate-binding proteins or glycoproteins that exhibit specific and reversible carbohydrate-binding activity in a non-catalytic manner. Lectins have diverse sources and are classified according to their origins, such as plant lectins, animal lectins, and fish lectins. Marine organisms including fish, crustaceans, and mollusks produce a myriad of lectins, including rhamnose binding lectins (RBL), fucose-binding lectins (FTL), mannose-binding lectin, galectins, galactose binding lectins, and C-type lectins. The widely used method of extracting lectins from marine samples is a simple two-step process employing a polar salt solution and purification by column chromatography. Lectins exert several immunomodulatory functions, including pathogen recognition, inflammatory reactions, participating in various hemocyte functions (e.g., agglutination), phagocytic reactions, among others. Lectins can also control cell proliferation, protein folding, RNA splicing, and trafficking of molecules. Due to their reported biological and pharmaceutical activities, lectins have attracted the attention of scientists and industries (i.e., food, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries). Therefore, this review aims to update current information on lectins from marine organisms, their characterization, extraction, and biofunctionalities.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Organisms , Plant Lectins , Animals , Fishes , Galectins , Glycoproteins , Lectins, C-Type
6.
Curr Biol ; 32(14): R765-R766, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956116

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has presented a unique opportunity to explore the consequences of illegal exploitation on wildlife communities, as it continues to have wide-reaching impacts on multiple sectors, including local and national economies, international trade, and conservation enforcement1. The ongoing reductions in monitoring and enforcement during the pandemic have allowed increased opportunities for illegal, unreported, and unregulated activities, particularly for small-scale fisheries2. Even before the pandemic, policymakers and fisheries managers intent on controlling illegal fishing activities established marine protected areas (MPAs) that restrict or prohibit fishing3. Unfortunately, non-compliance with MPAs is often the rule rather than the exception, and less than 10% of the world's MPAs have managed to effectively reduce infringement4. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these management challenges: a recent review of MPAs worldwide has revealed a general decline in tourism revenue to operate park services during the pandemic, especially revenue needed for supporting personnel to monitor, patrol, and enforce restrictions2. Here, we compile infraction records of illegal fishing activities by both professional (commercial) and amateur (recreational) boats inside and outside of the Tupinambás Ecological Station and the Alcatrazes Wildlife Refuge (Figure 1A), notable for its high reef-fish biomass and diversity in the Southwestern Atlantic5. We show that illegal exploitation has shifted since the onset of the pandemic, targeting larger, higher-value species that contribute disproportionately to the structure and function of reef-fish communities in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conservation of Natural Resources , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , Ecosystem , Fisheries , Fishes , Humans , Hunting , Internationality , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 181: 113883, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914800

ABSTRACT

Face masks have been adopted as an essential measure to prevent transmission and spread of the virus infection during the pandemic of Covid-19. The present study evaluates the potential microfibers transfer from face masks to other recipients and the potential cross-contamination of samples by microfibers released from masks worn during the analysis of microlitter ingestion by fish. Results indicated that masks could easily transfer endogenous (originated from the mask tissue itself) and exogenous microfibers (with a different origin than the mask tissue itself) to other recipients (adhesive tape and air in our experiment). Exogenous fibers may be carried from everywhere and potentially released everywhere. Microfibers are also released into the air, driven by the airflow generated by breathing, and can be transferred to blanks and samples. Microfiber contamination by facial masks increases the risk of samples cross-contamination and raises concerns about the results reliability of the microlitter analysis on marine biota.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Biota , Fishes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Biomolecules ; 12(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855504

