Aurones are a small subgroup of flavonoids in which the basic C6-C3-C6 skeleton is arranged as (Z)-2-benzylidenebenzofuran-3(2H)-one. These compounds are structural isomers of flavones and flavonols, natural products reported as potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of a series of 25 aurones bearing different oxygenated groups (OH, OCH3, OCH2OCH3, OCH2O, OCF2H, and OCH2C6H4R) at the A- and/or B-rings using cell-based screening assays. We observed that 12 of the 25 compounds exhibit EC50 < 3 µM (8e, 8h, 8j, 8k, 8l, 8m, 8p, 8q, 8r, 8w, 8x, and 8y), of which five presented EC50 < 1 µM (8h, 8m, 8p, 8q, and 8w) without evident cytotoxic effect in Calu-3 cells. The substitution of the A- and/or B-ring with OCH3, OCH2OCH3, and OCF2H groups seems beneficial for the antiviral activity, while the corresponding phenolic derivatives showed a significant decrease in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. The most potent compound of the series, aurone 8q (EC50 = 0.4 µM, SI = 2441.3), is 2 to 3 times more effective than the polyphenolic flavonoids myricetin (2) and baicalein (1), respectively. Investigation of the five more active compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro based on molecular dynamic calculations suggested that these aurones should detach from the active site of 3CLpro, and, probably, they could bind to another SARS-CoV-2 protein target (either receptor or enzyme).
Subject(s)Benzofurans , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has majorly impacted public health and economies worldwide. Although several effective vaccines and drugs are now used to prevent and treat COVID-19, natural products, especially flavonoids, showed great therapeutic potential early in the pandemic and thus attracted particular attention. Quercetin, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), and luteolin are among the most studied flavonoids in this field. Flavonoids can directly or indirectly exert antiviral activities, such as the inhibition of virus invasion and the replication and inhibition of viral proteases. In addition, flavonoids can modulate the levels of interferon and proinflammatory factors. We have reviewed the previously reported relevant literature researching the pharmacological anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of flavonoids where structures, classifications, synthetic pathways, and pharmacological effects are summarized. There is no doubt that flavonoids have great potential in the treatment of COVID-19. However, most of the current research is still in the theoretical stage. More studies are recommended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
The demand for bee products has been growing, especially regarding their application in complementary medicine. Apis mellifera bees using Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) as substrate produce green propolis. Among the examples of bioactivity of this matrix are antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral actions. This work aimed to verify the impact of the experimental conditions applied in low- and high-pressure extractions of green propolis, using sonication (60 kHz) as pretreatment to determine the antioxidant profile in the extracts. Total flavonoid content (18.82 ± 1.15-50.47 ± 0.77 mgQE·g-1), total phenolic compounds (194.12 ± 3.40-439.05 ± 0.90 mgGAE·g-1) and antioxidant capacity by DPPH (33.86 ± 1.99-201.29 ± 0.31 µg·mL-1) of the twelve green propolis extracts were determined. By means of HPLC-DAD, it was possible to quantify nine of the fifteen compounds analyzed. The results highlighted formononetin (4.76 ± 0.16-14.80 ± 0.02 mg·g-1) and p-coumaric acid (
, Plant Extracts/chemistry
, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Phytochemicals are the natural biomolecules produced by plants via primary or secondary metabolism, which have been known to have many potential health benefits to human beings. Flavonoids or phytoestrogens constitute a major group of such phytochemicals widely available in variety of vegetables, fruits, herbs, tea, and so forth, implicated in a variety of bio-pharmacological and biochemical activities against diseases including bacterial, viral, cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. More recently, these natural biomolecules have been shown to have effective antiviral properties via therapeutically active ingredients within them, acting at different stages of infection. Current review emphasizes upon the role of these flavonoids in physiological functions, prevention and treatment of viral diseases. More so the review focuses specifically upon the antiviral effects exhibited by these natural biomolecules against RNA viruses including coronaviruses. Furthermore, the article would certainly provide a lead to the scientific community for the effective therapeutic antiviral use of flavonoids using potential cost-effective tools for improvement of the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and biodistribution of such compounds for the concrete action along with the promotion of human health.
