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1.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 909-923, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237026

ABSTRACT

LGBTQ+ youth accessing healthcare settings manage the 'storms' of health conditions (e.g. pain, fatigue, social isolation, etc.) while navigating emerging identity exploration and understandings in settings which may have historically overlooked or disaffirmed these identities. The launch of National Health Service Rainbow Badges across the paediatric division of an inner-city hospital provided a context for staff to begin thinking about their practice, development needs and dilemmas in working with LGBTQ+ youth. Through a programme of activity that included staff training, surveys, focus groups and youth engagement, we gained insight into current practice in supporting LGBTQ+ youth and families. This paper presents our findings, ideas for responding to challenges, and areas for future development, including implications in light of the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Sexual and Gender Minorities , State Medicine , Adolescent , Child , Focus Groups , Humans , Social Environment
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 1813-1826, 2022 May.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237515

ABSTRACT

The scope of this study is to analyze the specificities of conception and execution of the different modalities of online focus groups (OFGs), a qualitative technique that is an alternative to a traditional focus group, due to the social distancing required by the COVID-19 pandemic. An integrative literature review was conducted in PubMed Central and BVS. National and international studies published in the last 10 years that describe and discuss OFGs were included. A total of 291 articles were identified and 24 were included after evaluation in stages. Four OFG modalities were found: synchronous or asynchronous by writing; synchronous by video/audio or audio. The OFG was used to research different health topics. The same platform can be used for realizing different OFG modalities, guaranteeing the participants' security and anonymity. The lack of a real-life atmosphere can impact participant engagement, but it can be resolved. An OFG can produce quality data, save time and expense, expand the participation of people who are geographically dispersed, but limit those with restricted internet access. This study can help researchers who intend to choose anOFG modality. Studies that assess the limits of OFGs in Brazil are suggested, as well those which address the asynchronous OFG by audio.


Objetiva-se analisar especificidades da concepção e realização das modalidades de grupo focal on-line (GFO), técnica qualitativa alternativa ao grupo focal tradicional frente ao distanciamento físico imposto pela pandemia de COVID-19. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases PubMed Central e BVS. Foram identificados 291 artigos, a inclusão de 24 após avaliação por etapas. Foram identificados 291 artigos. Após avaliação por etapas, foram incluídos 24 artigos nacionais e internacionais dos últimos dez anos que descrevem e discutem a realização do GFO. As modalidades de GFO encontradas foram: síncrono ou assíncrono por escrito; síncrono por vídeo/áudio ou áudio. O GFO foi realizado em variadas pesquisas do campo da saúde. Uma mesma ferramenta pode ser usada para diferentes modalidades, garantindo a segurança dos participantes e o anonimato. A falta de atmosfera de vida real pode impactar o engajamento dos participantes, uma limitação manejável. As modalidades de GFO podem produzir dados de qualidade, economizar tempo e custo, ampliar a participação de sujeitos dispersos geograficamente, mas limitar em relação aos que têm dificuldades de acesso à internet. Este estudo auxilia pesquisadores na escolha de uma modalidade de GFO. Sugere-se pesquisas que avaliem os limites do GFO no Brasil e que abordem a modalidade assíncrona por áudio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Data Collection , Focus Groups , Humans , Qualitative Research
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(6)2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232858

ABSTRACT

The WHO Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) COVID-19 Incident Management Support Team (IMST) was first established on 21 January 2020 to coordinate the response to the pandemic in line with the Emergency Response Framework and has undergone three modifications based on intra-action reviews (IAR). An IAR of the WHO AFRO COVID-19 IMST was conducted to document best practices, challenges, lessons learnt and areas for improvement from the start of 2021 to the end of the third wave in November 2021. In addition, it was designed to contribute to improving the response to COVID-19 in the Region. An IAR design as proposed by WHO, encompassing qualitative approaches to collecting critical data and information, was used. It employed mixed methods of data collection: document reviews, online surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. A thematic analysis of the data focused on four thematic areas, namely operations of IMST, data and information management, human resource management and institutional framework/governance. Areas of good practice identified, included the provision of guidelines, protocols and technical expertise, resource mobilisation, logistics management, provision of regular updates, timely situation reporting, timely deployment and good coordination. Some challenges identified included a communication gap; inadequate emergency personnel; lack of scientific updates; and inadequate coordination with partners. The identified strong points/components are the pivot for informed decisions and actions for reinvigorating the future response coordination mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Africa , Communication , Focus Groups , World Health Organization
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1068, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240510

