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1.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994118

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13-22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33-8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13-3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02-57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44-83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ribes/chemistry
2.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979318

ABSTRACT

Morin (M) is one of the most widely distributed flavonoids with several beneficial effects on human health, and has the potential of being used as a possible treatment for COVID-19. To achieve a better understanding of the process of M dissolution, the fluorescent (FL) emission from M solutions prepared with different polar and nonpolar solvents (methanol, DMSO, and chloroform) was measured and compared with the FL emission from M powder and M crystals. In the FL spectra of the solutions with high M concentration, as well as in the spectra of M in solid state, two features, at 615 nm and 670 nm, were observed. As the solution concentration decreases, the maxima of FL spectra of the M solutions in all considered solvents shift to the blue side of the spectrum until reaching the value of 520 nm. To explain the experimental results, the TDDFT-M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) method was used to determine the possible electronic transitions in the M molecule. The computations show that the FL emission in the spectral range of detection of our setup (405-800 nm) is related to the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Comparison of the experimental data with the computations strongly suggests that in low-concentrated solutions, the FL emission is mostly due to electronic transitions in the keto OH3 form, whereas in aggregated states, the dominate contribution to the FL emission spectra is due to the transitions in keto OH5 form. Moreover, the time evolution of the M solutions FL spectra was observed, measured and explained for the first time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Humans , Models, Molecular , Solvents/chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
3.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953750

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv1.3 type are considered a potential new molecular target in several pathologies, including some cancer disorders and COVID-19. Lipophilic non-toxic organic inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels, such as statins and flavonoids, may have clinical applications in supporting the therapy of some cancer diseases, such as breast, pancreas, and lung cancer; melanoma; or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study focuses on the influence of the co-application of statins-simvastatin (SIM) or mevastatin (MEV)-with flavonoids 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), 6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), xanthohumol (XANT), acacetin (ACAC), or chrysin on the activity of Kv1.3 channels, viability, and the apoptosis of cancer cells in the human T cell line Jurkat. We showed that the inhibitory effect of co-application of the statins with flavonoids was significantly more potent than the effects exerted by each compound applied alone. Combinations of simvastatin with chrysin, as well as mevastatin with 8-prenylnaringenin, seem to be the most promising. We also found that these results correlate with an increased ability of the statin-flavonoid combination to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in cancer cells compared to single compounds. Our findings suggest that the co-application of statins and flavonoids at low concentrations may increase the effectiveness and safety of cancer therapy. Thus, the simultaneous application of statins and flavonoids may be a new and promising anticancer strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Neoplasms , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kv1.3 Potassium Channel/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Simvastatin/pharmacology
4.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(5): 22-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flavonoid class phytochemicals are natural compounds present in different medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits. Ginkgo biloba contains significant amounts of bioflavonoid 'bilobetin'. Bilobetin is an active phytochemical used for the treatment of human health complications due to its medicinal properties and therapeutic benefit. The purpose of this work is to collect and reviewed scientific data on bilobetin from different literature sources; highlight their biological properties, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects. METHODS: Health beneficial aspects of bilobetin have been investigated in the present work through scientific data analysis. PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, Scopus, etc. have been searched in the present work in order to collect scientific information on bilobetin. Medicinal importance and therapeutic benefit of bilobetin has been searched in the present work through these databases of bilobetin. Detailed pharmacological activities of bilobetin have been reviewed in the present work through literature data analysis of various scientific research works. However, analytical data of bilobetin were also collected and reviewed in the present reaserch. RESULTS: Literature data analysis of bilobetin in the present work revealed the medicinal properties and therapeutic potential of bilobetin mainly due to its anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-proliferative activities. Literature data analysis revealed the effectiveness of bilobetin on osteoporosis, glucose metabolism, adipocytes, SARS CoV-2, Influenza A virus and human thrombin. Scientific data also revealed the importance of different analytical techniques for the isolation, separation, identification, and quantification of bilobetin. CONCLUSION: Scientific data analysis revealed biological importance and pharmacological activities of bilobetin in the health sector.


