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1.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(1): 9-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737353

ABSTRACT

Dengue is an arboviral infection that is hyperendemic in tropical and subtropical climates. Clinical manifestations of dengue can range from asymptomatic infection to severe infection with multi-organ failure. Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a subcategory in dengue infection with a hallmark of plasma leak (ie critical phase). The plasma leak in DHF is selective (pleuroperitoneal spaces), transient and dynamic, and needs careful monitoring and meticulous fluid resuscitation. In addition, dengue fever may present with extended and unusual manifestations affecting any organ, including the heart, liver, kidney and brain. Studies on vaccine development and vector control are ongoing to prevent this infection of global importance. In this article, the clinicopathological features and management aspects of dengue are discussed.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Severe Dengue , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Humans
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 815-826, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether the use of balanced multielectrolyte solution (BMES) in preference to 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) in critically ill patients reduces the risk of acute kidney injury or death is uncertain. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned critically ill patients to receive BMES (Plasma-Lyte 148) or saline as fluid therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 90 days. The primary outcome was death from any cause within 90 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes were receipt of new renal-replacement therapy and the maximum increase in the creatinine level during ICU stay. RESULTS: A total of 5037 patients were recruited from 53 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand - 2515 patients were assigned to the BMES group and 2522 to the saline group. Death within 90 days after randomization occurred in 530 of 2433 patients (21.8%) in the BMES group and in 530 of 2413 patients (22.0%) in the saline group, for a difference of -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.60 to 3.30; P = 0.90). New renal-replacement therapy was initiated in 306 of 2403 patients (12.7%) in the BMES group and in 310 of 2394 patients (12.9%) in the saline group, for a difference of -0.20 percentage points (95% CI, -2.96 to 2.56). The mean (±SD) maximum increase in serum creatinine level was 0.41±1.06 mg per deciliter (36.6±94.0 µmol per liter) in the BMES group and 0.41±1.02 mg per deciliter (36.1±90.0 µmol per liter) in the saline group, for a difference of 0.01 mg per deciliter (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.06) (0.5 µmol per liter [95% CI, -4.7 to 5.7]). The number of adverse and serious adverse events did not differ meaningfully between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the risk of death or acute kidney injury among critically ill adults in the ICU was lower with the use of BMES than with saline. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and the Health Research Council of New Zealand; PLUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02721654.).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Critical Illness/therapy , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Female , Fluid Therapy , Gluconates/adverse effects , Gluconates/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnesium Chloride/adverse effects , Magnesium Chloride/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Saline Solution/adverse effects , Sodium Acetate/adverse effects , Sodium Acetate/therapeutic use , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Emerg Med ; 62(2): 145-153, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with respiratory symptoms and renal effects. Data regarding fluid resuscitation and kidney injury in COVID-19 are lacking, and understanding this relationship is critical. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is an association between fluid volume administered in 24 h and development of renal failure in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review; 14 hospitals in Indiana. Included patients were adults admitted between March 11, 2020 and April 13, 2020 with a positive test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 within 3 days of admission. Patients requiring renal replacement therapy prior to admission were excluded. Volumes and types of resuscitative intravenous fluids in the first 24 h were obtained with demographics, medical history, and other objective data. The primary outcome was initiation of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression modeling was utilized in creating multivariate models for determining factors associated with the primary outcome. RESULTS: The fluid volume received in the first 24 h after hospital admission was associated with initiation of renal replacement therapy in two different multivariate logistic regression models. An odds ratio of 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.99) was observed when adjusting for age, heart failure, obesity, creatinine, bicarbonate, and total fluid volume. An odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.05) was observed when variables significant in univariate analysis were adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Each liter of intravenous fluid administered to patients with COVID-19 in the first 24 h of presentation was independently associated with an increased risk for initiation of renal replacement therapy, supporting judicious fluid administration in patients with this disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects , Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475880
5.
Pancreatology ; 21(8): 1405-1410, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Fluid resuscitation is the keystone of treatment for acute pancreatitis. Though clinical guidelines and expert opinions agree on large volume resuscitation, debate remains on the optimal fluid type. The most commonly used fluids are Lactated Ringer's (LR) and Normal Saline (NS), but the studies published to date comparing LR vs NS yield conflicting results. We aimed to identify and quantitatively synthesize existing high quality data of the topic of fluid type or acute pancreatitis resuscitation. METHODS: In collaboration with the study team, an information specialist performed a comprehensive literature review to identify reports addressing type of fluid resuscitation. Studies were screened using the Covidence system by two independent reviewers in order to identify Randomized controlled trials comparing LR versus NS. The main outcome was the development of moderately severe or severe pancreatitis and additional outcomes included local complications, ICU admission, and length of stay. Pooled odds ratios were estimated using the random effects model and standardized mean difference to compare continuous variables. RESULTS: We reviewed 7964 abstracts and 57 full text documents. Four randomized controlled trials were identified and included in our meta-analyses. There were a total of 122 patients resuscitated with LR versus 126 with NS. Patients resuscitated with LR were less likely to develop moderately severe/severe pancreatitis (OR 0.49; 95 % CI 0.25-0.97). There was no difference in development of SIRS at 24 or 48 h or development of organ failure between the two groups. Patients resuscitated with LR were less likely to require ICU admission (OR 0.33; 95 % CI 0.13-0.81) and local complications (OR 0.42; 95 % CI 0.2-0.88). While there was a trend towards shorter hospitalizations for LR (SMD -0.18, 99 % CI -0.44-0.07), it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Resuscitation with LR reduces the development of moderately severe-severe pancreatitis relative to NS. Nevertheless, no difference in SIRS development or organ failure underscores the need for further studies to verify this finding and define its mechanism.