ABSTRACT

Global food systems are under significant pressure to provide enough food, particularly protein-rich foods whose demand is on the rise in times of crisis and inflation, as presently existing due to post-COVID-19 pandemic effects and ongoing conflict in Ukraine and resulting in looming food insecurity, according to FAO. Cultivated meat (CM) and cultivated seafood (CS) are protein-rich alternatives for traditional meat and fish that are obtained via cellular agriculture (CA) i.e., tissue engineering for food applications. Stem and progenitor cells are the building blocks and starting point for any CA bioprocess. This review presents CA-relevant vertebrate cell types and procedures needed for their myogenic and adipogenic differentiation since muscle and fat tissue are the primary target tissues for CM/CS production. The review also describes existing challenges, such as a need for immortalized cell lines, or physical and biochemical parameters needed for enhanced meat/fat culture efficiency and ways to address them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Meat , Stem Cells
10.
J Fish Dis ; 45(6): 931-938, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846235
11.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 22, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: American shad (Alosa sapidissima) is an important migratory fish under Alosinae and has long been valued for its economic, nutritional and cultural attributes. Overfishing and barriers across the passage made it vulnerable to sustain. To protect this valuable species, aquaculture action plans have been taken though there are no published genetic resources prevailing yet. Here, we reported the first de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome of A. sapidissima using blood and brain tissues. DATA DESCRIPTION: We generated 160,481 and 129,040 non-redundant transcripts from brain and blood tissues. The entire work strategy involved RNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing, de novo assembly, filtering, annotation and validation. Both coding and non-coding transcripts were annotated against Swissprot and Pfam datasets. Nearly, 83% coding transcripts were functionally assigned. Protein clustering with clupeiform and non-clupeiform taxa revealed ~ 82% coding transcripts retained the orthologue relationship which improved confidence over annotation procedure. This study will serve as a useful resource in future for the research community to elucidate molecular mechanisms for several key traits like migration which is fascinating in clupeiform shads.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Transcriptome , Animals , Brain , Fisheries , Fishes/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 798712, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779939

ABSTRACT

The immune system is a complex and sophisticated biological system, spanning multiple levels of complexity, from the molecular level to that of tissue. Our current understanding of its function and complexity, of the heterogeneity of leukocytes, is a result of decades of concentrated efforts to delineate cellular markers using conventional methods of antibody screening and antigen identification. In mammalian models, this led to in-depth understanding of individual leukocyte subsets, their phenotypes, and their roles in health and disease. The field was further propelled forward by the development of single-cell (sc) RNA-seq technologies, offering an even broader and more integrated view of how cells work together to generate a particular response. Consequently, the adoption of scRNA-seq revealed the unexpected plasticity and heterogeneity of leukocyte populations and shifted several long-standing paradigms of immunology. This review article highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by scRNA-seq technology to unveil the individual contributions of leukocyte subsets and their crosstalk in generating the overall immune responses in bony fishes. Single-cell transcriptomics allow identifying unseen relationships, and formulating novel hypotheses tailored for teleost species, without the need to rely on the limited number of fish-specific antibodies and pre-selected markers. Several recent studies on single-cell transcriptomes of fish have already identified previously unnoticed expression signatures and provided astonishing insights into the diversity of teleost leukocytes and the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Without a doubt, scRNA-seq in tandem with bioinformatics tools and state-of-the-art methods, will facilitate studying the teleost immune system by not only defining key markers, but also teaching us about lymphoid tissue organization, development/differentiation, cell-cell interactions, antigen receptor repertoires, states of health and disease, all across time and space in fishes. These advances will invite more researchers to develop the tools necessary to explore the immunology of fishes, which remain non-conventional animal models from which we have much to learn.


Subject(s)
Fishes/genetics , Fishes/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Immunity , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
13.
Food Funct ; 11(6): 5565-5572, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721602

ABSTRACT

To date, no specific drug has been discovered for the treatment of COVID-19 and hence, people are in a state of anxiety. Thus, there is an urgent need to search for various possible strategies including nutritional supplementation. In this study, we have tried to provide a reference for protein supplementation. Specifically, 20 marine fish proteins were subjected to in silico hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes, and a large number of active peptides were generated. Then, the binding abilities of these peptides to SARS-CoV-2 main protease and monoamine oxidase A were assessed. The results showed that NADH dehydrogenase could be a good protein source in generating potent binders to the two enzymes, followed by cytochrome b. In addition, some high-affinity oligopeptides (VIQY, ICIY, PISQF, VISAW, AIPAW, and PVSQF) were identified as dual binders to the two enzymes. In summary, the supplementation of some fish proteins can be helpful for COVID-19 patients; the identified oligopeptides can be used as the lead compounds to design potential inhibitors against COVID-19 and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Monoamine Oxidase/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aquatic Organisms , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Decapodiformes/metabolism , Fish Proteins/chemistry , Fish Proteins/therapeutic use , Fishes/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors , Pandemics , Perciformes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmon/metabolism , Tuna/metabolism
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6492, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514412

