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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 586, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900539

ABSTRACT

The performance of a laboratory-developed IgG/IgA flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCI) using Jurkat T cells stably expressing full-length native S protein was compared against Elecsys electrochemiluminiscent (ECLIA) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA), and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG chemiluminiscent assay (CLIA) (Diasorin S.p.a, Saluggia, IT) for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A total of 225 serum/plasma specimens from 120 acute or convalescent COVID-19 individuals were included. Overall, IgG/IgA-FCI yielded the highest number of positives (n = 179), followed by IgA-FCI (n = 177), Roche ECLIA (n = 175), IgG-FCI (n = 172) and Diasorin CLIA (n = 154). For sera collected early after the onset of symptoms (within 15 days) IgG/IgA-FCI also returned the highest number of positive results (52/72; 72.2%). Positive percent agreement between FCI and compared immunoassays was highest for Roche ECLIA, ranging from 96.1 (IgG/IgA-FCI) to 97.7% (IgG-FCI), whereas negative percent agreement was higher between FCI and Diasosin CLIA, regardless of antibody isotype. The data suggest that FCI may outperform Roche ECLIA and Diasorin CLIA in terms of clinical sensitivity for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(4): e12204, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772724

ABSTRACT

Newly recognized polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) functions include the ability to release subcellular mediators such as neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) involved in immune and thrombo-inflammatory responses. Elevation of their plasmatic level has been reported in a variety of infectious and cardiovascular disorders, but the clinical use of this potential biomarker is hampered by methodological issues. Although flow cytometry (FCM) is currently used to detect NDEVs in the plasma of patients, an extensive characterization of NDEVs has never been done. Moreover, their detection remains challenging because of their small size and low antigen density. Therefore, the objective of the present study was first to establish a surface antigenic signature of NDEVs detectable by FCM and therefore to improve their detection in biological fluids by developing a strategy allowing to overcome their low fluorescent signal and reduce the background noise. By testing a large panel of 54 antibody specificities already reported to be positive on PMNs, we identified a profile of 15 membrane protein markers, including 4 (CD157, CD24, CD65 and CD66c) never described on NDEVs. Among them, CD15, CD66b and CD66c were identified as the most sensitive and specific markers to detect NDEVs by FCM. Using this antigenic signature, we developed a new strategy combining the three best antibodies in a cocktail and reducing the background noise by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This strategy allowed a significant improvement in NDEVs enumeration in plasma from sepsis patients and made it feasible to efficiently sort NDEVs from COVID-19 patients. Altogether, this work opens the door to a more valuable measurement of NDEVs as a potential biomarker in clinical practice. A similar strategy could also be applied to improve detection by FCM of other rare subpopulations of EVs generated by tissues with limited access, such as vascular endothelium, cancer cells or placenta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Neutrophils , Pregnancy , Protein Transport
3.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 324, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745431

ABSTRACT

High-throughput single-cell technologies hold the promise of discovering novel cellular relationships with disease. However, analytical workflows constructed for these technologies to associate cell proportions with disease often employ unsupervised clustering techniques that overlook the valuable hierarchical structures that have been used to define cell types. We present treekoR, a framework that empirically recapitulates these structures, facilitating multiple quantifications and comparisons of cell type proportions. Our results from twelve case studies reinforce the importance of quantifying proportions relative to parent populations in the analyses of cytometry data - as failing to do so can lead to missing important biological insights.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry/methods , Phenotype , CD8 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 794638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731769