Subject(s)
Pancreatitis , Saline Solution , Acute Disease , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Pancreatitis/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Resuscitation , Ringer's Lactate , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1642-1645, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare patients with DKA, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), or mixed DKA-HHS and COVID-19 [COVID (+)] to COVID-19-negative (-) [COVID (-)] patients with DKA/HHS from a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse catchment area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients admitted to an urban academic medical center between 1 March and 30 July 2020. Eligible patients met lab criteria for either DKA or HHS. Mixed DKA-HHS was defined as meeting all criteria for either DKA or HHS with at least 1 criterion for the other diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 82 participants were stratified by COVID-19 status and type of hyperglycaemic crisis [26 COVID (+) and 56 COVID (-)]. A majority were either Black or Hispanic. Compared with COVID (-) patients, COVID (+) patients were older, more Hispanic and more likely to have type 2 diabetes (T2D, 73% vs 48%, p < .01). COVID(+) patients had a higher mean pH (7.25 ± 0.10 vs 7.16 ± 0.16, p < .01) and lower anion gap (18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.7 ± 6.9, p = .01) than COVID (-) patients. COVID (+) patients were given less intravenous fluids in the first 24 h (2.8 ± 1.9 vs 4.2 ± 2.4 L, p = .01) and were more likely to receive glucocorticoids (95% vs. 11%, p < .01). COVID (+) patients may have taken longer to resolve their hyperglycaemic crisis (53.3 ± 64.8 vs 28.8 ± 27.5 h, p = .09) and may have experienced more hypoglycaemia <3.9 mmol/L (35% vs 19%, p = .09). COVID (+) patients had a higher length of hospital stay (LOS, 14.8 ± 14.9 vs 6.5 ± 6.0 days, p = .01) and in-hospital mortality (27% vs 7%, p = .02). DISCUSSION: Compared with COVID (-) patients, COVID (+) patients with DKA/HHS are more likely to have T2D. Despite less severe metabolic acidosis, COVID (+) patients may require more time to resolve the hyperglycaemic crisis and experience more hypoglycaemia while suffering greater LOS and risk of mortality. Larger studies are needed to examine whether differences in management between COVID (+) and (-) patients affect outcomes with DKA/HHS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/complications , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Female , Fluid Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/blood , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety-net Providers
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 427, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Euglycaemic ketoacidosis (EKA) is an infrequent but serious condition which usually follows a period of starvation, severe vomiting or illness in individuals with or without diabetes. Ketoacidosis is associated with materno-fetal morbidity and mortality necessitating prompt diagnosis and management. Physiological increases in insulin resistance render pregnancy a diabetogenic state with increased susceptibility to ketosis. COVID-19 is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for ketoacidosis in normoglycaemic individuals. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe two cases of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women presenting with normoglycaemic metabolic ketoacidosis. Both cases were associated with maternal and fetal compromise, requiring aggressive fluid and insulin resuscitation and early delivery. CONCLUSION: We discuss possible physiology and propose a management strategy for euglycaemic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Ketosis/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Starvation/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fluid Therapy/methods , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Ketosis/complications , Ketosis/therapy , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Starvation/therapy
10.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(6): 1854-1857, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121487