Subject(s)Antiviral Agents , Phytochemicals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Tissue Distribution , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols
Computer modeling is a method that is widely used in scientific investigations to predict the biological activity, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and synthesis strategy of compounds based on the structure of the molecule. This work is a systematic review of articles performed in accordance with the recommendations of PRISMA and contains information on computer modeling of the interaction of classical flavonoids with different biological targets. The review of used computational approaches is presented. Furthermore, the affinities of flavonoids to different targets that are associated with the infection, cardiovascular, and oncological diseases are discussed. Additionally, the methodology of bias risks in molecular docking research based on principles of evidentiary medicine was suggested and discussed. Based on this data, the most active groups of flavonoids and lead compounds for different targets were determined. It was concluded that flavonoids are a promising object for drug development and further research of pharmacology by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models is required.
Subject(s)Computers , Flavonoids , Computer Simulation , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
Acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had caused a global pandemic since 2019, and posed a serious threat to global health security. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an indispensable role in the battle against the epidemic. Many components originated from TCMs were found to inhibit the production of SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro), which are two promising therapeutic targets to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. This study describes a systematic investigation of the roots and rhizomes of Sophora tonkinensis, which results in the characterization of 12 new flavonoids, including seven prenylated flavanones (1-7), one prenylated flavonol (8), two prenylated chalcones (9-10), one isoflavanone (11), and one isoflavan dimer (12), together with 43 known compounds (13-55). Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by comprehensive analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR data, and time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculations. Compounds 12 and 51 exhibited inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro with IC50 values of 34.89 and 19.88 µmol·L-1, repectively while compounds 9, 43 and 47 exhibited inhibitory effects against PLpro with IC50 values of 32.67, 79.38, and 16.74 µmol·L-1, respectively.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Rhizome , Peptide Hydrolases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
With technological advancements in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries, numerous research studies have focused on the propolis produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) and Apis mellifera honeybees as alternative complementary medicines for the potential treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Propolis can be found in tropical and subtropical forests throughout the world. The composition of phytochemical constituents in propolis varies depending on the bee species, geographical location, botanical source, and environmental conditions. Typically, propolis contains lipid, beeswax, essential oils, pollen, and organic components. The latter include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, polyphenols, terpenes, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, amino acids, and aromatic acids. The biologically active constituents of propolis, which include countless organic compounds such as artepillin C, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, chrysin, galangin, kaempferol, luteolin, genistein, naringin, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, and quercetin, have a broad spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstruct pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract-related diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, as well as neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and immuno-inflammatory agents. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of recent studies on the role of propolis, its constituents, its biologically active compounds, and their efficacy in the medicinal and pharmaceutical treatment of chronic diseases.
