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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5816-5824, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453607

ABSTRACT

Serological testing for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies is used to detect ongoing or past SARS-CoV-2 infections. To study the kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and to assess the diagnostic performances of eight serological assays, we used 129 serum samples collected on known days post symptom onset (dpso) from 42 patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 54 serum samples from healthy blood donors, and children infected with seasonal coronaviruses. The sera were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence testing (IIFT) based on SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. They were further tested for antibodies against the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (IgG, IgA) and against the viral nucleocapsid protein (IgG, IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The assay specificities were 94.4%-100%. The sensitivities varied largely between assays, reflecting their respective purposes. The sensitivities of IgA and IgM assays were the highest between 11 and 20 dpso, whereas the sensitivities of IgG assays peaked between 20 and 60 dpso. IIFT showed the highest sensitivities due to the use of the whole SARS-CoV-2 as substrate and provided information on whether or not the individual has been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided further information about both the prevalence and concentration of specific antibodies against selected antigens of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(7): 6, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388618

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in human retina. Methods: Human post-mortem eyes from 13 non-diabetic control cases and 11 diabetic retinopathy cases were analyzed for the expression of ACE2. To compare the vascular ACE2 expression between different organs that involve in diabetes, the expression of ACE2 was investigated in renal specimens from nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy patients. Expression of TMPRSS2, a cell-surface protease that facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry, was also investigated in human nondiabetic retinas. Primary human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and primary human retinal pericytes (HRPCs) were further used to confirm the vascular ACE2 expression in human retina. Results: We found that ACE2 was expressed in multiple nonvascular neuroretinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and photoreceptor outer segments in both nondiabetic and diabetic retinopathy specimens. Strikingly, we observed significantly more ACE2 positive vessels in the diabetic retinopathy specimens. By contrast, in another end-stage organ affected by diabetes, the kidney, ACE2 in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy showed apical expression of ACE2 tubular epithelial cells, but no endothelial expression in glomerular or peritubular capillaries. Western blot analysis of protein lysates from HRECs and HRPCs confirmed expression of ACE2. TMPRSS2 expression was present in multiple retinal neuronal cells, vascular and perivascular cells, and Müller glia. Conclusions: Together, these results indicate that retina expresses ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Moreover, there are increased vascular ACE2 expression in diabetic retinopathy retinas.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retina/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Binding Sites , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Diabetic Nephropathies/enzymology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/virology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Pericytes/enzymology , Pericytes/virology , Retinal Vessels/enzymology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Retinal Vessels/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
3.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102706, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309270

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune phenomena and clinically apparent autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis, are increasingly been reported not only after natural infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but also after vaccination against it. We report the case of a 63-year old man without a history of autoimmunity or SARS-CoV-2 natural infection who experienced acute severe autoimmune-like hepatitis seven days after the first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Liver histology showed inflammatory portal infiltrate with interface hepatitis, lobular and centrilobular inflammation with centrilobular necrosis, in absence of fibrosis and steatosis. Serum immunoglobulin G was slightly elevated. Autoimmune liver serology showed an indirect immunofluorescence pattern on triple rodent tissue compatible with anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA), but, unexpectedly, this pattern was not mirrored by positivity for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)-specific molecular tests, indicating that this antibody is different from classical AMA. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was also positive with a rim-like indirect immunofluorescence pattern on liver and HEp2 cell substrates, similar to PBC-specific ANA; however, anti-gp210 and a large panel of molecular-based assays for nuclear antigens were negative, suggesting a unique ANA in our patient. He carries the HLA DRB1*11:01 allele, which is protective against PBC. Response to prednisone treatment was satisfactory. The clinical significance of these novel specificities needs to be further evaluated in this emerging condition.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , HLA-DRB1 Chains/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Mitochondria/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Animals , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Autoantigens/immunology , Cell Line , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/immunology , Liver/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rosuvastatin Calcium/adverse effects , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
4.
Cornea ; 39(12): 1556-1562, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To confirm the ocular tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by evaluating the expression of viral entry factors in human ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Fresh donor corneas and primary explant cultures of corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells were evaluated for the expression of viral entry factors. Using immunohistochemistry, the samples were tested for the expression of angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), DC-SIGN-related protein (DC-SIGNR), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). RESULTS: In total, 5 donor corneas were evaluated for the expression of viral entry factors. In all specimens, both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were expressed throughout the surface epithelium (corneal, limbal, and conjunctival) and corneal endothelium. In corneal stromal cells, ACE2 was sporadically expressed, whereas TMPRSS2 was absent. DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR expression varied between donor specimens. Four specimens expressed DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR in a similar distribution to ACE2, but 1 specimen from a young donor showed no expression of DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR. ACE2, TMPRSS2, and DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR were all expressed in the cultured corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Both corneal and conjunctival epithelia express ACE2, DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR, and TMPRSS2, suggesting that the ocular surface is a potential route for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The risk of viral transmission with corneal transplantation cannot be ruled out, given the presence of ACE2 in corneal epithelium and endothelium. Cultured corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelial cells mimic the expression of viral entry factors in fresh donor tissue and may be useful for future in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Conjunctiva/metabolism , Epithelium, Corneal/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Conjunctiva/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Limbus Corneae/cytology , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 935-941, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045234