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health and healthcare of individuals of all ages worldwide. There have been multiple reports and reviews documenting a milder effect and decreased morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, but there have only been a small number of reports discussing the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the setting of an inborn error of metabolism (IEM). Here, we report two patients with underlying metabolic disorders, propionic acidemia and glutaric aciduria type 1, and discuss their clinical presentation, as well as their infectious and metabolic management. Our report demonstrates that individuals with an underlying IEM are at risk of metabolic decompensation in the setting of a COVID-19 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus does not appear to cause a more severe metabolic deterioration than is typical.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/complications , COVID-19/complications , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Propionic Acidemia/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Acidosis, Lactic/etiology , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Combined Modality Therapy , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Fluid Therapy , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/adverse effects , Humans , Hyperammonemia/etiology , Hyperammonemia/therapy , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Infant , Insulin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pancytopenia/etiology , Pancytopenia/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083872

ABSTRACT

Doxycycline is a commonly prescribed antibiotic with growing evidence suggesting a possible linkage with drug-induced acute pancreatitis. We present an elderly female presenting with severe acute pancreatitis likely secondary to doxycycline therapy after thorough investigation. We reviewed the evidence linking doxycycline-inducing acute pancreatitis and signs and symptoms for severe disease. Early recognition and intervention are critical for positive patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Doxycycline/adverse effects , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Aged , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy
13.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(1): E019-E021, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079393

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease. Unfortunately, research on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted treatments for patients with COVID-19 infection is limited. In this case study, a patient who was in late pregnancy (35+2 weeks of pregnancy) and suffering from severe COVID-19 was extremely irritable during ECMO-assisted treatment after she underwent a cesarean section. Her Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) score reached +3. Nevertheless, the patient successfully was treated with a continuous single/combined application of propofol, midazolam, dexmedetomidine, hibernation mixture, and other drugs for several days (maintaining RASS -2 to -4) and provided with anti-infection, mechanical ventilation, nutritional support, fluid balance under hemodynamic monitoring, liver support, and other organ function support treatments. ECMO-assisted sedation strategy for patients was introduced and discussed in this case to provide a certain reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Nutritional Support , Pregnancy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4557-4564, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064547

ABSTRACT

Collagenous colitis (CC) is associated with non-bloody, watery diarrhea, which is pathophysiologically reasonable because normal colonic absorption (or excretion) of water and electrolytes can be blocked by the abnormally thick collagen layer in CC. However, CC has also been associated with six previous cases of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), with no pathophysiologic explanation. The colon does not normally absorb (or excrete) amino acids/proteins, which is primarily the function of the small bowel. Collagenous duodenitis (CD) has not been associated with PLE. This work reports a novel case of CD (and CC) associated with PLE; a pathophysiologically reasonable mechanism for CD causing PLE (by the thick collagen layer of CD blocking normal intestinal amino acid absorption); and a novel association of PLE with severe COVID-19 infection (attributed to relative immunosuppression from hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and malnutrition from PLE).