ABSTRACT

CCR5 plays a central role in infectious disease, host defense, and cancer progression, thereby making it an ideal target for therapeutic development. Notably, CCR5 is the major HIV entry co-receptor, where its surface density correlates with HIV plasma viremia. The level of CCR5 receptor occupancy (RO) achieved by a CCR5-targeting therapeutic is therefore a critical predictor of its efficacy. However, current methods to measure CCR5 RO lack sensitivity, resulting in high background and overcalculation. Here, we report on two independent, flow cytometric methods of calculating CCR5 RO using the anti-CCR5 antibody, Leronlimab. We show that both methods led to comparable CCR5 RO values, with low background on untreated CCR5+CD4+ T cells and sensitive measurements of occupancy on both blood and tissue-resident CD4+ T cells that correlated longitudinally with plasma concentrations in Leronlimab-treated macaques. Using these assays, we found that Leronlimab stabilized cell surface CCR5, leading to an increase in the levels of circulating and tissue-resident CCR5+CD4+ T cells in vivo in Leronlimab-treated macaques. Weekly Leronlimab treatment in a chronically SIV-infected macaque led to increased CCR5+CD4+ T cells levels and fully suppressed plasma viremia, both concomitant with full CCR5 RO on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, demonstrating that CCR5+CD4+ T cells were protected from viral replication by Leronlimab binding. Finally, we extended these results to Leronlimab-treated humans and found that weekly 700 mg Leronlimab led to complete CCR5 RO on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells and a statistically significant increase in CCR5+CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. Collectively, these results establish two RO calculation methods for longitudinal monitoring of anti-CCR5 therapeutic antibody blockade efficacy in both macaques and humans, demonstrate that CCR5+CD4+ T cell levels temporarily increase with Leronlimab treatment, and facilitate future detailed investigations into the immunological impacts of CCR5 inhibition in multiple pathophysiological processes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flow Cytometry/methods , HIV Antibodies/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/physiology , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/physiology , Animals , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Primates , Protein Binding , Receptors, CCR5/immunology , Treatment Outcome
5.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101229, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703793

ABSTRACT

This protocol describes a flow cytometry approach to evaluate antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 transmembrane proteins in COVID-19-positive patient sera samples without the need of specific laboratory facilities for viral infection. We developed a human-cell-based system using spike-expressing HEK293T cells that mimics membrane insertion and N-glycosylation of viral integral membrane proteins in host cells. This assay represents a powerful tool to test antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccine effectiveness. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Martin et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Flow Cytometry/methods , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623659

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits a robust B cell response, resulting in the generation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of COVID-19 severity on the memory B cell response and characterize changes in the memory B cell compartment between recovery and five months post-symptom onset. Using high-parameter spectral flow cytometry, we analyzed the phenotype of memory B cells with reactivity against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) in recovered individuals who had been hospitalized with non-severe (n = 8) or severe (n = 5) COVID-19. One month after symptom onset, a substantial proportion of spike-specific IgG+ B cells showed an activated phenotype. In individuals who experienced non-severe disease, spike-specific IgG+ B cells showed increased expression of markers associated with durable B cell memory, including T-bet and FcRL5, as compared to individuals who experienced severe disease. While the frequency of T-bet+ spike-specific IgG+ B cells differed between the two groups, these cells predominantly showed an activated switched memory B cell phenotype in both groups. Five months post-symptom onset, the majority of spike-specific memory B cells had a resting phenotype and the percentage of spike-specific T-bet+ IgG+ memory B cells decreased to baseline levels. Collectively, our results highlight subtle differences in the B cells response after non-severe and severe COVID-19 and suggest that the memory B cell response elicited during non-severe COVID-19 may be of higher quality than the response after severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunologic Memory , Male , /metabolism , Middle Aged , Receptors, Fc/blood , Receptors, Fc/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Box Domain Proteins/blood
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 153, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616980

ABSTRACT

Anti-viral immunity continuously declines over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we characterize the dynamics of anti-viral immunity during long-term follow-up and after BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccination in convalescents after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibody titers rapidly declined in convalescents over 9 months after infection, whereas virus-specific cytokine-producing polyfunctional T cells persisted, among which IL-2-producing T cells correlated with virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Among convalescents, 5% of individuals failed to mount long-lasting immunity after infection and showed a delayed response to vaccination compared to 1% of naïve vaccinees, but successfully responded to prime/boost vaccination. During the follow-up period, 8% of convalescents showed a selective increase in virus-neutralizing antibody titers without accompanying increased frequencies of circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. The same convalescents, however, responded to vaccination with simultaneous increase in antibody and T cell immunity revealing the strength of mRNA-vaccination to increase virus-specific immunity in convalescents.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
8.
Cells ; 11(1)2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580990