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 testing is an important risk mitigation strategy for COVID-19 prevention in school settings, where the virus continues to pose a public health challenge for in-person learning. Socially vulnerable school communities with the highest proportion of low-income, minority, and non-English speaking families have the least testing access despite shouldering a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Through the Safer at School Early Alert (SASEA) program, we investigated community perceptions of testing in San Diego County schools, with a focus on barriers and facilitators from the perspective of socially vulnerable parents and school staff. Using a mixed-methods approach, we administered a community survey and conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with staff and parents from SASEA-affiliated schools and childcares. We recruited 299 survey respondents and 42 FGD participants. Protecting one's family (96.6%) and protecting one's community (96.6%) were marked as key motivators to testing uptake. School staff in particular reported that the reassurance of a negative status mitigated concerns about COVID-19 infection in schools. Participants expressed that COVID-19-related stigma, loss of income as a result of isolation/quarantine requirements, and lack of multilingual materials were the most significant barriers to testing. Our findings suggest that the testing barriers faced by school community members are predominantly structural. Testing uptake efforts must provide support and resources to manage the social and financial consequences of testing while continuously communicating its benefits. There is a clear need to continue to incorporate testing as a strategy to maintain school safety and facilitate access for vulnerable community members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Focus Groups , Poverty , Parents
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 425, 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Planning discharges from subacute care facilities is becoming increasingly complex due to an ageing population and a high demand on services. The use of non-standardised assessments to determine a patient's readiness for discharge places a heavy reliance on a clinician's judgement which can be influenced by system pressures, past experiences and team dynamics. The current literature focusses heavily on discharge-readiness from clinicians' perspectives and in the acute care setting. This paper aimed to explore the perceptions of discharge-readiness from the perspectives of key stakeholders in subacute care: inpatients, family members, clinicians and managers. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted, exploring the views of inpatients (n = 16), family members (n = 16), clinicians (n = 17) and managers (n = 12). Participants with cognitive deficits and those who did not speak English were excluded from this study. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted and audio-recorded. Following transcription, inductive thematic analysis was completed. RESULTS: Participants identified that there are both patient-related and environmental factors that influence discharge-readiness. Patient-related factors discussed included continence, functional mobility, cognition, pain and medication management skills. Environmental factors centred around the discharge (home) environment, and were suggested to include a safe physical environment alongside a robust social environment which was suggested to assist to fill any gaps in functional capabilities (i.e. patient-related factors). CONCLUSIONS: These findings make a unique contribution to the literature by providing a thorough exploration of determining discharge-readiness as a combined narrative from the perspectives from key stakeholders. Findings from this qualitative study identified key personal and environmental factors influencing patients' discharge-readiness, which may allow health services to streamline the determination of discharge-readiness from subacute care. Understanding how these factors might be assessed within a discharge pathway warrants further attention.


Subject(s)
Patient Discharge , Subacute Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups , Inpatients
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317073

ABSTRACT

The working routines in palliative care nursing are associated with a variety of causes of stress with regional and setting-specific differences in Germany. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the mental and physical well-being among nurses in German palliative and hospice care and to gain a deeper understanding of procedural and structural aspects that may influence the mental and physical burden in palliative nursing care. The mixed-methods approach combined qualitative interviews, (n = 16) an online survey (n = 101), and subsequent data validation in a focus group (n = 6). Interview and focus group data were analysed using structured qualitative content analysis. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and an explorative quantitative analysis. Moderate to very high levels of stress were reported across all settings, but were highest for nurses in specialized outpatient palliative care settings. Underlying causes of stress related to working conditions in the nursing profession across all palliative care settings were poor working hours, perceived inadequate remuneration, and high demands for documentation. To ensure sustainable high-quality palliative care, adaptations to working conditions that target causes of stress and burden in palliative care nurses are required.