Subject(s)Oils, Volatile , Propolis , Amino Acids , Animals , Antioxidants , Apigenin , Caffeic Acids , Coumaric Acids , Coumarins , Flavonoids/chemistry , Genistein , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Kaempferols , Lipids , Luteolin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Propolis/chemistry , Quercetin , Terpenes
The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, has led to millions of infections and the death of approximately one million people. No targeted therapeutics are currently available, and only a few efficient treatment options are accessible. Many researchers are investigating active compounds from natural plant sources that may inhibit COVID-19 proliferation. Flavonoids are generally present in our diet, as well as traditional medicines and are effective against various diseases. Thus, here, we reviewed the potential of flavonoids against crucial proteins involved in the coronavirus infectious cycle. The fundamentals of coronaviruses, the structures of SARS-CoV-2, and the mechanism of its entry into the host's body have also been discussed. In silico studies have been successfully employed to study the interaction of flavonoids against COVID-19 Mpro, spike protein PLpro, and other interactive sites for its possible inhibition. Recent studies showed that many flavonoids such as hesperidin, amentoflavone, rutin, diosmin, apiin, and many other flavonoids have a higher affinity with Mpro and lower binding energy than currently used drugs such as hydroxylchloroquine, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and lopinavir. Thus, these compounds can be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19, but need further in vitro and in vivo studies to validate these compounds and pave the way for drug discovery.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Diosmin , Hesperidin , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lopinavir/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nelfinavir , Ritonavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Rutin , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
In our ongoing efforts to identify effective natural antiviral agents, four methoxy flavonoids (1-4) were isolated from the Inula britannica flower extract. Their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance. Flavonoids 1-4 exhibited inhibitory activity against SARS- CoV-2 3CLpro with IC50 values of 41.6 ± 2.5, 35.9 ± 0.9, 32.8 ± 1.2, and 96.6 ± 3.4 µM, respectively. Flavonoids 1-3 inhibited 3CLpro in a competitive manner. Based on molecular simulations, key amino acids that form hydrogen bond with inhibitor 3 were identified. Finally, we found that inhibitors (1-3) suppressed HCoV-OC43 coronavirus proliferation at micromole concentrations.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Inula , SARS-CoV-2 , Inula/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flowers , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
Considering the vast cultural and traditional heritage of the use of aromatic herbs and wildflowers for the treatment of light medical conditions in the Balkans, a comparison of the antioxidant capacity of wildflowers extracts from Herzegovina was studied using both cyclic voltammetry and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammograms taken in the potential range between 0 V and 800 mV and scan rate of 100 mV s-1 were used for the quantification of the electrochemical properties of polyphenols present in four aqueous plant extracts. Antioxidant capacity expressed as mmoL of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried weight of the sample (mmoL GAE g-1 dw) was deduced from the area below the major anodic peaks (Q400 pH 6.0, Q500 pH 4.7, Q600 pH 3.6). The results of electrochemical measurements suggest that the major contributors of antioxidant properties of examined plants are polyphenolic compounds that contain ortho-dihydroxy-phenol or gallate groups. Using Ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis spectrophotometric methods (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activity (ABTS) additionally determined antioxidant capacity. The FRAP results ranged from 2.9702-9.9418 mmoL Fe/g dw, while the results for ABTS assays expressed as Trolox equivalents (TE) ranged from 14.1842-42.6217 mmoL TE/g dw. The Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was applied to determine the total phenolics content (TP). The TP content expressed as Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) ranged from 6.0343-9.472 mmoL GAE/g dw. The measurements of total flavonoid (TF) and total condensed tannin (TT) contents were also performed to obtain a broader polyphenolic profile of tested plant materials. Origanum vulgare L. scored the highest on each test, with the exception of TT content, followed by the Mentha × piperita L., Artemisia annua L., and Artemisia absinthium L., respectively. The highest TT content, expressed as mg of (-)catechin equivalents per gram of dried weight of sample (mg CE/g dw), was achieved with A. absinthium extract (119.230 mg CE/g dw) followed by O. vulgare (90.384 mg CE/g dw), A. annua (86.538 mg CE/g dw) and M. piperita (69.231 mg CE/g dw), respectively. In addition, a very good correlation between electrochemical and spectroscopic methods was achieved.
Subject(s)Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Humans , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis
Flavonoids are biologically active natural products of great interest for their potential applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals. A hesperetin-7-O-glucoside inclusion complex with ß-cyclodextrin (HEPT7G/ßCD; SunActive® HCD) was formulated via the controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of hesperidin with naringinase enzyme. The conversion rate was nearly 98%, estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability, solubility, and spectroscopic features of the HEPT7G/ßCD inclusion complex using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis), 1H- and 13C- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD) spectroscopic techniques including zeta potential, Job's plot, and phase solubility measurements. The effects of complexation on the profiles of supramolecular interactions in analytic features, especially the chemical shifts of ß-CD protons in the presence of the HEPT7G moiety, were evaluated. The stoichiometric ratio, stability, and solubility constants (binding affinity) describe the extent of complexation of a soluble complex in 1:1 stoichiometry that exhibits a greater affinity and fits better into the ß-CD inner cavity. The NMR spectroscopy results identified two different configurations of the HEPT7G moiety and revealed that the HEPT7G/ßCD inclusion complex has both -2S and -2R stereoisomers of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside possibly in the -2S/-2R epimeric ratio of 1/1.43 (i.e., -2S: 41.1% and -2R: 58.9%). The study indicated that encapsulation of the HEPT7G moiety in ß-CD is complete inclusion, wherein both ends of HEPT7G are included in the ß-CD inner hydrophobic cavity. The results showed that the water solubility and thermal stability of HEPT7G were apparently increased in the inclusion complex with ß-CD. This could potentially lead to increased bioavailability of HEPT7G and enhanced health benefits of this flavonoid.
