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1.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287269

ABSTRACT

We measured and studied the growth parameters and the qualitative and quantitative composition of the flavones of hairy roots of the Scutellaria genus: S. lateriflora, S. przewalskii and S. pycnoclada. Hairy roots were obtained using wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 by co-cultivation of explants (cotyledons) in a suspension of Agrobacterium. The presence of the rol-genes was confirmed by PCR analysis. The hairy roots of the most studied plant from the Scutellaria genus, S. baicalensis, were obtained earlier and used as a reference sample. HPLC-MS showed the predominance of four main flavones (baicalin, baicalein, wogonin and wogonoside) in the methanol extracts of the studied hairy roots. In addition to the four main flavones, the other substances which are typical to the aerial part of plants were found in all the extracts: apigenin, apigetrin, scutellarin and chrysin-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide. According to the total content of flavones, the hairy roots of the studied skullcaps form the following series: S. przewalskii (33 mg/g dry weight) > S. baicalensis (17.04 mg/g dry weight) > S. pycnoclada (12.9 mg/g dry weight) > S. lateriflora (4.57 mg/g dry weight). Therefore, the most promising producer of anti-coronavirus flavones is S. przewalskii.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavones/chemistry , Scutellaria/chemistry , Agrobacterium/growth & development , Agrobacterium/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavones/isolation & purification , Flavones/pharmacology , Plant Cells/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Scutellaria/growth & development , Scutellaria/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122257

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085037

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (<-4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Echinacea/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Drug Discovery , Flavones/chemistry , Fructans/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Inulin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protein Binding , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Quinic Acid/chemistry
4.
Biomed J ; 43(4): 363-367, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306211

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study demonstrates the potential of flavanoid narcissoside against the novel corona virus (COVID-19) complications using molecular docking studies. Methods: The computation molecular docking screening was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker software (MVD) with grid resolution of 30 Å. Protein of COVID 19 virus was taken from protein data bank. Results: The standard inhibitor X77 (N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-[(1R)-2-(cyclohexylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide) identified from the protein inhibitor complex 6W63 from protein data bank was docked with COVID 19 protein 6W63 which showed MolDock score of -156.913, rerank Sore -121.296 and H Bond -5.7369, while the flavanoid narcissoside had showed MolDock score -180.739, Rerank Sore -137.092 and H Bond -18.6771. The narcissoside showed potent inhibitory effect which is greater than standard X77. The result showed that narcissoside have high affinity towards 6W63 as it showed thirteen hydrogen bonds with nine amino acids (Arg 188, Glu 166, His 164, Cys 145 (2 bonds), Asn 14 (2 bonds), Cys 44 (2 bonds), His 41 (2 bonds), Gln 192, Thr 190) while X777 showed four hydrogen bonds with amino acids (Gly 143, Cys 145, Glu 166, Ser 144). Conclusion: From computation approach it was concluded that narcissoside is a potent inhibitor of viral COVID 19 protein 6W63. The narcissoside have high affinity and inhibition potential than standard inhibitor X77 (N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-[(1R)-2-(cyclohexylamino)-2-oxo-1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide). The narcissoside predicted as more potent inhibitor which can be further optimize, pharmacologically and clinically evaluated for the treatment of novel coronavirus COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Flavones/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Flavones/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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