Subject(s)
Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , Focus Groups , Germany , Humans , Palliative Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 23(1): 113, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual data collection methods and consent procedures adopted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic enabled continued research activities, but also introduced concerns about equity, inclusivity, representation, and privacy. Recent studies have explored these issues from institutional and researcher perspectives, but there is a need to explore patient perspectives and preferences. This study aims to explore COVID-19 patients' perspectives about research recruitment and consent for research studies about COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory qualitative focus group and interview study among British Columbian adults who self-identified as having had COVID-19. We recruited participants through personal contacts, social media, and REACH BC, an online platform that connects researchers and patients in British Columbia. We analyzed transcripts inductively and developed thematic summaries of each coding element. RESULTS: Of the 22 individuals recruited, 16 attended a focus group or interview. We found that autonomy and the feasibility of participation, attitudes toward research about COVID-19, and privacy concerns are key factors that influence participants' willingness to participate in research. We also found that participants preferred remote and virtual approaches for contact, consent, and delivery of research on COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who had COVID-19 are motivated to participate in research studies and value autonomy in their decision to participate, but researchers must be sensitive and considerate toward patient preferences and concerns, particularly as researchers adopt virtual recruitment and data collection methods. Such awareness may increase research participation and engagement.


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many research groups started conducting research activities virtually. In this study, we invited individuals who had COVID-19 to share their views about how researchers recruit patients and get their consent to participate in studies about COVID-19. Through interviews and focus groups, we found that British Columbians who had COVID-19 are motivated to participate in COVID-related studies, as long as researchers maintain usual precautions around data privacy and accommodate preferences for participation. Future studies may use these patient perspectives to make informed decisions that will increase and support patient recruitment, consent and retention in research studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups , Informed Consent
9.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285774, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lesotho is one of the 30 countries with the highest tuberculosis incidence rates in the world, estimated at 650 per 100,000 population. Tuberculosis case detection is extremely low, particularly with the rapid spread of COVID-19, dropping from an estimated 51% in 2020 to 33% in 2021. The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment completion. METHODS: We used a convergent mixed methods study design. We collected data on the number of clients reporting symptoms upon tuberculosis screening, their sputum test results, the number of clients diagnosed, and the number of clients who started treatment from one district hospital and one health center in Berea district, Lesotho. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 53 health workers and patients. We used a content analysis approach to analyze qualitative data and integrated quantitative and qualitative findings in a joint display. FINDINGS: During March-August, 2019, 218 clients at the hospital and 292 clients at the health center reported tuberculosis symptoms. The full diagnostic testing process was completed for 66% of clients at the hospital and 68% at the health center. Among clients who initiated tuberculosis treatment, 68% (61/90) at the hospital and 74% (32/43) at the health center completed treatment. The main barriers to testing and treatment completion were challenges at sample collection, lack of decentralized diagnostic services, and socioeconomic factors such as food insecurity and high patient movement to search for jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis diagnosis could be improved through the effective decentralization of laboratory services at the health facility level, and treatment completion could be improved by providing food and other forms of social support to patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Lesotho/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Focus Groups , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19 Testing
10.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310674