ABSTRACT

Enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) are major pathogens that cause diarrhea in piglets. To date, four porcine enteric CoVs have been identified: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and HKU2-like porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV). In this study, we investigated the replicative capacity of these four enteric CoVs in LLC-PK1 cells, a porcine kidney cell line. The results showed that LLC-PK1 cells are susceptible to all four enteric CoVs, particularly to TGEV and PDCoV infections, indicating that LLC-PK1 cells can be applied to porcine enteric CoV research in vitro, particularly for coinfection studies.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/growth & development , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Susceptibility , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Intestine, Small/virology , LLC-PK1 Cells , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
8.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2243-2247, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935138

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological assays are urgently needed for rapid diagnosis, contact tracing, and for epidemiological studies. So far, there is limited data on how commercially available tests perform with real patient samples, and if positive tested samples show neutralizing abilities. Focusing on IgG antibodies, we demonstrate the performance of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays (Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Vircell COVID-19 ELISA IgG) in comparison to one lateral flow assay (FaStep COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Device) and two in-house developed assays (immunofluorescence assay [IFA] and plaque reduction neutralization test [PRNT]). We tested follow up serum/plasma samples of individuals polymerase chain reaction-diagnosed with COVID-19. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 samples were from individuals with moderate to the severe clinical course, who required an in-patient hospital stay. For all examined assays, the sensitivity ranged from 58.8 to 76.5% for the early phase of infection (days 5-9) and from 93.8% to 100% for the later period (days 10-18).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
9.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(2): 128-131, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926934

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic disease that was first identified in humans in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV causes acute and severe respiratory disease in humans. The mortality rate of MERS in humans is ∼35% and >800 deaths have been reported globally as of August 2020. Dromedary camels are a natural host of the virus and the source of zoonotic human infection. In experimental studies, Bactrian camels are susceptible to MERS-CoV infection similar to dromedary camels; however, neither the virus, viral RNA, nor virus-specific antibodies were detected in Bactrian camel field samples so far. The aim of our study was to survey Mongolian camels for MERS-CoV-specific antibodies. A total of 180 camel sera, collected in 2016 and 2017, were involved in this survey: 17 of 180 sera were seropositive with an initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test performed at the State Central Veterinary Laboratory in Mongolia. These 17 positive sera plus 53 additional negative sera were sent to the Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID/NIH, and tested for the presence of antibodies with a similar ELISA, an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and a virus neutralization test (VNT). In these additional tests, a total of 21 of 70 sera were positive with ELISA and 10 sera were positive with IFA; however, none was positive in the VNT. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the ELISA/IFA-positive antibodies are (1) non-neutralizing antibodies or (2) directed against a MERS-CoV-like virus circulating in Bactrian camels in Mongolia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Camelus/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Mongolia , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 361-371, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920023

ABSTRACT

An indirect in-house immunofluorescent assay was developed in order to assess the serological status of COVID-19 patients in Marseille, France. Performance of IFA was compared to a commercial ELISA IgG kit. We tested 888 RT-qPCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (1302 serum samples) and 350 controls including 200 sera collected before the pandemic, 64 sera known to be associated with nonspecific serological interference, 36 sera from non-coronavirus pneumonia and 50 sera from patient with other common coronavirus to elicit false-positive serology. Incorporating an inactivated clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate as the antigen, the specificity of the assay was measured as 100% for IgA titre ≥ 1:200, 98.6% for IgM titre ≥ 1:200 and 96.3% for IgG titre ≥ 1:100 after testing a series of negative controls. IFA presented substantial agreement (86%) with ELISA EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 IgG kit (Cohen's Kappa = 0.61). The presence of antibodies was then measured at 3% before a 5-day evolution up to 47% after more than 15 days of evolution. We observed that the rates of seropositivity as well as the titre of specific antibodies were both significantly higher in patients with a poor clinical outcome than in patients with a favourable evolution. These data, which have to be integrated into the ongoing understanding of the immunological phase of the infection, suggest that detection anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is useful as a marker associated with COVID-19 severity. The IFA assay reported here is useful for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 exposure at the individual and population levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 148-158, 2020 10 30.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916545