Subject(s)Hesperidin , beta-Cyclodextrins , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glucosides , Protons , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , X-Ray Diffraction , beta-Cyclodextrins/chemistry
Oxidative stress has been implicated in tumorigenic, cardiovascular, neuro-, and age-related degenerative changes. Antioxidants minimize the oxidative damage through neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other causative agents. Ever since the emergence of COVID-19, plant-derived antioxidants have received enormous attention, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Quercetin (QCT), a bio-flavonoid, exists in the glycosylated form in fruits, berries and vegetables. The antioxidant potential of QCT analogs relates to the number of free hydroxyl groups in their structure. Despite presence of these groups, QCT exhibits substantial hydrophobicity. Formulation scientists have tested nanotechnology-based approaches for its improved solubilization and delivery to the intended site of action. By the virtue of its hydrophobicity, QCT gets encapsulated in nanocarriers carrying hydrophobic domains. Apart from passive accumulation, active uptake of such formulations into the target cells can be facilitated through well-studied functionalization strategies. In this review, we have discussed the approaches of improving solubilization and bioavailability of QCT with the use of nanoformulations.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Quercetin , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Plants , Quercetin/chemistry
Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves are rich in nutrients and antioxidant compounds that can be consumed to prevent and overcome malnutrition. The water infusion of its leaf is the easiest way to prepare the herbal drink. So far, no information is available on the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities of this infusion. This study aimed to determine the composition of the bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaf infusion, measuring for antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, and evaluating any ability to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). The first two objectives were carried out in vitro. The third objective was carried out in silico. The phytochemical analysis of M. oleifera leaf infusion was carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant activity was measured as a factor of the presence of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antimutagenicity of M. oleifera leaf powder infusion was measured using the plasmid pBR322 (treated free radical). The interaction between bioactive compounds and Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed via molecular docking. The totals of phenolic compound and flavonoid compound from M. oleifera leaf infusion were 1.780 ± 5.00 µg gallic acid equivalent/g (µg GAE/g) and 322.91 ± 0.98 µg quercetin equivalent/g (µg QE/g), respectively. The five main bioactive compounds involved in the infusion were detected by LC-MS. Three of these were flavonoid glucosides, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, and kaempferol 3-α-L-dirhamnosyl-(1â4)-ß-D-glucopyranoside. The other two compounds were undulatoside A, which belongs to chromone-derived flavonoids, and gentiatibetine, which belongs to alkaloids. The antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaf infusion was IC50 8.19 ± 0.005 µg/mL, which is stronger than the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) IC50 11.60 ± 0.30 µg/mL. The infusion has an antimutagenic effect and therefore protects against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. In silico studies showed that the five main bioactive compounds have an antiviral capacity. There were strong energy bonds between Mpro molecules and gentiatibetine, quercetin, undulatoside A, kaempferol 3-o-neohesperidoside, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. Their binding energy values are -5.1, -7.5, -7.7, -5.7, and -8.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Their antioxidant activity, ability to maintain DNA integrity, and antimutagenic properties were more potent than the positive controls. It can be concluded that leaf infusion of M. oleifera does provide a promising herbal drink with good antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Moringa oleifera , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , DNA/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glucosides/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Quercetin/analysis , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