ABSTRACT

Providing care for the dependent older person is complex and there have been persistent concerns about care quality as well as a growing recognition of the need for systems approaches to improvement. The I-SCOPE (Improving Systems of Care for the Older person) project employed Resilient Healthcare (RHC) theory and the CARE (Concepts for Applying Resilience) Model to study how care organisations adapt to complexity in everyday work, with the aim of exploring how to support resilient performance. The project was an in-depth qualitative study across multiple sites over 24 months. There were: 68 hours of non-participant observation, shadowing care staff at work and starting broad before narrowing to observe care domains of interest; n = 33 recorded one-to-one interviews (32 care staff and one senior inspector); three focus groups (n = 19; two with inspectors and one multi-disciplinary group); and five round table discussions on emergent results at a final project workshop (n = 31). All interviews and discussion groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Resident and family interviews (n = 8) were facilitated through use of emotional touchpoints. Analysis using QSR NVivo 12.0 focused on a) capturing everyday work in terms of the interplay between demand and capacity, adaptations and intended and unintended outcomes and b) a higher-level thematic description (care planning and use of information; coordination of everyday care activity; providing person-centred care) which gives an overview of resilient performance and how it might be enhanced. This gives important new insight for improvement. Conclusions are that resilience can be supported through more efficient use of information, supporting flexible adaptation, coordination across care domains, design of the physical environment, and family involvement based on realistic conversations about quality of life.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Qualitative Research , Scotland , Focus Groups
11.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 28(4): 533-543, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine perceptions and experiences of adversity and resilience among Somalis living in San Diego. METHOD: A community-driven, qualitative investigation was conducted through virtual focus group discussions (n = 4) with male and female Somali refugee adults in San Diego (a total of 22 individuals). Barriers to well-being and the historical, religious, and cultural supports that enable participants to overcome adversity were discussed. Qualitative data were analyzed in Dedoose using thematic analysis to identify the most salient themes and relationships between them. RESULTS: Participants identified the primary barriers to good mental health as difficulties in accessing resources (housing, employment, healthcare) and discrimination due to racism, xenophobia, and Islamophobia. In contrast, resilient responses to adversity are supported by a collective identity as survivors, their Islamic faith and its perspective on making sense of adversity, and a sense of communal oneness that encourages reciprocal helping behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that resilient outcomes among Somalis in San Diego are more likely to be promoted by community-based interventions that promote existing strengths and supports rather than focusing on individual coping mechanisms. There is a benefit to investing in community organizations and programs that support resilience-based interventions to overcome common mental disorders in this high-risk population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Refugees , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Somalia , Refugees/psychology , Focus Groups , Adaptation, Psychological , Islam
12.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280264, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and loss of protective sensation (LOPS) due to peripheral neuropathy do not use their therapeutic footwear (TF) consistently. TF is essential to prevent foot ulceration. In order to improve compliance in using TF, influencing factors need to be identified and analyzed. Persons with a history of foot ulceration may find different factors important compared with persons without ulceration or persons who have never used TF. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine factors perceived as important for the use of TF by different groups of persons with DM and LOPS. METHOD: A qualitative study was performed using focus group discussions. Subjects (n = 24) were divided into 3 focus groups based on disease severity: ulcer history (HoU) versus no ulcer history (no-HoU) and experience with TF (TF) versus no experience (no-TF). For each group of 8 subjects (TF&HoU; TF&no-HoU; no-TF&no-HoU), an online focus group discussion was organized to identify the most important influencing factors. Transcribed data were coded with Atlas.ti. The analysis was performed following the framework approach. RESULTS: The factors comfort and fit and stability/balance were ranked in the top 3 of all groups. Usability was ranked in the top 3 of group-TF&noHoU and group-noTF&noHoU. Two other factors, reducing pain and preventing ulceration were ranked in the top 3 of group-TF&noHoU and group-TF&HoU, respectively. CONCLUSION: Experience with TF and a HoU influence which factors are perceived as important for TF use. Knowledge of these factors during the development and prescription process of TF may lead to increased compliance. Although the main medical reason for TF prescription is ulcer prevention, only 1 group gave this factor a high ranking. Therefore, next to focusing on influencing factors, person-centered education on the importance of using TF to prevent ulcers is also required.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot , Foot Ulcer , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Focus Groups , Diabetic Foot/prevention & control , Sensation , Shoes
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 353, 2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of institutionalizing Health Technology Assessment (HTA) in Malawi. METHODS: This study employed a document review and qualitative research methods, to understand the status of HTA in Malawi. This was complemented by a review of the status and nature of HTA institutionalization in selected countries.Qualitative research employed a Focus Group Discussion (FGD ) with 7 participants, and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with12 informants selected based on their knowledge and expertise in policy processes related to HTA in Malawi.Data extracted from the literature was organized in Microsoft Excel, categorized according to thematic areas and analyzed using a literature review framework. Qualitative data from KIIs and the FGD was analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. RESULTS: Some HTA processes exist and are executed through three structures namely: Ministry of Health Senior Management Team, Technical Working Groups, and Pharmacy and Medicines Regulatory Authority (PMRA) with varyingdegrees of effectiveness.The main limitations of current HTA mechanisms include limited evidence use, lack of a standardized framework for technology adoption, donor pressure, lack of resources for the HTA process and technology acquisition, laws and practices that undermine cost-effectiveness considerations. KII and FGD results showed overwhelming demand for strengthening HTA in Malawi, with a stronger preference for strengthening coordination and capacity of existing entities and structures. CONCLUSION: The study has shown that HTA institutionalization is acceptable and feasible in Malawi. However, the current committee based processes are suboptimal to improve efficiency due to lack of a structured framework. A structured HTA framework has the potential to improve processes in pharmaceuticals and medical technologies decision-making.In the short to medium term, HTA capacity building should focus on generating demand and increasing capacity in cost-effectiveness assessments. Country-specific assessments should precede HTA institutionalization as well as recommendations for new technology adoptions.