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and viruses share common features: size, structure, biogenesis and uptake. In order to generate EVs expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on their surface (S-EVs), we collected EVs from SARS-CoV-2 spike expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cells by stable transfection with a vector coding for the S1 and S2 subunits. S-EVs were characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, ExoView and super-resolution microscopy. We obtained a population of EVs of 50 to 200 nm in size. Spike expressing EVs represented around 40% of the total EV population and co-expressed spike protein with tetraspanins on the surfaces of EVs. We subsequently used ACE2-positive endothelial and bronchial epithelial cells for assessing the internalization of labeled S-EVs using a cytofluorimetric analysis. Internalization of S-EVs was higher than that of control EVs from non-transfected cells. Moreover, S-EV uptake was significantly decreased by anti-ACE2 antibody pre-treatment. Furthermore, colchicine, a drug currently used in clinical trials, significantly reduced S-EV entry into the cells. S-EVs represent a simple, safe, and scalable model to study host-virus interactions and the mechanisms of novel therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Blocking/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Colchicine/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry/methods , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 4361844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523091

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA virus first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is impacting healthcare worldwide. Patients who develop coagulopathy have worse outcomes. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 suggests a strong interplay between hemostasis and immune cells, especially neutrophils. Our purpose was to assess neutrophil fluorescence as a potential biomarker of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-ARDS). Sixty-one patients with COVID-ARDS admitted to the four intensive care units (ICUs) of a French general hospital were included in this prospective study. Neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring neutrophil fluorescence (NEUT-Side Fluorescence Light, NEUT-SFL) with a specific fluorescent dye staining analyzed by a routine automated flow cytometer Sysmex XN-3000™ (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). DVT was diagnosed by complete duplex ultrasound (CDU). We found that NEUT-SFL was elevated on admission in patients with COVID-ARDS (49.76 AU, reference value 46.40 AU, p < 0.001), but did not differ between patients with DVT (49.99 AU) and those without (49.52 AU, p = 0.555). NEUT-SFL is elevated in patients with COVID-ARDS, reflecting neutrophil activation, but cannot be used as a marker of thrombosis. Because neutrophils are at interface between immune response and hemostasis through release of neutrophil extracellular traps, monitoring their activation could be an interesting approach to improve our management of coagulopathy during COVID-ARDS. Further research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and identify high-performance biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Neutrophils/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescence , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/virology
11.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488493

ABSTRACT

Inflammasome activation is linked to the aggregation of the adaptor protein ASC into a multiprotein complex, known as the ASC speck. Redistribution of cytosolic ASC to this complex has been widely used as a readout for inflammasome activation and precedes the downstream proteolytic release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-18. Although inflammasomes are important for many diseases such as periodic fever syndromes, COVID-19, gout, sepsis, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, only a little knowledge exists on the precise and cell type specific occurrence of inflammasome activation in patient samples ex vivo. In this report, we provide detailed information about the optimal conditions to reliably identify inflammasome activated monocytes by ASC speck formation using a modified flow cytometric method introduced by Sester et al. in 2015. Since no protocol for optimal sample processing exists, we tested human blood samples for various conditions including anticoagulant, time and temperature, the effect of one freeze-thaw cycle for PBMC storage, and the fast generation of a positive control. We believe that this flow cytometric protocol will help researchers to perform high quality translational research in multicenter studies, and therefore provide a basis for investigating the role of the inflammasome in the pathogenesis of various diseases.


Subject(s)
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , Inflammasomes/immunology , Anticoagulants , Flow Cytometry/standards , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Specimen Handling , Temperature , Time Factors
12.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(11): 2665-2676, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482126

ABSTRACT

To monitor infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and successful vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the kinetics of neutralizing or blocking anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers need to be assessed. Here, we report the development of a quick and inexpensive surrogate SARS-CoV-2 blocking assay (SUBA) using immobilized recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and human cells expressing the native form of surface SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Spike protein-expressing cells bound to hACE2 in the absence or presence of blocking antibodies were quantified by measuring the optical density of cell-associated crystal violet in a spectrophotometer. The advantages are that SUBA is a fast and inexpensive assay, which does not require biosafety level 2- or 3-approved laboratories. Most importantly, SUBA detects blocking antibodies against the native trimeric cell-bound SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can be rapidly adjusted to quickly pre-screen already approved therapeutic antibodies or sera from vaccinated individuals for their ACE2 blocking activities against any emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Blocking/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730766, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463473

