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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834904

ABSTRACT

Animal feed (including forage and silage) can be contaminated with mycotoxins. Here, 200 maize silage samples from around China were collected in 2019 and analyzed for regulated mycotoxins, masked mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside), and emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin, enniatins, moniliformin, and alternariol). Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were detected in 99.5% and 79.5% of the samples, respectively. Other regulated mycotoxins were detected in fewer samples. The highest deoxynivalenol and zearalenone concentrations were 3600 and 830 µg/kg, respectively. The most commonly detected masked mycotoxin was 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, which was detected in 68.5% of the samples and had median and maximum concentrations of 61.3 and 410 µg/kg, respectively. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericin, alternariol, enniatin A, enniatin B1, and moniliformin were detected in 99.5%, 85%, 80.5%, 72.5%, and 44.5%, respectively, of the samples but at low concentrations (medians <25 µg/kg). The samples tended to contain multiple mycotoxins, e.g., the correlation coefficients for the relationships between the concentrations of beauvericin and deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, and zearalenone and beauvericin were 1.0, 0.995, and 0.995, respectively. The results indicated that there needs to be more awareness of the presence of one or more masked and emerging mycotoxins in maize silage in China.


Subject(s)
Mycotoxins , Zearalenone , Animal Feed , Animals , Food Contamination/analysis , Mycotoxins/analysis , Silage/analysis , Zea mays , Zearalenone/analysis
2.
J Food Prot ; 84(7): 1239-1251, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810920

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Cross-contamination of raw food to other surfaces, hands, and foods is a serious issue in food service. With individuals eating more meals away from home, contracting a foodborne illness from a food service establishment is an increasing concern. However, most studies have concentrated on hands or food contact surfaces and neglected atypical and unusual surfaces (surfaces that are not typically identified as a source of cross-contamination) and venues. This review was conducted to identify atypically cross-contaminated surfaces and atypical venues where cross-contamination could occur that have not been examined thoroughly in the literature. Most surfaces that could be at risk for cross-contamination are frequently touched, are rarely cleaned and sanitized, and can support the persistence and/or growth of foodborne pathogens. These surfaces include menus, spice and condiment containers, aprons and coveralls, mobile devices and tablets, and money. Venues that are explored, such as temporary events, mobile vendors, and markets, are usually limited in space or infrastructure, have low compliance with proper hand washing, and provide the opportunity for raw and ready-to-eat foods to come into contact with one another. These factors create an environment in which cross-contamination can occur and potentially impact food safety. A more comprehensive cleaning and sanitizing regime encompassing these surfaces and venues could help mitigate cross-contamination. This review highlights key surfaces and venues that have the potential to be cross-contaminated and have been underestimated or not fully investigated. These knowledge gaps indicate where further work is needed to fully understand the role of these surfaces and venues in cross-contamination and how it can be prevented.


Subject(s)
Food Services , Foodborne Diseases , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Handling , Food Microbiology , Food Safety , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Humans
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 41, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643157

ABSTRACT

Early detection of viral pathogens by DNA-sensors in clinical samples, contaminated foods, soil or water can dramatically improve clinical outcomes and reduce the socioeconomic impact of diseases such as COVID-19. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and its associated protein Cas12a (previously known as CRISPR-Cpf1) technology is an innovative new-generation genomic engineering tool, also known as 'genetic scissors', that has demonstrated the accuracy and has recently been effectively applied as appropriate (E-CRISPR) DNA-sensor to detect the nucleic acid of interest. The CRISPR-Cas12a from Prevotella and Francisella 1 are guided by a short CRISPR RNA (gRNA). The unique simultaneous cis- and trans- DNA cleavage after target sequence recognition at the PAM site, sticky-end (5-7 bp) employment, and ssDNA/dsDNA hybrid cleavage strategies to manipulate the attractive nature of CRISPR-Cas12a are reviewed. DNA-sensors based on the CRISPR-Cas12a technology for rapid, robust, sensitive, inexpensive, and selective detection of virus DNA without additional sample purification, amplification, fluorescent-agent- and/or quencher-labeling are relevant and becoming increasingly important in industrial and medical applications. In addition, CRISPR-Cas12a system shows great potential in the field of E-CRISPR-based bioassay research technologies. Therefore, we are highlighting insights in this research direction.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/physiology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/trends , COVID-19/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Molecular Typing/methods , Molecular Typing/trends , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virology/methods , Virology/trends , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480712

ABSTRACT

This study aims to give an overview of the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in 9727 samples (2996 for L. monocytogenes and 6731 for Salmonella spp.) from different categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, collected over 2 years from 28 large retailers and 148 canteens in the regions of northern Italy. The RTE samples were classified into two groups according to the preparation methods: (i) multi-ingredient preparations consisting of fully cooked food ready for immediate consumption, or with minimal further handling before consumption (Group A), and (ii) multi-ingredient preparations consisting of cooked and uncooked food, or preparations consisting of only raw ingredients (Group B). L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were investigated in both of these categories. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. was 0.13% and 0.07%, respectively. More specifically, L. monocytogenes was found in 0.04% of 2442 analysed RTE food samples belonging to group A and in 0.54% of 554 samples belonging to group B. Furthermore, 0.03% of 5367 RTE food samples from group A and 0.21% of 1364 samples from group B tested positive for Salmonella spp. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide a significant contribution to L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. risk analysis in RTE foods.