Hydroxylated polyphenols, also called flavonoids, are richly present in vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, herbs, seeds, stems, and flowers of numerous plants. They possess numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammation. Studies show that flavonoids activate antioxidant pathways that render an anti-inflammatory effect. They inhibit the secretions of enzymes such as lysozymes and ß-glucuronidase and inhibit the secretion of arachidonic acid, which reduces inflammatory reactions. Flavonoids such as quercetin, genistein, apigenin, kaempferol, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate modulate the expression and activation of a cytokine such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8); regulate the gene expression of many pro-inflammatory molecules such s nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM), and E-selectins; and also inhibits inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenase, which are pro-inflammatory enzymes. Understanding the anti-inflammatory action of flavonoids provides better treatment options, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This review highlights the sources, biochemical activities, and role of flavonoids in enhancing human health.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
The recent emergence of pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised significant global health concerns. More importantly, there is no specific therapeutics currently available to combat against this deadly infection. The enzyme 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is known to be essential for viral life cycle as it controls the coronavirus replication. 3CLpro could be a potential drug target as established before in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In the current study, we wanted to explore the potential of fused flavonoids as 3CLpro inhibitors. Fused flavonoids (5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene) are unexplored for their potential bioactivities due to their low natural occurrences. Their synthetic congeners are also rare due to unavailability of general synthetic methodology. Here we designed a simple strategy to synthesize 5a,10a-dihydro-11H-benzofuro[3,2-b]chromene skeleton and it's four novel derivatives. Our structural bioinformatics study clearly shows excellent potential of the synthesized compounds in comparison to experimentally validated inhibitor N3. Moreover, in-silico ADMET study displays excellent druggability and extremely low level of toxicity of the synthesized molecules. Further, for better understanding, the molecular dynamic approach was implemented to study the change in dynamicity after the compounds bind to the protein. A detailed investigation through clustering analysis and distance calculation gave us sound comprehensive data about their molecular interaction. In summary, we anticipate that the currently synthesized molecules could not only be a potential set of inhibitors against 3CLpro but also the insights acquired from the current study would be instrumental in further developing novel natural flavonoid based anti-COVID therapeutic spectrums.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
A new flavonoid, Jusanin, (1) has been isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia commutata. The chemical structure of Jusanin has been elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and HR-Ms spectroscopic methods to be 5,2',4'-trihydroxy-6,7,5'-trimethoxyflavone. Being new in nature, the inhibition potential of 1 has been estimated against SARS-CoV-2 using different in silico techniques. Firstly, molecular similarity and fingerprint studies have been conducted for Jusanin against co-crystallized ligands of eight different SARS-CoV-2 essential proteins. The studies indicated the similarity between 1 and X77, the co-crystallized ligand SARS-CoV-2 main protease (PDB ID: 6W63). To confirm the obtained results, a DFT study was carried out and indicated the similarity of (total energy, HOMO, LUMO, gap energy, and dipole moment) between 1 and X77. Accordingly, molecular docking studies of 1 against the target enzyme have been achieved and showed that 1 bonded correctly in the protein's active site with a binding energy of -19.54 Kcal/mol. Additionally, in silico ADMET in addition to the toxicity evaluation of Jusanin against seven models have been preceded and indicated the general safety and the likeness of Jusanin to be a drug. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation studies were applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the Mpro-Jusanin complex and confirmed the correct binding at 100 ns. In addition to 1, three other metabolites have been isolated and identified to be Ñapillartemisin A (2), methyl-3-[S-hydroxyprenyl]-cumarate (3), and ß-sitosterol (4).