Subject(s)
Biflavonoids , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
5.
Phytother Res ; 36(7): 2921-2939, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941314

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds naturally found in plants and commonly consumed in diets. Herein, flavonoids were sequentially evaluated by a comparative in silico study associated with systematic literature search. This was followed by an in vitro study and enzyme inhibition assays against vital SARS-CoV-2 proteins including spike (S) protein, main protease (Mpro ), RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), and human transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). The results obtained revealed 10 flavonoids with potential antiviral activity. Out of them, silibinin showed promising selectivity index against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Screening against S protein discloses the highest inhibition activity of silibinin. Mapping the activity of silibinin indicated its excellent binding inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 S protein, Mpro and RdRP at IC50 0.029, 0.021, and 0.042 µM, respectively, while it showed no inhibition activity against TMPRSS2 at its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Silibinin was tested safe on human mammalian cells at >7-fold its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Additionally, silibinin exhibited >90% virucidal activity at 0.031 µM. Comparative molecular docking (MD) showed that silibinin possesses the highest binding affinity to S protein and RdRP at -7.78 and -7.15 kcal/mol, respectively. MDs showed that silibinin exhibited stable interaction with key amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 targets. Collectively, silibinin, an FDA-approved drug, can significantly interfere with SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication through multi-targeting activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Silybin/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934178

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and the production of bioactive compounds of Pereskia aculeata Mill. at different harvest times. Here, we performed a qualitative evaluation of the chemical profile by paper spray mass spectrometry (PSMS), the phenolic acid and flavonoid profile by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, color characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), total solids (TS), pH, and total titratable acidity (TTA). The chemical profile was not affected, with the exception of 4,5-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene and azelaic acid, which was only identified in the leaves harvested during the winter. The content of four phenolic acids and three flavonoids were analyzed; out of these, no significant amounts of ellagic acid and quercetin were detected. There was no difference in production of bioactive compounds between seasons, reflecting the antioxidant activity, which also did not differ. Brightness, chroma, and leaf pH were the only physicochemical characteristics that did not vary between seasons.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cactaceae , Anthocyanins/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Cactaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Mass Spectrometry
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934132

ABSTRACT

Boesenbergia rotunda (Zingiberaceae), is a high-value culinary and ethno-medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. The rhizomes of this herb have a high flavanone and chalcone content. Here we report the genome analysis of B. rotunda together with a complete genome sequence as a hybrid assembly. B. rotunda has an estimated genome size of 2.4 Gb which is assembled as 27,491 contigs with an N50 size of 12.386 Mb. The highly heterozygous genome encodes 71,072 protein-coding genes and has a 72% repeat content, with class I TEs occupying ~67% of the assembled genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the 18 chromosome pairs at the metaphase showed six sites of 45S rDNA and two sites of 5S rDNA. An SSR analysis identified 238,441 gSSRs and 4604 EST-SSRs with 49 SSR markers common among related species. Genome-wide methylation percentages ranged from 73% CpG, 36% CHG and 34% CHH in the leaf to 53% CpG, 18% CHG and 25% CHH in the embryogenic callus. Panduratin A biosynthetic unigenes were most highly expressed in the watery callus. B rotunda has a relatively large genome with a high heterozygosity and TE content. This assembly and data (PRJNA71294) comprise a source for further research on the functional genomics of B. rotunda, the evolution of the ginger plant family and the potential genetic selection or improvement of gingers.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Zingiberaceae , Biosynthetic Pathways , DNA, Ribosomal , Flavonoids , Ginger/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Zingiberaceae/genetics
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 297: 115528, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926631

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Eurya chinensis(Chinese Dagang Tea)have been consumed as herbal tea for centuries in Guangdong, China, and have also been used to prevent influenza and treat colds and fevers in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are no reports on the chemical profile and efficacy of its leaves for the treatment of fever and viral infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical constituents of Eurya chinensis leaves were isolated and identified by phytochemical study and spectroscopic data, E. chinensis extracts and compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activities by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction and antibody-based EC50 assay. The antiviral effect of the main component was confirmed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virtual screening and docking enzyme inhibition experiments were performed to analyze the anti-coronavirus mechanisms of the compounds from E. chinensis leaves. RESULTS: In this study, we found for the first time that E. chinensis leaf extract exhibited inhibitory effects against coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 in vitro. Among 23 monomer compounds isolated from E. chinensis leaf extract, the triterpenoids (betulinic acid, α-amyrin) and the flavonoids (naringenin, eriodictyol and quercetin) showed marked antiviral activity. Microscopic optical analyses further demonstrated that betulinic acid can remove virus particles from HCoV-OC43 infected cells. Virtual screening and docking analysis towards the coronavirus in vogue revealed that betulinic acid was able to bind well to PLpro and Nsp14N7-MTase, and that the flavonoids prefer to bind with PLpro, Nsp3MES, NspP14N7-MTase, Nsp16GTA, and Nsp16SAM. The enzyme inhibition experiments demonstrated that betulinic acid (1) exhibited significant inhibition of PLpro and N7-MTase activity of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: This study proposes E. chinensis and its triterpenoids and flavonoids as promising potential treatments for coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camellia sinensis , Triterpenes , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea , Triterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917793