Subject(s)
Listeria monocytogenes , Colony Count, Microbial , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Microbiology , Prevalence , Salmonella
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376977

ABSTRACT

The detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in the milk of ruminants occurs infrequently and at low levels, but its occurrence may be higher in dairy products such as cheese. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of OTA in cheeses purchased in the metropolitan city of Bologna (Italy) and the surrounding area. For the analysis, a LC-MS/MS method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 µg/kg was used. OTA was detected in seven out of 51 samples of grated hard cheese (concentration range 1.3-22.4 µg/kg), while it was not found in the 33 cheeses of other types which were also analysed. These data show a low risk of OTA contamination for almost all types of cheese analysed. To improve the safety of cheese marketed in grated form, more regulations on cheese rind, which is the part most susceptible to OTA-producing moulds, should be implemented or, alternatively, producers should consider not using the rind as row material for grated cheese. It would be interesting to continue these investigations particularly on grated hard cheeses to have more data to update the risk assessment of OTA in cheese, as also suggested by EFSA in its 2020 scientific opinion on OTA.


Subject(s)
Cheese/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Ochratoxins/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid , Italy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103871, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366529

ABSTRACT

Between November 2018 and May 2019, Canada experienced a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak linked to the presence of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis in frozen profiteroles. Analysis of the implicated food products revealed low levels of Salmonella ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 MPN/100g. Water activity and pH of the food samples ranged from 0.9479 to 0.9867 and 4.6-6.8 respectively indicating conditions conducive to bacterial growth. Higher levels of the hygiene indicators Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were associated with Salmonella positive samples compared to Salmonella negative samples. Investigation of the relationship between storage conditions, temperature, and pathogen levels during thawing revealed that the profiteroles reached temperatures permissive to pathogen growth (≥5 °C) much sooner than pathogen growth was observed and that the composition of the food matrix can influence bacterial levels upon thawing. Collectively these data can be used to inform guidance to minimize the risk of infection from the consumption of contaminated cream-filled frozen desserts.


Subject(s)
Chocolate/microbiology , Frozen Foods/microbiology , Salmonella Food Poisoning/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Canada/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/growth & development , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Salmonella Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/growth & development
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231452

ABSTRACT

Botulinum neurotoxins are considered as one of the most potent toxins and are produced by Clostridium botulinum. It is crucial to have a rapid and sensitive method to detect the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in food. In this study, a rapid detection assay of C. botulinum in food using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology was developed. The optimal primers were identified among three sets of primers designed specifically based on the partial ntnh gene encoding nontoxic-nonhaemagglutinin (NTNH) for rapid detection of the target DNA in plasmids. The optimal temperature and reaction time of the LAMP assay were determined to be 64 °C and 60 min, respectively. The chemical kit could be assembled based on these optimized reaction conditions for quick, initial high-throughput screening of C. botulinum in food samples. The established LAMP assay showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting the target DNA with a limit of 0.0001 pg/ul (i.e., ten times more sensitive than that of the PCR method) and an accuracy rate of 100%. This study demonstrated a potentially rapid, cost-effective, and easy-operating method to detect C. botulinum in food and clinical samples based on LAMP technology.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Clostridium botulinum/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Botulinum Toxins/genetics , Clostridium botulinum/genetics , DNA Primers , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215425

ABSTRACT

Background: One Health is a comprehensive and multisectoral approach to assess and examine the health of animals, humans and the environment. However, while the One Health approach gains increasing momentum, its practical application meets hindrances. This paper investigates the environmental pillar of the One Health approach, using two case studies to highlight the integration of environmental considerations. The first case study pertains to the Danish monitoring and surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance, DANMAP. The second case illustrates the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk in dairy-producing ruminants in Italian regions. Method: A scientific literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to locate articles informing the two cases. Grey literature was gathered to describe the cases as well as their contexts. Results: 19 articles and 10 reports were reviewed and informed the two cases. The cases show how the environmental component influences the apparent impacts for human and animal health. The DANMAP highlights the two approaches One Health and farm to fork. The literature provides information on the comprehensiveness of the DANMAP, but highlights some shortcomings in terms of environmental considerations. The AFM1 case, the milk metabolite of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, shows that dairy products are heavily impacted by changes of the climate as well as by economic drivers. Conclusions: The two cases show that environmental conditions directly influence the onset and diffusion of hazardous factors. Climate change, treatment of soils, water and standards in slaughterhouses as well as farms can have a great impact on the health of animals, humans and the environment. Hence, it is important to include environmental considerations, for example, via engaging environmental experts and sharing data. Further case studies will help to better define the roles of environment in One Health scenarios.