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread to all parts of the world and can cause life-threatening pneumonia and other severe disease manifestations known as COVID-19. This health crisis has resulted in a significant effort to stop the spread of this new coronavirus. However, while propagating itself in the human population, the virus accumulates mutations and generates new variants with increased fitness and the ability to escape the human immune response. Here we describe a color-based barcoded spike flow cytometric assay (BSFA) that is particularly useful to evaluate and directly compare the humoral immune response directed against either wild type (WT) or mutant spike (S) proteins or the receptor-binding domains (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. This assay employs the human B lymphoma cell line Ramos, transfected for stable expression of WT or mutant S proteins or a chimeric RBD-CD8 fusion protein. We find that the alpha and beta mutants are more stably expressed than the WT S protein on the Ramos B cell surface and/or bind with higher affinity to the viral entry receptor ACE2. However, we find a reduce expression of the chimeric RBD-CD8 carrying the point mutation N501Y and E484K characteristic for the alpha and beta variant, respectively. The comparison of the humoral immune response of 12 vaccinated probands with 12 COVID-19 patients shows that after the boost, the S-specific IgG class immune response in the vaccinated group is similar to that of the patient group. However, in comparison to WT the specific IgG serum antibodies bind less well to the alpha variant and only poorly to the beta variant S protein. This is in line with the notion that the beta variant is an immune escape variant of SARS-CoV-2. The IgA class immune response was more variable than the IgG response and higher in the COVID-19 patients than in the vaccinated group. In summary, we think that our BSFA represents a useful tool to evaluate the humoral immunity against emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and to analyze new vaccination protocols against these variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Separation/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
14.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100851, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401935

ABSTRACT

Antibodies can engage specific receptors at the surface of effector cells and mediate several functions beyond viral neutralization. Increasing evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), have an important role in protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. We engineered a cell line stably expressing a GFP-tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike to measure ADCC. This protocol provides an optimized way of measuring ADCC activity mediated by anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike monoclonal antibodies or plasma from previously infected or vaccinated individuals. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Anand et al. (2021b).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Flow Cytometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans
15.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(11): 2633-2640, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344986

ABSTRACT

Here, we describe a new, simple, highly multiplexed serological test that generates a more complete picture of seroconversion than single antigen-based assays. Flow cytometry is used to detect multiple Ig isotypes binding to four SARS-CoV-2 antigens: the Spike glycoprotein, its RBD fragment (the main target for neutralizing antibodies), the nucleocapsid protein, and the main cysteine-like protease in a single reaction. Until now, most diagnostic serological tests measured antibodies to only one antigen and in some laboratory-confirmed patients no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies could be detected. Our data reveal that while most patients respond against all the viral antigens tested, others show a marked bias to make antibodies against either proteins exposed on the viral particle or those released after cellular infection. With this assay, it was possible to discriminate between patients and healthy controls with 100% confidence. Analysing the response of multiple Ig isotypes to the four antigens in combination may also help to establish a correlation with the severity degree of disease. A more detailed description of the immune responses of different patients to SARS-CoV-2 virus might provide insight into the wide array of clinical presentations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): e2100323, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316190