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the new coronavirus causing an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in China in December, 2019. This disease, currently named COVID-19, has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The first case of COVID-19 in Colombia was reported on March 6, 2020. Here we characterize an early SARS-CoV-2 isolate from the pandemic recovered in April, 2020. Objective: To describe the isolation and characterization of an early SARS-CoV-2 isolate from the epidemic in Colombia. Materials and methods: A nasopharyngeal specimen from a COVID-19 positive patient was inoculated on different cell lines. To confirm the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on cultures we used qRT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and next-generation sequencing. Results: We determined the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells by the appearance of the cytopathic effect three days post-infection and confirmed it by the positive results in the qRT-PCR and the immunofluorescence with convalescent serum. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy images obtained from infected cells showed the presence of structures compatible with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, a complete genome sequence obtained by next-generation sequencing allowed classifying the isolate as B.1.5 lineage. Conclusion: The evidence presented in this article confirms the first isolation of SARSCoV-2 in Colombia. In addition, it shows that this strain behaves in cell culture in a similar way to that reported in the literature for other isolates and that its genetic composition is consistent with the predominant variant in the world. Finally, points out the importance of viral isolation for the detection of neutralizing antibodies, for the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the strain and for testing compounds with antiviral potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colombia/epidemiology , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Genome, Viral , Humans , Microscopy, Electron , Molecular Typing , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virion/ultrastructure , Virus Cultivation
12.
J Infect Dis ; 222(9): 1439-1443, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we detected a new immunofluorescence (IF) pattern in serum autoantibody (autoAb) screening of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The IF pattern was composed of liver and gastric mucosa staining on rat kidney/liver/stomach sections. RESULTS: We describe 12 patients positive for the cross-reactive antibody, compared with a negative group of 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, finding association with either neurologic or thrombotic complications. In sequential pre- and post-COVID-19 serum samples, we confirmed autoAb seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that autoAb screening in COVID-19 patients may be easily performed by IF and alert for autoreactive-mediated complications such as thrombotic or neurologic events.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests , Thrombosis/virology , Young Adult
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 250: 108853, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779738

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) is showing obvious interspecies transmission, such as the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Here, the emerging porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strain, isolated from Shanghai, China, broadly infects porcine, human and chicken cells in vitro. Previously studies by our group and others have confirmed that PDCoV nucleocapsid (N) protein performs an important role in antagonizing retinoic acid-induced gene I-like receptor (RLR) activation. However, the mechanism of PDCoV N protein suppressing porcine type I IFN production remains unclear, especially the downstream of porcine RLR signaling pathway. In the present study, porcine IRF7 (poIRF7) was identified as the interaction protein of PDCoV N protein through LC-MS/MS. The poIRF7 (268-487aa) was the key region of binding PDCoV N protein. Although IRF7 is a conserved functional protein in species, the PDCoV N protein has been confirmed to interact with only poIRF7 and significantly decrease poIRF7-induced type I IFN production, but not human or chicken IRF7. Furthermore, PDCoV N protein can promote poIRF7 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which directly increased the K6, K11, and K29-linked polyubiquitination of poIRF7. Lysine 359 of poIRF7 was a key site in PDCoV N protein inducing poIRF7 degradation. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism that PDCoV N protein could species-specifically interact with poIRF7 and then promote its degradation to suppress porcine type I IFN production. The novel findings provide a new insight into PDCoV and other zoonotic coronavirus evading the innate immune response of different species.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/chemistry , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Chickens , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Coronavirus/classification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Interferons/immunology , LLC-PK1 Cells , Phylogeny , Plasmids , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Species Specificity , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Whole Genome Sequencing/veterinary
14.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104539, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological tests for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are becoming of great interest to determine seroprevalence in a given population, define previous exposure and identify highly reactive human donors for the generation of convalescent serum as therapeutic. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, a fully automated indirect immunoassay that detects antibodies directed to a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antigen. STUDY DESIGN: Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG immunoassay was compared to an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on sera from patients with COVID-19 collected at different days after symptoms onset or infected by other human coronaviruses. Comparison with neutralization test was also performed. RESULTS: After 7, 14 and >14 days after onset ARCHITECT was positive on 8.3 %; 61.9 % and 100 % of the tested samples compared to 58.3 %; 85.7 % and 100 % by IFA. The sensitivity was 72 % vs. IFA and 66.7 % vs. a real-time PCR, the specificity was 100 %. On 18 samples with neutralizing activity, 17 were positive by Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay showed a satisfactory performance, with a very high specificity. IgG reactivity against SARSCoV-2 N antigen was detectable in all patients by two weeks after symptoms onset. In addition, concordance between this serological response and viral neutralization suggests that a strong humoral response may be predictive of a neutralization activity, regardless of the target antigens. This finding supports the use of this automated serological assay in diagnostic algorithm and public health intervention, especially for high loads of testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(17): e96-e100, 2020 08.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, tends to be clinically inapparent more often or less severe than in adults. The spread of this infection from children poses a danger to vulnerable adults. Therefore, child care institutions and schools currently are widely closed. METHODS: Since the status of infection tends to be congruent in mothers and their children, we tested 401 mothers of children between 1 and 10 years in the city of Rostock (State of Mecklenburg-Westpomerania, northeast of Germany), for the presence of RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs, and of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. RESULTS: In none of the mothers tested, RNA of this virus was detected in the throat swab. In the ELISA test, IgG antibodies were positive in one serum sample, IgA antibodies were positive in 11, and borderline in 3 serum samples. All 401 sera were negative in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with FITC-labeled IgG, IgA, und IgM antibodies. CONCLUSION: At the time of this study, neither SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nor specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in the mothers tested in Rostock.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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