Subject(s)Artemisia/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Animals , Artemisia/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Density Functional Theory , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology
Baicalin is a major active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis, and has been shown to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the protein targets of baicalin have remained unclear. Herein, a chemical proteomics strategy was developed by combining baicalin-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BCL-N3@MNPs) and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify the target proteins of baicalin. Bioinformatics analysis with the use of Gene Ontology, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, was performed to annotate the biological functions and the associated signaling pathways of the baicalin targeting proteins. Fourteen proteins in human embryonic kidney cells were identified to interact with baicalin with various binding affinities. Bioinformatics analysis revealed these proteins are mainly ATP-binding and/or ATPase activity proteins, such as CKB, HSP86, HSP70-1, HSP90, ATPSF1ß and ACTG1, and highly associated with the regulation of the role of PKR in interferon induction and the antiviral response signaling pathway (P = 10-6), PI3K/AKT signaling pathway (P = 10-5) and eNOS signaling pathway (P = 10-4). The results show that baicalin exerts multiply pharmacological functions, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant functions, through regulating the PKR and PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathways by targeting ATP-binding and ATPase activity proteins. These findings provide a fundamental insight into further studies on the mechanism of action of baicalin.
Subject(s)Flavonoids/pharmacology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Magnetite Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Protein Interaction Mapping
Respiratory infected by COVID-19 represents a major global health problem at moment even after recovery from virus corona. Since, the lung lesions for infected patients are still sufferings from acute respiratory distress syndrome including alveolar septal edema, pneumonia, hyperplasia, and hyaline membranes Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify additional candidates having ability to overcome inflammatory process and can enhance efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. The polypenolic extracts were integrated into moeties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and then were coated by chitosan as a mucoadhesion polymer. The results of interleukin-6, and c-reactive protein showed significant reduction in group treated by Encap. SIL + CUR (64 ± 0.8 Pg/µL & 6 ± 0.5 µg/µL) compared to group treated by Cham. + CUR (102 ± 0.8 Pg/µL & 7 ± 0.5 µg/µL) respectively and free capsules (with no any drug inside) (148 ± 0.6 Pg/µL & 10 ± 0.6 µg/µL) respectively. Histopathology profile was improved completely. Additionally, encapsulating silymarin showed anti-viral activity in vitro COVID-19 experiment. It can be summarized that muco-inhalable delivery system (MIDS) loaded by silymarin can be used to overcome inflammation induced by oleic acid and to overcome COVID-19.
Subject(s)Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Curcumin/pharmacology , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silymarin/pharmacology , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Chamomile/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Injury/blood , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/pathology , Male , Mice , Milk Thistle/chemistry , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Oleic Acid/toxicity , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
Several coronaviruses (CoVs) have been associated with serious health hazards in recent decades, resulting in the deaths of thousands around the globe. The recent coronavirus pandemic has emphasized the importance of discovering novel and effective antiviral medicines as quickly as possible to prevent more loss of human lives. Positive-sense RNA viruses with group spikes protruding from their surfaces and an abnormally large RNA genome enclose CoVs. CoVs have already been related to a range of respiratory infectious diseases possibly fatal to humans, such as MERS, SARS, and the current COVID-19 outbreak. As a result, effective prevention, treatment, and medications against human coronavirus (HCoV) is urgently needed. In recent years, many natural substances have been discovered with a variety of biological significance, including antiviral properties. Throughout this work, we reviewed a wide range of natural substances that interrupt the life cycles for MERS and SARS, as well as their potential application in the treatment of COVID-19.
Subject(s)Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Terpenes/chemistry , Terpenes/therapeutic use
OBJECTIVE: Coronaviruses are large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses contain spike-like projections of glycoprotein on their surface, which appear like a crown. Millions of infections and thousands of deaths have been reported worldwide to date. Hence, the objective of the present study was to look for in silico evaluation of certain commercially available flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in silico docking calculations were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 software. For the computational investigation, Apigenin, Catechin, Galangin, Luteolin, Naringenin were selected. An anti-viral drug Remdesivir was selected as reference drug. RESULTS: In the present study we found that Naringenin showed excellent binding score with the SARS-CoV-2 enzyme compared to the reference drug and other selected flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the docking results, we conclude that Naringenin can be considered worthwhile to check its antiviral activity for the management of Coronavirus disease.