ABSTRACT

Blood cell analysis is a major pillar of biomedical research and healthcare. These analyses are performed in central laboratories. Rapid shipment from collection site to the central laboratories is currently needed because cells and biomarkers degrade rapidly. The dried blood spot from a fingerstick allows the preservation of cellular molecules for months but entire cells are never recovered. Here leucocyte elution is optimized from dried blood spots. Flow cytometry and mRNA expression profiling are used to analyze the recovered cells. 50-70% of the leucocytes that are dried on a polyester solid support via elution after shaking the support with buffer are recovered. While red blood cells lyse upon drying, it is found that the majority of leucocytes are preserved. Leucocytes have an altered structure that is improved by adding fixative in the elution buffer. Leucocytes are permeabilized, allowing an easy staining of all cellular compartments. Common immunophenotyping and mRNAs are preserved. The ability of a new biomarker (CD169) to discriminate between patients with and without Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome induced by Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is also preserved. Leucocytes from blood can be dried, shipped, and/or stored for at least 1 month, then recovered for a wide variety of analyses, potentially facilitating biomedical applications worldwide.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Hematology/methods , Immunophenotyping/methods , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Separation/methods , Communicable Diseases/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Leukocytes/virology , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
J Immunol ; 207(2): 720-734, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311404

ABSTRACT

Most shared resource flow cytometry facilities do not permit analysis of radioactive samples. We are investigating low-dose molecular targeted radionuclide therapy (MTRT) as an immunomodulator in combination with in situ tumor vaccines and need to analyze radioactive samples from MTRT-treated mice using flow cytometry. Further, the sudden shutdown of core facilities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented work stoppage. In these and other research settings, a robust and reliable means of cryopreservation of immune samples is required. We evaluated different fixation and cryopreservation protocols of disaggregated tumor cells with the aim of identifying a protocol for subsequent flow cytometry of the thawed sample, which most accurately reflects the flow cytometric analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment of a freshly disaggregated and analyzed sample. Cohorts of C57BL/6 mice bearing B78 melanoma tumors were evaluated using dual lymphoid and myeloid immunophenotyping panels involving fixation and cryopreservation at three distinct points during the workflow. Results demonstrate that freezing samples after all staining and fixation are completed most accurately matches the results from noncryopreserved equivalent samples. We observed that cryopreservation of living, unfixed cells introduces a nonuniform alteration to PD1 expression. We confirm the utility of our cryopreservation protocol by comparing tumors treated with in situ tumor vaccines, analyzing both fresh and cryopreserved tumor samples with similar results. Last, we use this cryopreservation protocol with radioactive specimens to demonstrate potentially beneficial effector cell changes to the tumor immune microenvironment following administration of a novel MTRT in a dose- and time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Cryopreservation/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunophenotyping/methods , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Pandemics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
18.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100671, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275774

ABSTRACT

One of the key public health strategies in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) management is the early detection of infected individuals to limit the transmission. As a result, serological assays have been developed to complement PCR-based assays. Here, we report the development of a flow cytometry-based assay to detect antibodies against full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein) in patients with COVID-19. The assay is time-efficient and sensitive, being able to capture the wider repertoire of antibodies against the S protein. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Goh et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(8): 1992-2005, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251932

ABSTRACT

The phenotype of infused cells is a major determinant of Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) efficacy. Yet, the difficulty in deciphering multiparametric cytometry data limited the fine characterization of cellular products. To allow the analysis of dynamic and complex flow cytometry samples, we developed cytoChain, a novel dataset mining tool and a new analytical workflow. CytoChain was challenged to compare state-of-the-art and innovative culture conditions to generate stem-like memory cells (TSCM ) suitable for ACT. Noticeably, the combination of IL-7/15 and superoxides scavenging sustained the emergence of a previously unidentified nonexhausted Fit-TSCM signature, overlooked by manual gating and endowed with superior expansion potential. CytoChain proficiently traced back this population in independent datasets, and in T-cell receptor engineered lymphocytes. CytoChain flexibility and function were then further validated on a published dataset from circulating T cells in COVID-19 patients. Collectively, our results support the use of cytoChain to identify novel, functionally critical immunophenotypes for ACT and patients immunomonitoring.


Subject(s)
Data Mining/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Blood ; 137(26): 3656-3659, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215090

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is crucial in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. The rare complication of thrombocytopenia and thrombotic complications at unusual sites after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination is caused by platelet-activating antibodies directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4). We present a widely applicable whole-blood standard flow cytometric assay to identify the pathogenic antibodies associated with vaccine-induced immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. This assay will enable rapid diagnosis by many laboratories. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04370119.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , P-Selectin/analysis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
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