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1.
Lancet ; 400(10360): 1287-1289, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076869

Subject(s)
Disasters , Floods , Humans , Pakistan
4.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 114020, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic and mental health impacts of COVID-19 in the presence of previous exposure to flooding events. METHODS: Starting in April 2018, the Texas Flood Registry (TFR) invited residents to complete an online survey regarding their experiences with Hurricane Harvey and subsequent flooding events. Starting in April 2020, participants nationwide were invited to complete a brief online survey on their experiences during the pandemic. This study includes participants in the TFR (N = 20,754) and the COVID-19 Registry (N = 8568) through October 2020 (joint N = 2929). Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between exposure to flooding events and the economic and mental health impacts of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among COVID-19 registrants, 21% experienced moderate to severe anxiety during the pandemic, and 7% and 12% of households had difficulty paying rent and bills, respectively. Approximately 17% of Black and 15% of Hispanic households had difficulty paying rent, compared to 5% of non-Hispanic white households. The odds of COVID-19 income loss are 1.20 (1.02, 1.40) times higher for those who previously had storm-related home damage compared to those who did not and 3.84 (3.25-4.55) times higher for those who experienced Harvey income loss compared to those who did not. For registrants for whom Harvey was a severe impact event, the odds of having more severe anxiety during the pandemic are 5.14 (4.02, 6.58) times higher than among registrants for whom Harvey was a no meaningful impact event. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple crises can jointly and cumulatively shape health and wellbeing outcomes. This knowledge can help craft emergency preparation and intervention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclonic Storms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Floods , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023694

ABSTRACT

Ellicott City, MD was devasted by flash flooding in 2016 and 2018. A lack of qualitative research has been conducted on topics related to sense of place and flash flooding, especially in the United States. In this study, we reveal reasons why some who experienced flash flooding continued to stay the flood zone and why some leave. We utilized a phenomenological approach to answer these research questions. Data were generated through in-depth interviews with 19 participants from the Historic District and adjacent neighborhoods in Ellicott City. The most common reasons participants stayed were: (1) Community Impact, (2) Historical Land, and (3) Financial Burden. The most common reasons participants left were: (1) Emotional Exhaustion and Frustration, (2) Fear/Anxiety, and (3) Financial Burden. The results of our study indicate that reasons individuals who experience flash flooding stay, or leave may include community/historical, environmental, emotional, and economic factors. This reveals the complexity of relocation and sense of place after natural/environmental disasters and supports previous literature that suggests tailored response efforts based on these unique set of burdens. This paper aims to identify burdens and understand flood victims' decisions to help policy makers improve flood response efforts.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Floods , Humans , Qualitative Research
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023651

ABSTRACT

Climate changes in the eastern part of Sahelian regions will induce an increase in rainfalls and extreme climate events. In this area, due to the intense events and floods, malaria transmission, a climate sensitive disease, is thus slowly extending in time to the drought season and in areas close to the border of the desert. Vectors can as well modify their area of breeding. Control programs must be aware of these changes to adapt their strategies.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Malaria , Floods , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Seasons
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987817

ABSTRACT

Hydrometeorological hazards comprise a wide range of events, mainly floods, storms, droughts, and temperature extremes. Floods account for the majority of the related disasters in both developed and developing countries. Flooding alters the natural balance of the environment and frequently establish a favorable habitat for pathogens and vectors to thrive. Diseases caused by pathogens that require vehicle transmission from host to host (waterborne) or a host/vector as part of their life cycle (vector-borne) are those most likely to be affected by flooding. Considering the most notable recent destructive floods events of July 2021 that affected several Central Europe countries, we conducted a systematic literature review in order to identify documented sporadic cases and outbreaks of infectious diseases in humans in Europe, where hydrometeorological hazards, mainly floods, were thought to have been involved. The occurrence of water-, rodent-, and vector-borne diseases in several European countries is highlighted, as flooding and the harsh post-flood conditions favor their emergence and transmission. In this context, strategies for prevention and management of infectious disease outbreaks in flood-prone and flood-affected areas are also proposed and comprise pre- and post-flood prevention measures, pre- and post-outbreak prevention measures, as well as mitigation actions when an infectious disease outbreak finally occurs. Emphasis is also placed on the collision of floods, flood-related infectious disease outbreaks, and the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, which may result in unprecedented multi-hazard conditions and requires a multi-hazard approach for the effective disaster management and risk reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Disasters , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/etiology , Europe/epidemiology , Floods , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior
8.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(4): 431-436, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the per capita annual global incidence rate of disasters caused by natural hazards with the annual world real gross domestic product, GDP (per global capita), as reported during 1961 through 2020. METHODS: Sixty (60) values for the world real GDP per global capita (in constant 2015 $USD) were compared to corresponding annual values for global incidence rates for five natural disaster subgroups and then for a total of twelve individual disaster types that comprise the subgroups; each expressed as an annual global incidence rate (in terms of annual incidence per 100,000 persons). Calculations of multiple linear regression, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient were performed for comparing population-adjusted values for GDP to corresponding values. RESULTS: Four out of five hydrological and meteorological disasters were found to have a positive correlation with GDP. Results of the analysis revealed a relatively high degree of correlation between world GDP and the annual incidence of flood and storm disasters (P = 6.21 × 10-10 and P = 4.23 × 10-4, respectively). The annual incidence of heat waves and cold weather disasters also appeared to correlate with GDP (P = .002 and P = .019, respectively). In comparison, wet landslides indicated no such correlation (P = .862). No significant associations were found among the seven other individual biological, climatological, and geophysical disasters and GDP. CONCLUSION: The global incidence of four extreme weather (hydrometeorological) disasters appear to be positively associated with world real GDP during 1961-2020. These findings contradict previous postulates that the risk of disaster incidence is inversely associated with the capacity of the population.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Extreme Weather , Floods , Humans , Incidence , Weather
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142491, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768520