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented cancellations of fisheries and ecosystem-assessment surveys, resulting in a recession of observations needed for management and conservation globally. This unavoidable reduction of survey data poses challenges for informing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, developing future stock assessments of harvested species, and providing strategic advice for ecosystem-based management. We present a diversified framework involving integration of monitoring data with empirical models and simulations to inform ecosystem status within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We augment trawl observations collected from a limited fisheries survey with survey effort reduction simulations, use of seabird diets as indicators of fish abundance, and krill species distribution modeling trained on past observations. This diversified approach allows for evaluation of ecosystem status during data-poor situations, especially during the COVID-19 era. The challenges to ecosystem monitoring imposed by the pandemic may be overcome by preparing for unexpected effort reduction, linking disparate ecosystem indicators, and applying new species modeling techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Fisheries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biodiversity , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fishes , Food Chain , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481010

ABSTRACT

Paramyxoviruses, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, pose a critical threat to human public health. Currently, 78 species, 17 genera, and 4 subfamilies of paramyxoviruses are harbored by multiple natural reservoirs, including rodents, bats, birds, reptiles, and fish. Henipaviruses are critical zoonotic pathogens that cause severe acute respiratory distress and neurological diseases in humans. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 115 Crocidura species individuals were examined for the prevalence of paramyxovirus infections. Paramyxovirus RNA was observed in 26 (22.6%) shrews collected at five trapping sites, Republic of Korea. Herein, we report two genetically distinct novel paramyxoviruses (genus: Henipavirus): Gamak virus (GAKV) and Daeryong virus (DARV) isolated from C. lasiura and C. shantungensis, respectively. Two GAKVs and one DARV were nearly completely sequenced using next-generation sequencing. GAKV and DARV contain six genes (3'-N-P-M-F-G-L-5') with genome sizes of 18,460 nucleotides and 19,471 nucleotides, respectively. The phylogenetic inference demonstrated that GAKV and DARV form independent genetic lineages of Henipavirus in Crocidura species. GAKV-infected human lung epithelial cells elicited the induction of type I/III interferons, interferon-stimulated genes, and proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, this study contributes further understandings of the molecular prevalence, genetic characteristics and diversity, and zoonotic potential of novel paramyxoviruses in shrews.


Subject(s)
Henipavirus/classification , Henipavirus/genetics , Paramyxovirinae/classification , Paramyxovirinae/genetics , Phylogeny , Shrews/virology , Animals , Biodiversity , Birds/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Fishes/virology , Henipavirus/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Interferons , Paramyxovirinae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/classification , Reptiles/virology , Republic of Korea , Rodentia/virology , Viral Zoonoses/virology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463703

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system-related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate the antiviral effect on the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultra-centrifugation were internalized by mandarin fish fry cells and were able to inhibit Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection, the protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It was found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated by exosomes. Furthermore, the mandarin fish Mx1 protein was proven to be transferred into the recipient cells though exosomes. Our results showed that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication, which suggested an underlying mechanism of the exosome antivirus in that it incorporates Mx1 protein and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.