Subject(s)
One Health , Aflatoxin M1/analysis , Animals , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Milk
9.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103780, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131300

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are mainly associated with respiratory infections. However, there is evidence that highly pathogenic HCoVs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), infect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are shed in the fecal matter of the infected individuals. These observations have raised questions regarding the possibility of fecal-oral route as well as foodborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Studies regarding the survival of HCoVs on inanimate surfaces demonstrate that these viruses can remain infectious for hours to days, however, there is limited data regarding the viral survival on fresh produce, which is usually consumed raw or with minimal heat processing. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the persistence of HCoV-229E, as a surrogate for highly pathogenic HCoVs, on the surface of commonly consumed fresh produce, including: apples, tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce. Herein, we demonstrated that viral infectivity declines within a few hours post-inoculation (p.i) on apples and tomatoes, and no infectious virus was detected at 24h p.i, while the virus persists in infectious form for 72h p.i on cucumbers and lettuce. The stability of viral RNA was examined by droplet-digital RT-PCR (ddRT-PCR), and it was observed that there is no considerable reduction in viral RNA within 72h p.i.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Fruit/virology , Vegetables/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Ontario , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification
14.
Food Chem ; 353: 128718, 2021 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947222

ABSTRACT

Fraud in the food supply system will be exacerbated by shortages caused by climate change and COVID-19's impact. The dried herbs market exemplifies complex supply chains attractive to criminals seeking financial gain. Real-time remote testing is achievable through development of globally accessible chemometric models for portable near infrared devices, deployed throughout supply chains. This study describes building of models for detection of oregano adulteration, on portable near infrared devices, and comparison to a laboratory-based Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy method. 33/34 portable devices were able to correctly classify 5 out of 6 samples successfully with all adulterated samples being correctly classified following the use of appropriate transferability pre-processing routines. The devices native setup shows limited ability to perform a true screening of oregano using the setup offered. However modifications to the setup could in the future offer a solution that facilitates fit-for-purpose real time detection of adulterated samples within the supply chain.


Subject(s)
Food Contamination/analysis , Origanum/chemistry , Laboratories , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2024-2025, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769625

ABSTRACT

We modeled the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on apples, tomatoes, and jalapeño peppers at two temperatures following a low-dose aerosol exposure designed to simulate an airborne transmission event involving droplet nuclei. Infectious virus was not recovered postexposure.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Fruit/virology , Vegetables/virology , Aerosols , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478332

ABSTRACT

Feed has been shown to be a vector for viral transmission. Four experiments were conducted to: 1) determine if medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are effective mitigants when applied to feed both pre- and post-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inoculation measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 2) evaluate varying levels and combinations of MCFA measured by qRT-PCR, and 3) evaluate selected treatments in bioassay to determine infectivity. In exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of treatment (0.3% commercial formaldehyde [CF] product, Sal CURB [Kemin Industries, Inc.; Des Moines, IA], or 1% MCFA blend (Blend) of 1:1:1 C6:C8:C10 [PMI, Arden Hills, MN]) and timing of application (pre- or post-inoculation with PEDV) plus a positive control (PC; feed inoculated with PEDV and no treatment). All combinations of treatment and timing decreased detectable PEDV compared with the PC (P < 0.05). Pre-inoculation treatment elicited decreased magnitude of PEDV detection (cycle threshold value) compared with post-inoculation (P = 0.009). Magnitude of PEDV detection was decreased for CF compared with Blend (P < 0.0001). In exp. 2, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 5) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0, 6 to 8) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0, 9 to 11) 0.125% to 0.33% C10:0, and 12 to 15) 0.125% to 0.66% C5:0. Treating feed with 0.33% C8:0 resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) PEDV detection compared with all other treatments. Increasing concentration of each individual MCFA decreased PEDV detectability (P < 0.042). In exp. 3, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 7) 0.25% to 1% Blend, 8 to 10) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C8:0, 11 to 13) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C10:0, and 14 to 16) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0 + C10:0. Treating feed with CF, 0.5% Blend, 0.75% Blend, 1% Blend, all levels of C6:0+C8:0, 0.25% C6:0 + 0.25% C10:0, 0.33% C6:0 + 0.33% C10:0, 0.25% C8:0 + 0.25% C10:0, or 0.33% C8:0 + 0.33% C10:0 elicited decreased detection of PEDV compared with PC (P < 0.05). Increasing concentration of each MCFA combination decreased PEDV detectability (linear, P < 0.012). In exp. 4, feed was treated pre-inoculation with: 1) no treatment (PC), 2) 0.3% CF, 3) 0.5% Blend, or 4) 0.3% C8:0 and analyzed via qRT-PCR and bioassay. Adding 0.5% Blend or 0.3% C8:0 resulted in decreased PEDV compared with PC and only PC resulted in a positive bioassay. Therefore, MCFA can decrease detection of PEDV in feed. Further, inclusion of lower levels of MCFA than previously evaluated are effective against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Food Contamination/analysis , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
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