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Colitis, Collagenous/complications , Duodenitis/complications , Duodenum/physiopathology , Intestinal Absorption , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Colitis, Collagenous/diagnosis , Colitis, Collagenous/physiopathology , Colitis, Collagenous/therapy , Duodenitis/diagnosis , Duodenitis/physiopathology , Duodenitis/therapy , Duodenum/metabolism , Female , Fluid Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/diagnosis , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/physiopathology , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/therapy , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066835

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of COVID-19. Since the outbreak and rapid spread of COVID-19, it has been apparent that the disease is having multi-organ system involvement. Still its effect in the endocrine system is not fully clear and data on cortisol dynamics in patients with COVID-19 are not yet available. SARS-CoV-2 can knock down the host's cortisol stress response. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old man vomiting for 10 days after having confirmed COVID-19 infection. He had hypotension and significant hyponatraemia. Work-up was done including adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. He was diagnosed as suffering from adrenal insufficiency and started on steroids with subsequent improvement in both blood pressure and sodium level. COVID-19 can cause adrenal insufficiency. Clinicians must be vigilant about the possibility of an underlying relative cortisol deficiency in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hyponatremia/physiopathology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Acidosis/blood , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adrenal Insufficiency/blood , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , COVID-19/blood , Fluid Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hyponatremia/blood , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hypophosphatemia/blood , Hypophosphatemia/physiopathology , Hypophosphatemia/therapy , Hypotension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/blood , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/therapy
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100118, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064729

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 is rapidly spreading throughout the New York metropolitan area since its first reported case on March 1, 2020. The state is now the epicenter of coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in the United States, with 84,735 cases reported as of April 2, 2020. We previously presented an early case series with 7 coronavirus disease 2019-positive pregnant patients, 2 of whom were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 after an initial asymptomatic presentation. We now describe a series of 43 test-positive cases of coronavirus disease 2019 presenting to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals for more than 2 weeks, from March 13, 2020, to March 27, 2020. A total of 14 patients (32.6%) presented without any coronavirus disease 2019-associated viral symptoms and were identified after they developed symptoms during admission or after the implementation of universal testing for all obstetric admissions on March 22. Among them, 10 patients (71.4%) developed symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 over the course of their delivery admission or early after postpartum discharge. Of the other 29 patients (67.4%) who presented with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019, 3 women ultimately required antenatal admission for viral symptoms, and another patient re-presented with worsening respiratory status requiring oxygen supplementation 6 days postpartum after a successful labor induction. There were no confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 detected in neonates upon initial testing on the first day of life. Based on coronavirus disease 2019 disease severity characteristics by Wu and McGoogan, 37 women (86%) exhibited mild disease, 4 (9.3%) severe disease, and 2 (4.7%) critical disease; these percentages are similar to those described in nonpregnant adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (about 80% mild, 15% severe, and 5% critical disease).


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Hospitalization , Labor, Induced , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Carrier State/diagnosis , Disease Management , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fluid Therapy , Gestational Age , Hospitals, Community , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infection Control/methods , Intensive Care Units , Labor, Obstetric , Multi-Institutional Systems , New York City , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Young Adult
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016197

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, humanity faces one of the most serious health crises, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is related to the high rate of interhuman transmission of the virus, variability of clinical presentation, and the absence of specific therapeutic methods. COVID-19 can manifest with non-specific symptoms and signs, especially among the elderly. In some cases, the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia may be the first to appear. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia among patients with COVID-19 are diverse, including syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), digestive loss of sodium ions, reduced sodium ion intake or use of diuretic therapy. Hyponatremia may also be considered a negative prognostic factor in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We need further studies to evaluate the etiology and therapeutic management of hyponatremia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diuretics/adverse effects , Fluid Therapy/methods , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/etiology , Incidence , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Sodium, Dietary
19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(5): 604-612, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983870

ABSTRACT

A novel Coronavirus was identified in late 2019 as the cause of COVID-19 disease which is highly contagious. SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA, enveloped virus from the beta Coronavirus family. Intraoperative management of patients with COVID-19 is a high-risk procedure. An international attention has raised to develop recommendations for the management strategies. This review article was designed to synthesize the existing evidence and experience related to intraoperative management of COVID-19. This review provides a summary of clinical guidance and addresses six domains: principles of intraoperative monitoring, airway management and related difficulties, ventilation, type of anesthesia, medications and side effects, and intraoperative fluid management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Operating Rooms , Airway Management , Anesthesia , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Infection Control , Intraoperative Care , Pandemics
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