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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686895

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is involved in the onset and development of several human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases [...].


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Phenols/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Humans , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neurodegenerative Diseases/prevention & control
2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626257

ABSTRACT

Foodborne diseases (FBDs) represent a worldwide public health issue, given their spreadability and the difficulty of tracing the sources of contamination. This report summarises the incidence of foodborne pathogens and toxins found in food, environmental and clinical samples collected in relation to diagnosed or suspected FBD cases and submitted between 2018 and 2020 to the Food Microbiology Unit of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana (IZSLT). Data collected from 70 FBD investigations were analysed: 24.3% of them started with an FBD diagnosis, whereas a further 41.4% involved clinical diagnoses based on general symptomatology. In total, 5.6% of the 340 food samples analysed were positive for the presence of a bacterial pathogen, its toxins or both. Among the positive samples, more than half involved meat-derived products. Our data reveal the probable impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of FBD investigations conducted. In spite of the serious impact of FBDs on human health and the economy, the investigation of many foodborne outbreaks fails to identify the source of infection. This indicates a need for the competent authorities to continue to develop and implement a more fully integrated health network.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Toxins/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Analysis , Food Microbiology , Food Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Foodborne Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Public Health , Retrospective Studies
3.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215434

ABSTRACT

Reducing the energy density (ED) of product selections made during online supermarket food shopping has potential to decrease energy intake. Yet it is unclear which types of intervention are likely to be most effective and equitable. We recruited 899 UK adults of lower and higher socioeconomic position (SEP) who completed a shopping task in an online experimental supermarket. Participants were randomised in a 2 × 2 between-subjects design to test the effects of two interventions on the ED of shopping basket selections: labelling lower-ED products as healthier choices and increasing the relative availability of lower-ED products within a range (referred to as proportion). Labelling of lower-ED products resulted in a small but significant decrease (-4.2 kcal/100 g, 95% CIs -7.8 to -0.6) in the ED of the shopping basket. Increasing the proportion of lower-ED products significantly decreased the ED of the shopping basket (-17 kcal/100 g, 95% CIs -21 to -14). There was no evidence that the effect of either intervention was moderated by SEP. Thus, both types of intervention decreased the ED of foods selected in an online experimental supermarket. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of either intervention differed in people of lower vs. higher SEP.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Consumer Behavior , Food Analysis , Food Labeling , Food/economics , Internet , Adult , Choice Behavior , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Talanta ; 225: 122038, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989274

ABSTRACT

Demand for high quality Basmati rice has increased significantly in the last decade. This commodity is highly vulnerable to fraud, especially in the post COVID-19 era. A unique two-tiered analytical system comprised of rapid on-site screening of samples using handheld portable Near-infrared NIR and laboratory confirmatory technique using a Head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) strategy for untargeted analysis was developed. Chemometric models built using NIR data correctly predicted nearly 100% of Pusa 1121 and Taraori, two high value types of Basmati, from potential adulterants. Furthermore, rice VOC profile fingerprints showed very good classification (R2 >0.9, Q2 > 0.9, Accuracy > 0.99) for these high quality Basmati varieties from potential adulterant varieties with aldehydes identified as key VOC marker compounds. Using a two-tiered system of a rapid method for on-site screening of many samples alongside a laboratory-based confirmatory method can classify Basmati rice varieties, protecting the supply chain from fraud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Food Analysis/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oryza/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Fraud/prevention & control , Humans , India , Oryza/classification , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
J Food Biochem ; 45(1): e13557, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV), the pathogenic agent of COVID-19 disease, started to expand from Wuhan, China, on December 2019 and in 2 months, it spread worldwide giving origin to a pandemic. COVID-19 has a stronger transmission capacity by inhalation of infectious aerosols and after an incubation time of 3-14 days, it may be responsible for diseases ranging from the asymptomatic to fatal consequences. COVID-19 has emerged as a multifaceted, multisystem, multi-organ disorder, which produces its pathogenic effects through a quite ubiquitous target at the level of multiple organs and in which oxidative stress and inflammatory process play relevant roles. Thus, besides the development of a pharmacological therapy, in the field of alternative and coadjutant therapeutic, the use of dietary supplements or nutraceuticals for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be a useful strategy. Herein, we specifically comment on some literature evidences, which link the food-derived antioxidants and metal-chelating agents with treatment and prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation that play a key role in the progression of COVID-19. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Oxidative stress and inflammation are key factors increasing COVID-19 severity especially in the presence of chronic diseases associated with the antioxidant system fragility. These evidences support the recommendation of antioxidants supplementation as useful strategies against COVID-19. In light with these observations, herein, a comment which describes the major antioxidants and metal-chelating agents from food sources that might be useful for the treatment and prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/diet therapy , Plant Extracts/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chelating Agents/metabolism , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Food Analysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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