ABSTRACT

Since the first report in December 2019, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread to most parts of the world, with over 21.5 million people infected and nearly 768,000 deaths to date. Evidence suggests that transmission of the virus is primarily through respiratory droplets and contact routes, and airborne carriers such as atmospheric particulates and aerosols have also been proposed as important vectors for the environmental transmission of COVID-19. Sewage and human excreta have long been recognized as potential routes for transmitting human pathogens. The causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been detected in human feces and urine, where it could remain viable for days and show infectivity. Urban flooding, a common threat in summer caused by heavy rainfalls, is frequently reported in urban communities along with sewage overflows. With summer already underway and economy re-opening in many parts of the world, urban flooding and the often-accompanied sewage overflows could jeopardize previous mitigation efforts by posing renewed risks of virus spread in affected areas and communities. In this article, we present the up-to-date evidence and discussions on sewage-associated transmission of COVID-19, and highlighted the roles of sewage overflow and sewage-contaminated aerosols in two publicized events of community outbreaks. Further, we collected evidence in real-life environments to demonstrate the shortcuts of exposure to overflowed sewage and non-dispersed human excreta during a local urban flooding event. Given that communities serviced by combined sewer systems are particularly prone to such risks, local municipalities could prioritize wastewater infrastructure upgrades and consider combined sewer separations to minimize the risks of pathogen transmission via sewage overflows during epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cities , Floods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 959, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699459

ABSTRACT

Record rainfall and severe flooding struck eastern China in the summer of 2020. The extreme summer rainfall occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, which started in China in early 2020 and spread rapidly across the globe. By disrupting human activities, substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols might have affected regional precipitation in many ways. Here, we investigate such connections and show that the abrupt emissions reductions during the pandemic strengthened the summer atmospheric convection over eastern China, resulting in a positive sea level pressure anomaly over northwestern Pacific Ocean. The latter enhanced moisture convergence to eastern China and further intensified rainfall in that region. Modeling experiments show that the reduction in aerosols had a stronger impact on precipitation than the decrease of greenhouse gases did. We conclude that through abrupt emissions reductions, the COVID-19 pandemic contributed importantly to the 2020 extreme summer rainfall in eastern China.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Rain , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , China/epidemiology , Floods , Human Activities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649837

ABSTRACT

Japan experienced natural hazards during the COVID-19 pandemic as some other countries did. Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures, including many other parts of southern Japan, experienced record-breaking heavy rain on 4th July 2020. While many countries were affected by compound hazards, some cases such as the Kumamoto flood did not cause a spike of the COVID-19 cases even after going through massive evacuation actions. This study aims to understand how COVID-19 made an impact on people's response actions, learn the challenges and problems during the response and recovery phases, and identify any innovative actions and efforts to overcome various restrictions and challenges through a questionnaire survey and interviews with the affected people. With an increase in the risk of compound hazards, it has become important to take a new, innovative, and non-traditional approach. Proper understanding and application of adaptive governance can make it possible to come up with a solution that can work directly on the complex challenges during disasters. This study identified that a spike of COVID-19 cases after the disaster could be avoided due to various preventive measures taken at the evacuation centers. It shows that it is possible to manage compound hazard risks with effective preparedness. Furthermore, during emergencies, public-private-partnership as well as collaboration among private organizations and local business networks are extremely important. These collaborations generate a new approach, mechanism and platform to tackle unprecedented challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Floods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054145, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health system resilience can increase a system's ability to deal with shocks like floods. Studying health systems that currently exhibit the capacity for resilience when shocked could enhance our understanding about what generates and influences resilience. This study aimed to generate empirical knowledge on health system resilience by exploring how public antenatal and childbirth health services in Cambodia have absorbed, adapted or transformed in response to seasonal and occasional floods. DESIGN: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis and informed by the Dimensions of Resilience Governance framework. SETTING: Public sector healthcare facilities and health departments in two districts exposed to flooding. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three public sector health professionals with experience providing or managing antenatal and birth services during recent flooding. RESULTS: The theme 'Collaboration across the system creates adaptability in the response' reflects how collaboration and social relationships among providers, staff and the community have delineated boundaries for actions and decisions for services during floods. Floods were perceived as having a modest impact on health services. Knowing the boundaries on decision-making and having preparation and response plans let staff prepare and respond in a flexible yet stable way. The theme was derived from ideas of (1) seasonal floods as a minor strain on the system compared with persistent, system-wide organisational stresses the system already experiences, (2) the ability of the health services to adjust and adapt flood plans, (3) a shared purpose and working process during floods, (4) engagement at the local level to fulfil a professional duty to the community, and (5) creating relationships between health system levels and the community to enable flood response. CONCLUSION: The capacity to absorb and adapt to floods was seen among the public sector services. Strategies that enhance stability and flexibility may foster the capacity for health system resilience.