Subject(s)
Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Humans , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/methods , Malawi , Feasibility Studies , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups
14.
Health Promot Int ; 38(2)2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295282

ABSTRACT

Our capacity to facilitate the empowerment of children is dependent on our ability to understand their values and experiences. This study aimed to explore Bolivian children's experiences of COVID-19. This study used a participatory action research method, photovoice, which involved focus groups, individual interviews and the use of cameras by participants to capture their reality and express their ideas through photographs. Ten participants aged 12-15 years were recruited from a school in the municipality of Mecapaca in Bolivia. Thematic analysis was used to identify and report response patterns. Four themes were developed through analysis: (i) sadness and fear of getting sick, (ii) the challenges of online learning, (iii) the tension between traditional knowledge and modern medicine, and (iv) the role of nature and culture in supporting well-being-natural and cultural capital. The narratives and choice of images by the children illustrate some issues and experiences. These findings also highlighted the importance of considering and exploring how children's experiences and interactions with their habitat, nature and their physical environment impacts on their health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Bolivia , Focus Groups , Fear , Environment
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e061207, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Culturally appropriate interventions to promote COVID-19 health protective measures among Black and South Asian communities in the UK are needed. We aim to carry out a preliminary evaluation of an intervention to reduce risk of COVID-19 comprising a short film and electronic leaflet. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed methods study comprises (1) a focus group to understand how people from the relevant communities interpret and understand the intervention's messages, (2) a before-and-after questionnaire study examining the extent to which the intervention changes intentions and confidence to carry out COVID-19 protective behaviours and (3) a further qualitative study exploring the views of Black and South Asian people of the intervention and the experiences of health professionals offering the intervention. Participants will be recruited through general practices. Data collection will be carried out in the community. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received Health Research Authority approval in June 2021 (Research Ethics Committee Reference 21/LO/0452). All participants provided informed consent. As well as publishing the findings in peer-reviewed journals, we will disseminate the findings through the UK Health Security Agency, NHS England and the Office for Health Improvement and Disparities and ensure culturally appropriate messaging for participants and other members of the target groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Humans , Asian People , COVID-19/prevention & control , England , Focus Groups , Pilot Projects , Black People
16.
J Appl Gerontol ; 42(7): 1551-1564, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294674

ABSTRACT

The initial COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent public health measures dramatically impacted Adult Protective Services (APS), requiring rapid adjustments. Our goal was to describe challenges for APS and strategies developed to respond. We conducted six focus groups and seven interviews during March-April 2021 using a semi-structured topic guide, with 31 participants from APS leadership, supervisors, and caseworkers in New York City, a community hard hit by the initial COVID surge. Data from transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. Participants identified challenges faced by APS (e.g., clients less willing to engage with APS, inability to perform necessary job tasks remotely, and low staffing levels) as well as strategies APS used in response (e.g., increasing collaboration with other community-based programs and service providers, enabling remote court hearings through technology and in-person facilitation, and ensuring staff had access to personal protective equipment). These findings may inform APS planning for future large-scale societal disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Elder Abuse , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elder Abuse/prevention & control , Pandemics , Social Welfare , Focus Groups
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294003

ABSTRACT

The reception and taking care of forced migrants with mental health issues is undoubtedly a very complex task. The literature shows that reception systems are characterized by a high level of fragmentation due to poor collaboration among services that are required to respond to complex and multidimensional needs brought by forced migrants. Starting from the need to deepen what elements support or hinder the implementation of the services' networks for the care and management of forced migrants, qualitative research was conducted within a constructivist paradigm. As the literature reveals a lack of studies considering the perspective of practitioners, we decided to explore the representations of professionals working with migrants in northern Italy in four different service areas (health and psychological well-being, reception, family, and legal areas). A total of 24 professionals (13 F and 11 M) with an average age of 42.4 years were involved in four focus groups according to the four areas. A paper-pencil content analysis was conducted following IPA guidelines. The results show strengths, weaknesses, and elements of improvement for service network implementation. The needs of forced migrants seem to be effectively met only through a service network that takes shape in the interweaving of social, organizational, group, and individual levels.