Subject(s)
DNA Virus Infections , Exosomes , Fish Diseases , Fish Proteins , Fishes , Iridoviridae , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Animals , Cell Line , DNA Virus Infections/blood , DNA Virus Infections/immunology , DNA Virus Infections/veterinary , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Fish Diseases/blood , Fish Diseases/immunology , Fish Proteins/blood , Fish Proteins/immunology , Fishes/blood , Fishes/immunology , Fishes/virology , Iridoviridae/immunology , Iridoviridae/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/blood , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146433, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379217

ABSTRACT

Microplastics (MPs) are widely distributed and extensively found within marine ecosystems, and approximately 8 million tons of plastics are being dumped into the sea annually. Once reached the marine environment, plastics tend to get fragmented into smaller particles through photo-degradation, mechanical and biological processes. These MPs have raised concerns globally due to their potential toxic impacts on a wide variety of aquatic fauna and humans. Ingested microplastics can cause severe health implications in fishes, including reduced feeding intensity, improper gill functioning, immuno-suppression, and compromised reproducibility. Several studies were also conducted to scrutinize MPs trophic transfer through the food chain from primary producers to top predators and their bioaccumulation. This paper briefly summarizes all the possible sources, routes, bioavailability, trophic transfer, and consequences of microplastics in fishes. The review article also intended to highlight various mitigation strategies like implementing Four R's concept (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle), integrated strategies, ban on single-use plastics, use bioplastics, and create behavioural changes with public awareness.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Fishes , Humans , Plastics/toxicity , Reproducibility of Results , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 170: 105451, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366628

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a global lockdown in mid-2020, leading to a rapid decline in international travel and tourism. In French Polynesia, marine-based tourism activities ceased in March 2020 with the suspension of international flights (i.e., 45 days - between 20th March and 04th May 2020), slowly restarting between May-July as domestic and international visitors returned. The impacts of this rapid change in human activity at reef tourism sites on associated reef fishes was examined at Bora-Bora Island through underwater surveys of five control and nine eco-tourism sites. Our results showed that fish density significantly increased from March to May (i.e., the overall density of fishes increased by 143% and harvested species by 215%), but returned to pre-lockdown levels by August 2020. At the usually busy eco-tourism sites, fish diversity, notably of piscivores, omnivores, and benthic feeders, was higher in the absence of tourists. The impact observed is almost certainly related to short term changes in fish behavior, as any density fluctuations at the population level are unlikely to have happened over such a short time frame. Overall, these findings highlight the influence of human activities on fish communities and underline the need for further research to evaluate the environmental impacts of eco-tourism.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , COVID-19 , Coral Reefs , Tourism , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Fishes , Humans , Pandemics , Polynesia
20.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 33(5): 235-246, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258318

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean diet (MDiet) reduces morbidity and mortality. The lockdown that took place in Spain between the months of March and May 2020 may have led to behavioural changes. The aim of the present study was to assess adherence to the MDiet at the end of the lockdown period and to compare it with the situation prior to it. METHODS: Data were obtained by means of 2online questionnaires, one at the beginning of lockdown and the other at the end, completed by adults from the Spanish population, who responded anonymously and voluntarily. The assessment of adherence to the MDiet was carried out using 2questionnaires: Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and modified PREDIMED, which contained 14 questions each. Other variables included were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), autonomous community of origin, home living conditions, and level of studies achieved. At the end of the lockdown period, the comparison was made using the Student t statistic and the McNemar test. RESULTS: A total of 207 people (137 women) participated, with a mean age 51.3±12.4 years, age range: 20-83 years. After lockdown, BMI remained unchanged (initial 24.55±3.7kg/m2 and final 24.57±3.7kg/m2, P=.752), as well as fish consumption (initial 51.2%) and 60.9% at the end, P=.003), mainly due to the women, and adherence to the Mdiet. The mean total score of MEDAS increased with 10.16±2.0 at the beginning, and 10.57±2.0 at the end; P=.001). This also occurred with the modified PREDIMED (9.47±2.1 at the beginning and 9.93±2.1 at the end, P<.001). Similarly, the proportion of participants that had a score classified as high at the beginning increased at the end of lockdown: from 80.7% initially in MEDAS to 87.9% at the end (P=.021) and from 68.6% initially in modified PREDIMED to 75.8% at the end (P=.037). CONCLUSIONS: In the study sample, during lockdown there were no changes in BMI, but there were increases in fish consumption and adherence to the MDiet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Female , Fishes , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Meat , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
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