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2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173448, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005587

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is distinctly infective and there is an ongoing effort to find a cure for this pandemic. Flavonoids exist in many diets as well as in traditional medicine, and their modern subset, indole-chalcones, are effective in fighting various diseases. Hence, these flavonoids and structurally similar indole chalcones derivatives were studied in silico for their pharmacokinetic properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties against their proteins, namely, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (rdrp), main protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) protein via homology modelling and docking. Interactions were studied with respect to biology and function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins for activity. Functional/structural roles of amino acid residues of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, the effect of flavonoid and indole chalcone interactions which may cause disease suppression are discussed. The results reveal that out of 23 natural flavonoids and 25 synthetic indole chalcones, 30 compounds are capable of Mpro deactivation as well as potentially lowering the efficiency of Mpro function. Cyanidin may inhibit RNA polymerase function and, Quercetin is found to block interaction sites on the viral spike. These results suggest flavonoids and their modern pharmaceutical cousins, indole chalcones are capable of fighting SARS-CoV-2. The in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of these 30 compounds needs to be studied further for complete understanding and confirmation of their inhibitory potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Indoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Chalcones/metabolism , Chalcones/pharmacokinetics , Computer Simulation , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Tissue Distribution , Viral Proteins/chemistry
3.
Antivir Chem Chemother ; 28: 2040206620984076, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999587

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Exploiting the potentials of phytocompounds is an integral component of the international response to this pandemic. In this study, a virtual screening through molecular docking analysis was used to screen a total of 226 bioactive compounds from African herbs and medicinal plants for direct interactions with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). From these, 36 phytocompounds with binding affinities higher than the approved reference drugs (remdesivir and sobosivir), were further docked targeting the active sites of SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and HCV RdRp. A hit list of 7 compounds alongside two positive controls (remdesivir and sofosbuvir) and two negative controls (cinnamaldehyde and Thymoquinone) were further docked into the active site of 8 different conformations of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gotten from molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) system equilibration. The top docked compounds were further subjected to predictive druglikeness and ADME/tox filtering analyses. Drugable alkaloids (10'-hydroxyusambarensine, cryptospirolepine, strychnopentamine) and flavonoids (usararotenoid A, and 12α-epi-millettosin), were reported to exhibit strong affinity binding and interactions with key amino acid residues in the catalytic site, the divalent-cation-binding site, and the NTP entry channel in the active region of the RdRp enzyme as the positive controls. These phytochemicals, in addition to other promising antivirals such as remdesivir and sofosbuvir, may be exploited towards the development of a cocktail of anti-coronavirus treatments in COVID-19. Experimental studies are recommended to validate these study.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Africa , Alkaloids/pharmacokinetics , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
4.
Int J Pharm ; 592: 120028, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912244

ABSTRACT

The present work aimed to develop an optimized liposomal formulation for enhancing the anti-viral activity of propolis against COVID-19. Docking studies were performed for certain components of Egyptian Propolis using Avigan, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir as standard antivirals against both COVID-19 3CL-protease and S1 spike protein. Response surface methodology and modified injection method were implemented to maximize the entrapment efficiency and release of the liposomal formulation. The optimized formulation parameters were as follow: LMC of 60 mM, CH% of 20% and DL of 5 mg/ml. At those values the E.E% and released % were 70.112% and 81.801%, respectively with nanosized particles (117 ± 11 nm). Docking studies revealed that Rutin and Caffeic acid phenethyl ester showed the highest affinity to both targets. Results showed a significant inhibitory effect of the optimized liposomal formula of Propolis against COVID-3CL protease (IC50 = 1.183 ± 0.06) compared with the Egyptian propolis extract (IC50 = 2.452 ± 0.11), P < 0.001. Interestingly, the inhibition of viral replication of COVID-19 determined by RT_PCR has been significantly enhanced via encapsulation of propolis extract within the liposomal formulation (P < 0.0001) and was comparable to the viral inhibitory effect of the potent antiviral (remdesivir). These findings identified the potential of propolis liposomes as a promising treatment approach against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Propolis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Liposomes , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Propolis/administration & dosage , Propolis/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1167-1177, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691161

ABSTRACT

Human infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and there is no cure currently. The 3CL protease (3CLpro) is a highly conserved protease which is indispensable for CoVs replication, and is a promising target for development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. In this study we investigated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of Shuanghuanglian preparation, a Chinese traditional patent medicine with a long history for treating respiratory tract infection in China. We showed that either the oral liquid of Shuanghuanglian, the lyophilized powder of Shuanghuanglian for injection or their bioactive components dose-dependently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as well as the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells. Baicalin and baicalein, two ingredients of Shuanghuanglian, were characterized as the first noncovalent, nonpeptidomimetic inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and exhibited potent antiviral activities in a cell-based system. Remarkably, the binding mode of baicalein with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro determined by X-ray protein crystallography was distinctly different from those of known 3CLpro inhibitors. Baicalein was productively ensconced in the core of the substrate-binding pocket by interacting with two catalytic residues, the crucial S1/S2 subsites and the oxyanion loop, acting as a "shield" in front of the catalytic dyad to effectively prevent substrate access to the catalytic dyad within the active site. Overall, this study provides an example for exploring the in vitro potency of Chinese traditional patent medicines and effectively identifying bioactive ingredients toward a specific target, and gains evidence supporting the in vivo studies of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as well as two natural products for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Enzyme Assays , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/physiology
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