ABSTRACT

Despite the fast development of vaccines, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still circulating and generating variants of concern (VoC) that escape the humoral immune response. In this context, the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds is still essential. A class of natural polyphenols known as flavonoids, frequently available in fruits and vegetables, is widely explored in the treatment of different diseases and used as a scaffold for the design of novel drugs. Therefore, herein we evaluate seven flavonoids divided into three subclasses, isoflavone (genistein), flavone (apigenin and luteolin) and flavonol (fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin), for COVID-19 treatment using cell-based assays and in silico calculations validated with experimental enzymatic data. The flavonols were better SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors than isoflavone and flavones. The increasing number of hydroxyl groups in ring B of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin decreased the 50% effective concentration (EC50) value due to their impact on the orientation of the compounds inside the target. Myricetin and fisetin appear to be preferred candidates; they are both anti-inflammatory (decreasing TNF-α levels) and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 mainly by targeting the processability of the main protease (Mpro) in a non-competitive manner, with a potency comparable to the repurposed drug atazanavir. However, fisetin and myricetin might also be considered hits that are amenable to synthetic modification to improve their anti-SARS-CoV-2 profile by inhibiting not only Mpro, but also the 3'-5' exonuclease (ExoN).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavones , Isoflavones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonols/pharmacology , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Kaempferols , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911485

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves are rich in nutrients and antioxidant compounds that can be consumed to prevent and overcome malnutrition. The water infusion of its leaf is the easiest way to prepare the herbal drink. So far, no information is available on the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities of this infusion. This study aimed to determine the composition of the bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaf infusion, measuring for antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, and evaluating any ability to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). The first two objectives were carried out in vitro. The third objective was carried out in silico. The phytochemical analysis of M. oleifera leaf infusion was carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant activity was measured as a factor of the presence of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antimutagenicity of M. oleifera leaf powder infusion was measured using the plasmid pBR322 (treated free radical). The interaction between bioactive compounds and Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed via molecular docking. The totals of phenolic compound and flavonoid compound from M. oleifera leaf infusion were 1.780 ± 5.00 µg gallic acid equivalent/g (µg GAE/g) and 322.91 ± 0.98 µg quercetin equivalent/g (µg QE/g), respectively. The five main bioactive compounds involved in the infusion were detected by LC-MS. Three of these were flavonoid glucosides, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, and kaempferol 3-α-L-dirhamnosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-glucopyranoside. The other two compounds were undulatoside A, which belongs to chromone-derived flavonoids, and gentiatibetine, which belongs to alkaloids. The antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaf infusion was IC50 8.19 ± 0.005 µg/mL, which is stronger than the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) IC50 11.60 ± 0.30 µg/mL. The infusion has an antimutagenic effect and therefore protects against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. In silico studies showed that the five main bioactive compounds have an antiviral capacity. There were strong energy bonds between Mpro molecules and gentiatibetine, quercetin, undulatoside A, kaempferol 3-o-neohesperidoside, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. Their binding energy values are -5.1, -7.5, -7.7, -5.7, and -8.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Their antioxidant activity, ability to maintain DNA integrity, and antimutagenic properties were more potent than the positive controls. It can be concluded that leaf infusion of M. oleifera does provide a promising herbal drink with good antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Moringa oleifera , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glucosides/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Quercetin/analysis , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(6): 853-861, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879612