Subject(s)
Social Workers , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Adult , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups , Italy , Health Services Accessibility
18.
West J Nurs Res ; 45(5): 432-442, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292346

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges to onboard and support new graduate nurses (NGNs). This study sought to explore the perceptions of nurses entering clinical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using mixed methods, we investigated the experiences of NGNs entering the field during the pandemic and how a nurse residency program (NRP) adapted to meet their needs. Newly graduated nurses entering practice in November 2019 described their transition through nurse experience surveys and focus group discussions. Results from the quantitative data reported on compassion satisfaction, burnout, and exposure to secondary traumatic stress. The qualitative data mirrored these findings with the discovery of the following five themes: transitioning through an NRP, impact to nursing care, value of coworkers, coping, and professional growth. These findings illustrate the need to better support future practice transitions in times of disruption and change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Focus Groups
19.
Surgery ; 174(1): 36-45, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although specific social determinants of health have been associated with disparities in surgical outcomes, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms of these associations. Gaining perspectives from multiple socioecological levels can help elucidate these mechanisms. Our study aims to identify social determinants of health that act as barriers or facilitators to surgical care among colorectal surgery stakeholders. METHODS: We recruited participants representing 5 socioecological levels: patients (individual); caregivers/surgeons (interpersonal); and leaders in hospitals (organizational), communities (community), and government (policy). Patients participated in focus groups, and the remaining participants underwent individual interviews. Semistructured interview guides were used to explore barriers and facilitators to surgical care at each socioecological level. Transcripts were analyzed by 3 coders in an inductive thematic approach with content analyses. The intercoder agreement was 93%. RESULTS: Six patient focus groups (total n = 18) and 12 key stakeholder interviews were conducted. The mean age of patients was 54.7 years, 66% were Black, and 61% were female. The most common diseases were colorectal cancer (28%), inflammatory bowel disease (28%), and diverticulitis (22%). Key social determinants of health impacting surgical care emerged at each level: individual (clear communication, mental stress), interpersonal (provider communication and trust, COVID-related visitation restrictions), organizational (multiple forms of contact, quality educational materials, scheduling systems, discrimination), community (community and family support and transportation), and policy (charity care, patient advocacy organizations, insurance coverage). CONCLUSION: Key social determinants of health-impacting care among colorectal surgery patients emerged at each socioecological level and may provide targets for interventions to reduce surgical disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups , Health Services Accessibility
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 684, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In South Africa, public perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic and risk mitigation measures remain mixed. To better understand health behaviours in the context of COVID-19, a qualitative study was conducted, which aimed to investigate perceptions relating to the COVID-19 pandemic among the South African adult population. METHODS: Twelve online focus groups were conducted across the following age groups: 18-34, 35-54, 55 + years old (total n = 70) in December 2021. Diversity across socioeconomic status, geographical areas, and urban and rural settings was maximised, with an equal representation of men and women. Focus groups were conducted, and audio recorded using an online platform, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using MAXQDA. RESULTS: There were mixed perceptions around the pandemic, however, the majority of participants appreciated government actions at the onset of the pandemic and as a result government trust was reported to have initially been high. Nevertheless, as the pandemic progressed, challenges relating to government communication around the pandemic, the inconsistent application of preventative measures by government, the use of soldiers to enforce preventative measures, the banning of alcohol and cigarettes, government corruption and the pervasiveness of social media were reported to have eroded government trust, negatively impacting the uptake of preventative measures. Economic and psychological impacts were experienced differently across income groups. Low-income earners, who already had pre-existing economic challenges reported increased psychological and financial strain. While the once cushioned middle class reported an increase in job insecurity accompanied by psychological challenges. High income earners did not report economic challenges but reported being affected psychologically. Though, low-income earners reported an appreciation of the government financial relief afforded to them middle income earners appeared to not have received adequate financial support. CONCLUSION: With the existing mistrust of government, there is need for government to leverage existing trusted sources in communities to aid in the implementation of preventative measures. These findings support the development of context specific solutions to address challenges faced at different socioeconomic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Focus Groups
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