Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions induced by IFN. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent manner, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.
Subject(s)Flavivirus , Interferons , Virus Replication , Apolipoproteins L/genetics , Apolipoproteins L/metabolism , Flavivirus/physiology , Histone Deacetylases/genetics , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zika Virus/physiology
Flaviviruses such as West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV) and Bagaza (BAGV) virus and avian malaria parasites are vector borne pathogens that circulate naturally between avian and mosquito hosts. WNV and USUV and potentially also BAGV constitute zoonoses. Temporal and spatial cocirculation and coinfection with Plasmodium spp., and West Nile virus has been documented in birds and mosquito vectors, and fatally USUV-infected passerines coinfected with Plasmodium spp. had more severe lesions. Also, WNV, USUV and BAGV have been found to cocirculate. Yet little is known about the interaction of BAGV and malaria parasites during consecutive or coinfections of avian hosts. Here we report mortality of free-living red-legged partridges in a hunting estate in Southern Spain that were coinfected with BAGV and Plasmodium spp. The outbreak occurred in the area where BAGV first emerged in Europe in 2010 and where cocirculation of BAGV, USUV and WNV was confirmed in 2011 and 2013. Partridges were found dead in early October 2019. Birds had mottled locally pale pectoral muscles, enlarged, congestive greenish-black tinged livers and enlarged kidneys. Microscopically congestion and predominantly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates were evident and Plasmodium phanerozoites were present in the liver, spleen, kidneys, muscle and skin. Molecular testing and sequencing detected Plasmodium spp. and BAGV in different tissues of the partridges, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence and colocalization of both pathogens in the liver and spleen. Due to the importance of the red-legged partridge in the ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula and as driver of regional economy such mortalities are of concern. Such outbreaks may reflect climate change related shifts in host, vector and pathogen ecology and interactions that could emerge similarly for other pathogens.
Subject(s)Bird Diseases , Coinfection , Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Galliformes , Plasmodium , West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Ecosystem , Flavivirus/physiology , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Quail , Spain/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/veterinary
Subject(s)Immunity, Innate/physiology , Interferons/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus , Animals , Culicidae/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flavivirus/physiology , Humans , Microcephaly/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Signal Transduction , South America , West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Zoonoses , Interferon Lambda
Flaviviruses pose a constant threat to human health. These RNA viruses are transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks and regularly cause outbreaks. To identify host factors required for flavivirus infection, we performed full-genome loss of function CRISPR-Cas9 screens. Based on these results, we focused our efforts on characterizing the roles that TMEM41B and VMP1 play in the virus replication cycle. Our mechanistic studies on TMEM41B revealed that all members of the Flaviviridae family that we tested require TMEM41B. We tested 12 additional virus families and found that SARS-CoV-2 of the Coronaviridae also required TMEM41B for infection. Remarkably, single nucleotide polymorphisms present at nearly 20% in East Asian populations reduce flavivirus infection. Based on our mechanistic studies, we propose that TMEM41B is recruited to flavivirus RNA replication complexes to facilitate membrane curvature, which creates a protected environment for viral genome replication.
Subject(s)Flavivirus Infections/genetics , Flavivirus/physiology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Asian People/genetics , Autophagy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Line , Flavivirus Infections/immunology , Flavivirus Infections/metabolism , Flavivirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Yellow fever virus/physiology , Zika Virus/physiology
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), with its expansive membranous system and a vast network of chaperones, enzymes, sensors, and ion channels, orchestrates diverse cellular functions, ranging from protein synthesis, folding, secretion, and degradation to lipid biogenesis and calcium homeostasis. Strikingly, some of the functions of the ER are exploited by viruses to promote their life cycles. During entry, viruses must penetrate a host membrane and reach an intracellular destination to express and replicate their genomes. These events lead to the assembly of new viral progenies that exit the host cell, thereby initiating further rounds of infection. In this review, we highlight how three distinct viruses - polyomavirus, flavivirus, and coronavirus - co-opt key functions of the ER to cause infection. We anticipate that illuminating this virus-ER interplay will provide rational therapeutic approaches to combat the virus-induced diseases.
Subject(s)Coronavirus/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Flavivirus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Polyomavirus/physiology , Humans , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a group of related proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system and play a key role in host defense against viral infections. Upon infection, the IFN-I are rapidly secreted and induce a wide range of effects that not only act upon innate immune cells but also modulate the adaptive immune system. While IFN-I and many IFN stimulated genes are well-known for their protective antiviral role, recent studies have associated them with potential pathogenic functions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the complex effects of human IFN-I responses in respiratory as well as reemerging flavivirus infections of public health significance and the molecular mechanisms by which viral proteins antagonize the establishment of an antiviral host defense. Antiviral effects and immune modulation of IFN-stimulated genes is discussed in resisting and controlling pathogens. Understanding the mechanisms of these processes will be crucial in determining how viral replication can be effectively controlled and in developing safe and effective vaccines and novel therapeutic strategies.
Subject(s)Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Flavivirus/physiology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Public Health , Vaccination , Virus Replication
Spondweni virus (SPONV) is the most closely related known flavivirus to Zika virus (ZIKV). Its pathogenic potential and vector specificity have not been well defined. SPONV has been found predominantly in Africa, but was recently detected in a pool of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Haiti. Here we show that SPONV can cause significant fetal harm, including demise, comparable to ZIKV, in a mouse model of vertical transmission. Following maternal inoculation, we detected infectious SPONV in placentas and fetuses, along with significant fetal and placental histopathology, together suggesting vertical transmission. To test vector competence, we exposed Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to SPONV-infected bloodmeals. Aedes aegypti could efficiently transmit SPONV, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus could not. Our results suggest that SPONV has the same features that made ZIKV a public health risk.