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is one of the RNA viruses with the largest genome; It is a group of viruses known to infect humans very little until the end of the 20th century, generally causing infection in animals (bird, cat, pig, mouse, horse, bat). It is the causative agent of 15-30% of seasonal lower and upper respiratory tract infections, and may rarely cause gastrointestinal and nervous system infections. We have obtained results for the collagenase and elastase enzymes were at the micromolar level. We obtained IC50 results for the collagenase enzyme for 6-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin 257.22 ± 34.07 µM and for 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone 74.46 ± 8.61 µM. 6-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone were considered good inhibitors for elastase enzyme. Additionally, these compounds significantly decreased human pancreatic cancer cell viability from low doses. In addition, 100 µM dose of all compounds caused significant reductions in human pancreatic cancer cell viability. IC50 results (IC50: 10-50 µM) were better than control. In the otherwords, the docking results suggest that both compounds tend to have lower efficacy on the main protease targets of SARS-CoV-2 than standard compounds, (NL-1 and NL-2). The reason for this is that the standard compounds interact strongly and more frequently with the target proteins, and the surface areas they cover on the active surface are much larger than the small ligand molecules studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Acetophenones , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Collagenases , Flavonoids , Horses , Mice , Pancreatic Elastase , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
12.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875712

ABSTRACT

Hydroxylated polyphenols, also called flavonoids, are richly present in vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, herbs, seeds, stems, and flowers of numerous plants. They possess numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammation. Studies show that flavonoids activate antioxidant pathways that render an anti-inflammatory effect. They inhibit the secretions of enzymes such as lysozymes and ß-glucuronidase and inhibit the secretion of arachidonic acid, which reduces inflammatory reactions. Flavonoids such as quercetin, genistein, apigenin, kaempferol, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate modulate the expression and activation of a cytokine such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8); regulate the gene expression of many pro-inflammatory molecules such s nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM), and E-selectins; and also inhibits inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenase, which are pro-inflammatory enzymes. Understanding the anti-inflammatory action of flavonoids provides better treatment options, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This review highlights the sources, biochemical activities, and role of flavonoids in enhancing human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853315

ABSTRACT

Introduction. As a novel global epidemic, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 brought great suffering and disaster to mankind. Recently, although significant progress has been made in vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, there are still no drugs for treating COVID-19. It is well known that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved excellent efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. As a treasure-house of natural drugs, Chinese herbs offer a promising prospect for discovering anti-COVID-19 drugs.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that Rhei Radix et Rhizome-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (RS) may have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating immune response, protecting the cardiovascular system, inhibiting the production of inflammatory factors, and blocking virus invasion and replication processes.Aim. We aimed to explore the feasibility and molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19, to provide a reference for basic research and clinical applications.Methodology. Through literature mining, it is found that a Chinese herbal pair, RS, has potential anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, we analysed the feasibility of RS against COVID-19 by high-throughput molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology.Results. We proved the feasibility of RS anti-COVID-19 by literature mining, virtual docking and molecular dynamics simulations, and found that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and 3C-like protease (3 CL pro) were also two critical targets for RS against COVID-19. In addition, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS in the treatment of COVID-19, and identified 29 main ingredients, 21 potential targets and 16 signalling pathways. Rhein, eupatin, (-)-catechin, aloe-emodin may be important active ingredients in RS. ALB, ESR1, EGFR, HMOX1, CTSL, and RHOA may be important targets against COVID-19. Platelet activation, renin secretion, ras signalling pathway, chemokine signalling pathway, and human cytomegalovirus infection may be important signalling pathways against COVID-19.Conclusion. RS plays a key role in the treatment of COVID-19, which may be closely related to immune regulation, cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, virus invasion and replication processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feasibility Studies , Flavonoids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820345

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Natural constituents are still a preferred route for counteracting the outbreak of COVID-19. Essentially, flavonoids have been found to be among the most promising molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors. Recently, a new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant has spread in many countries, which has raised awareness of the role of natural constituents in attempts to contribute to therapeutic protocols. (2) Methods: Using various chromatographic techniques, triterpenes (1-7), phenolics (8-11), and flavonoids (12-17) were isolated from Euphorbia dendroides and computationally screened against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a first step, molecular docking calculations were performed for all investigated compounds. Promising compounds were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations (MD) for 200 ns, in addition to molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations (MM/PBSA) to determine binding energy. (3) Results: MM/PBSA binding energy calculations showed that compound 14 (quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside) and compound 15 (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 6″-O-methyl ester) exhibited strong inhibition of Omicron, with ΔGbinding of -41.0 and -32.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, drug likeness evaluations based on Lipinski's rule of five also showed that the discovered compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability. (4) Conclusions: It is foreseeable that these results provide a novel intellectual contribution in light of the decreasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 and could be a good addition to the therapeutic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Euphorbia/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Curr Drug Targets ; 23(4): 420-436, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799012