Subject(s)
Floods , Health Workforce , Cambodia , Female , Humans , Parturition , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fort McMurray, a city in northern Alberta, Canada, has experienced multiple traumas in the last five years, including the 2016 wildfire, the 2020 floods, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Eighteen months after the wildfire, major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms were elevated among school board employees in the city. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare employees of the school board and other employees of Fort McMurray in respect to the impact the 2016 wildfires, the 2019 COVID pandemic, and the 2020 floods had on their mental health. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Fort McMurray from 24 April to 2 June 2021. Online questionnaires were administered through REDCap and were designed to capture socio-demographic characteristics, clinical as well as wildfire, COVID-19, and flooding-related variables. Mental health outcome variables were captured using self-reported standardized assessment scales. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square/Fisher's Exact tests, and binary regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 249 residents who accessed the online survey, 186 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 74.7%. Of these respondents, 93.5% (174) indicated their employment status and were included in the Chi-square analysis. Most of the respondents were female (86.2%, (150)), above 40 years (53.4%, (93)), and were in a relationship (71.3%, (124)). The prevalence values for MDD, GAD and PTSD among respondents were 42.4%, 41.0, and 36.8%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between employees of the school board and other employees with respect to likely PTSD prevalence (28% vs. 45%, respectively, p < 0.05), although with other factors controlled for, in a binary logistic regression model, employer type did not significantly predict likely PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The study has established that likely PTSD symptoms were significantly higher in other employees compared to those of school board employees. Greater exposure to the traumatic events and a greater perceived lack of support from other employers might have contributed to the significantly higher prevalence of PTSD in other employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Wildfires , Alberta/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Floods , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538401

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), adolescents in 70 countries have suffered the COVID-19 pandemic and flood disasters simultaneously. Although antecedent cyberbullying variables have attracted significant research attention, the effects of psychological distress and the potential mechanisms of cyberbullying among adolescents under multiple disasters remains unclear. Based on social-ecological system theory, this study examines the moderating effects of parent-child relationships and the negotiable fate on the relationship between psychological distress and cyberbullying. A total of 1204 middle school students (52.4% boys) who suffered from floods and the COVID-19 pandemic from Zhengzhou City, China, are the participants. The results reveal that psychological distress was positively related to adolescent cyberbullying during a disaster. Parent-child relationships and negotiable fate significantly moderate the relationship between psychological distress and cyberbullying. Specifically, high parent-child relationships and a high negotiable fate could protect adolescents from the negative effects of psychological distress of cyberbullying. For adolescents with low or high parent-child relationships and low negotiable fate, the links between psychological distress and cyberbullying are stronger. These findings underline the significance of considering the interaction of psychological distress, parent-child relationships, and negotiable fate when examining adolescents' cyberbullying during disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyberbullying , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Female , Floods , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nature ; 598(7879): 32, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461979

Subject(s)
Climate , Floods , Cities
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(32): 5297-5305, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379992

ABSTRACT

Approximately 20% of cirrhotic patients with ascites develop umbilical herniation. These patients usually suffer from multisystemic complications of cirrhosis, have a significantly higher risk of infection, and require accurate surveillance- especially in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The rupture of an umbilical hernia, is an uncommon, life-threatening complication of large-volume ascites and end-stage liver disease resulting in spontaneous paracentesis, also known as Flood syndrome. Flood syndrome remains a challenging condition for clinicians, as recommendations for its management are lacking, and the available evidence for the best treatment approach remains controversial. In this paper, four key questions are addressed regarding the management and prevention of Flood syndrome: (1) Which is the best treatment approach-conservative treatment or urgent surgery? (2) How can we establish the individual risk for herniation and possible hernia rupture in cirrhotic patients? (3) How can we prevent umbilical hernia ruptures? And (4) How can we manage these patients in the conditions created by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hernia, Umbilical , Ascites , Floods , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , SARS-CoV-2
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