ABSTRACT

Chrysin (a flavonoid) has shown various promising pharmacological activities viz. anticancer, anti-diabetic, immune-modulation, antidepressant, and anti-asthmatic. Additionally, it exhibited potential protective effects against various toxins on different organs like the liver, brain, kidney, and heart. A multitude of studies have been conducted to explore the possible targets for its possible mechanism of action. However, its therapeutic applications have been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. The major reason for its poor bioavailability is its extensive first-pass metabolism. A critical review of the pharmacological properties of chrysin and its associated molecular targets has not been discussed as yet comprehensively. Therefore, the emphasis of the present work is to provide an in-depth understanding of molecular targets accountable for the pharmacological actions of chrysin. Moreover, a schematic diagram was made for the first time to represent the comprehensive pharmacokinetic properties of chrysin, which helps to understand the biopharmaceutical aspect for its successful delivery. An in-depth understanding of the biopharmaceutical properties of chrysin will help in adopting a suitable formulation approach to overcome poor oral bioavailability. Additionally, it facilitates to study the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of chrysin with other drugs. Hence, we found that chrysin is a miraculous natural agent with myriad therapeutic properties, and its benefit can be exploited with an in-depth understanding of molecular targets, pharmacological actions, and biopharmaceutical attributes.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Flavonoids , Biological Availability , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations
16.
ChemMedChem ; 17(8): e202100782, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797944

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised significant global health concerns. More importantly, there is no specific therapeutics currently available to combat against this deadly infection. The enzyme 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is known to be essential for viral life cycle as it controls the coronavirus replication. 3CLpro could be a potential drug target as established before in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In the current study, we wanted to explore the potential of fused flavonoids as 3CLpro inhibitors. Fused flavonoids (5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene) are unexplored for their potential bioactivities due to their low natural occurrences. Their synthetic congeners are also rare due to unavailability of general synthetic methodology. Here we designed a simple strategy to synthesize 5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene skeleton and it's four novel derivatives. Our structural bioinformatics study clearly shows excellent potential of the synthesized compounds in comparison to experimentally validated inhibitor N3. Moreover, in-silico ADMET study displays excellent druggability and extremely low level of toxicity of the synthesized molecules. Further, for better understanding, the molecular dynamic approach was implemented to study the change in dynamicity after the compounds bind to the protein. A detailed investigation through clustering analysis and distance calculation gave us sound comprehensive data about their molecular interaction. In summary, we anticipate that the currently synthesized molecules could not only be a potential set of inhibitors against 3CLpro but also the insights acquired from the current study would be instrumental in further developing novel natural flavonoid based anti-COVID therapeutic spectrums.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
17.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 64: 102231, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797024

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has caused unprecedented global disruption since 2020. Approximately 238 million people are affected worldwide where the elderly succumb to mortality. Post-COVID syndrome and its side effects have popped up with several health hazards, such as macular degeneration and vision loss. It thus necessitates better medical care and management of our dietary practices. Natural flavonoids have been included in traditional medicine and have also been used safely against COVID-19 and several other diseases. Kaempferol is an essential flavonoid that has been demonstrated to influence several vital cellular signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we emphasize the plausible regulatory effects of Kaempferol on hallmarks of COVID-19 and macular degeneration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Kaempferols/therapeutic use , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy
18.
Drug Metab Bioanal Lett ; 15(1): 2-11, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbal products are derived from different natural sources, mainly used as a source of food material and medicine in the health sectors since ancient times. Herbal products have gained popularity in modern medicine due to their beneficial health properties and pharmacological activities. Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites found to be present in medicinal plants and their derived products. Flavonoids have been known for their anti-allergic, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, antithrombotic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities in the medicine. Nicotiflorin is a flavonoidal class phytochemical, found in medicinal plants, including Traditional Chinese medicine. METHODS: Scientific data on the medicinal importance and pharmacological activities of nicotiflorin have been collected and analyzed in the present work in order to know the therapeutic importance of nicotiflorin in medicine. Scientific data have been collected from Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus and analyzed in the present work. Analytical techniques data of separation, isolation and identification of nicotiflorin have also been collected and presented in the current work. Further biological importance of flavonoidal class phytochemicals was also discussed in the present work to understand the biological importance of nicotiflorin in medicine as it belongs to the flavonoid class. RESULTS: Scientific data analysis revealed the therapeutic importance and pharmacological activities of nicotiflorin. Nicotiflorin has significant biological potential against coronavirus, ischemia, renal impairment, hepatic complication, memory dysfunction and myocardial infarction. The biological potential of nicotiflorin against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, multiple myeloma cells and insulin secretion has also been discussed in the present work. Analytical data revealed the significance of modern analytical tools in medicine for the isolation, separation and quantification of nicotiflorin. CONCLUSION: Scientific data analysis of different research works revealed the biological importance and therapeutic potential of nicotiflorin in medicine.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Glycosides , Plants, Medicinal , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
19.
Phytother Res ; 36(5): 2042-2060, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750432

ABSTRACT

The high incidence of post-covid symptoms in humans confirms the need for effective treatment. Due to long-term complications across several disciplines, special treatment programs emerge for affected patients, emphasizing multidisciplinary care. For these reasons, we decided to look at current knowledge about possible long-term complications of COVID-19 disease and then present the effect of flavonoids, which could help alleviate or eliminate complications in humans after overcoming the COVID-19 infection. Based on articles published from 2003 to 2021, we summarize the flavonoids-based molecular mechanisms associated with the post-COVID-19 syndrome and simultaneously provide a complex view regarding their prophylactic and therapeutic potential. Review clearly sorts out the outcome of post-COVID-19 syndrome according particular body systems. The conclusion is that flavonoids play an important role in prevention of many diseases. We suggest that flavonoids as critical nutritional supplements, are suitable for the alleviation and shortening of the period associated with the post-COVID-19 syndrome. The most promising flavonoid with noteworthy therapeutic and prophylactic effect appears to be quercetin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in treating viral acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were entered into meta-analyses performed separately for each indication. Efficacy analyses were based on changes in disease-specific symptom scores. Safety was analyzed based on the pooled data from all eligible trials, by comparing the incidence of adverse events between flavonoids and the control. RESULTS: In this study, thirty RCTs (n = 5,166) were included. In common cold, results showed that the flavonoids group decreased total cold intensity score (CIS), the sum of sum of symptom intensity differences (SSID) of CIS, and duration of inability to work vs. the control group. In influenza, the flavonoids group improved the visual analog scores for symptoms. In COVID-19, the flavonoids group decreased the time taken for alleviation of symptoms, time taken for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR clearance, the RT-PCR positive subjects at day 7, time to achievement of the normal status of symptoms, patients needed oxygen, patients hospitalized and requiring mechanical ventilation, patients in ICU, days of hospitalization, and mortality vs. the control group. In acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, the flavonoids group decreased the tonsillitis severity score (TSS) on day 7. In acute rhinosinusitis, the flavonoids group decreased the sinusitis severity score (SSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In acute bronchitis, the flavonoids group decreased the bronchitis severity score (BSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In bronchial pneumonia, the flavonoids group decreased the time to symptoms disappearance, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In upper respiratory tract infections, the flavonoids group decreased total CIS on day 7 and increased the improvement rate of symptoms. Furthermore, the results of the incidence of adverse reactions did not differ between the flavonoids and the control group. CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that flavonoids were efficacious and safe in treating viral ARTIs including the common cold, influenza, COVID-19, acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, acute rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, and upper respiratory tract infections. However, uncertainty remains because there were few RCTs per type of ARTI and many of the RCTs were small and of low quality with a substantial risk of bias. Given the limitations, we suggest that the conclusions need to be confirmed on a larger scale with more detailed instructions in future studies.Systematic Review Registration: inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-8-0107/, identifier: INPLASY20218010.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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