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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4145-4154, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242520

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the results of the research nested in the international project "Gender and COVID-19", which includes several topics related to the impact of the pandemic on the lives of women and their families, including food insecurity and hunger. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from December 2020 to November 2021 with 49 women living in two urban conglomerates, Cabana do Pai Tomás (Belo Horizonte, MG) and Sapopemba (São Paulo, SP), and two rural quilombola communities, Córrego do Rocha (Chapada do Norte, MG) and Córrego do Narciso (Araçuaí, MG). The analyses were based on the following categories: hunger-related feelings and terms; reduced food amount and quality; lack of food and nutrients; difficulties producing food, receiving emergency aid or food donations; governments evaluation and support networks. The respondents' reports show the challenges they experienced, their coping methods, and criticism of the government's lack of responses. Besides presenting a gender perspective, women, especially the leaders who worked in the construction of solidarity networks, are fundamental voices in planning actions to prevent and mitigate the impacts of emergencies in their communities.


Neste artigo apresentamos resultados de uma pesquisa que integra o projeto internacional "Gender and COVID-19", que contempla diversos temas relacionados aos impactos da pandemia na vida de mulheres e suas famílias, entre eles a insegurança alimentar e a fome. Foram feitas entrevistas semiestruturadas entre dezembro de 2020 e novembro de 2021 com 49 mulheres, moradoras de dois aglomerados urbanos, Cabana do Pai Tomás (Belo Horizonte, MG) e Sapopemba (São Paulo, SP), e de duas comunidades rurais quilombolas, Córrego do Rocha (Chapada do Norte, MG) e Córrego do Narciso (Araçuaí, MG). As análises foram baseadas nas seguintes categorias: sentimentos e termos relacionados à fome; redução na quantidade e qualidade de alimentos; ausência de alimento e nutrientes; dificuldades para produzir alimento, receber auxílio emergencial e/ou doação de alimentos; avaliação dos governos e redes de apoio. Os relatos das entrevistadas evidenciam os desafios vivenciados, suas formas de enfrentamento e críticas à falta de respostas dos governos. Além de apresentarem uma perspectiva de gênero, as mulheres, em especial as lideranças que atuaram na construção de redes de solidariedade, são vozes fundamentais no planejamento de ações de prevenção e mitigação dos impactos de situações emergenciais em suas comunidades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
2.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234576

ABSTRACT

University students have been identified as a population sub-group vulnerable to food insecurity. This vulnerability increased in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess factors associated with food insecurity among university students and the differences between students with and without children. A cross-sectional survey of (n = 213) students attending one university in Western Australia measured food insecurity, psychological distress, and socio-demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with food insecurity. Forty-eight percent of students who responded to the survey had experienced food insecurity in 2020. International students who were studying in Australia were nine times more likely to experience food insecurity than domestic students (AOR = 9.13; 95% CI = 2.32-35.97). International students with children were more likely to experience food insecurity than international students without children (p < 0.001) and domestic students with (p < 0.001) or without children (p < 0.001). For each unit increase in depression level, the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity increased (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.12-2.33). Findings show a higher prevalence of food insecurity among international university students and students with children during the COVID-19 pandemic and that food insecurity was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to mitigate the risk of food insecurity among Australian university students, particularly among international students, students with children, and those experiencing psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Western Australia/epidemiology , Universities , Pandemics , Food Supply , Australia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Food Insecurity
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1112575, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240527

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the health and wellbeing of older adult populations through increased morbidity, mortality, and social exclusion. However, the impact of COVID-19 on the health of older adults through food security has received relatively little attention, despite the strong impact of diet quality on the health and longevity of older adults. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Methods: Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in the United States, we examined the associations between sociodemographic and socioeconomic predictors of self-reported food insecurity between 2018 (N = 2,413) and June 2020 (N = 2,216) using population-weighted multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity doubled among participants from 2018 (4.83%) to June 2020 (9.54%). In 2018, non-Hispanic Black and rural residents were more likely to report food insecurity, while individuals with higher education and greater wealth were less likely to report food insecurity in adjusted models. In June 2020, those who were relatively younger, not working due to a disability, and renting were more likely to report food insecurity. Those with an increased number of functional limitations, a recent onset of a work-limiting disability, and those who were no longer homeowners experienced an elevated longitudinal risk for food insecurity. Conclusion: Future research should examine effective policies and interventions to address the disproportionate impacts of COVID-19 on populations at a heightened risk of experiencing food insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
4.
J Affect Disord ; 336: 126-132, 2023 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328294

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant disruptions to household food security with as many as 10.5 % of US households experiencing food insecurity during 2020. Food insecurity is associated with psychological distress including depression and anxiety. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed the association between COVID-19 food insecurity and poor mental health outcomes by place of birth. The Understanding the Impact of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Social Distancing on Physical and Psychosocial (Mental) Health and Chronic Diseases national survey assessed the physical and psychosocial effects of social and physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse population of US- and foreign-born adults. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between place of birth and food security status and anxiety (N = 4817) and depression (N = 4848) among US- and foreign-born individuals. Stratified models subsequently analyzed the associations between food security and poor mental health among US- and foreign-born populations separately. Model controls included sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. Low and very low household food security were associated with greater odds of both anxiety (low: odds ratio (OR) [95 % confidence interval (CI)] = 2.07 [1.42-3.03]; very low: OR [95 % CI] = 3.35 [2.15-5.21]) and depression (low: OR [95 % CI] = 1.92 [1.33-2.78]; very low: OR [95 % CI] = 2.36 [1.52-3.65]). However, this relationship was attenuated among foreign-born individuals compared to US-born individuals in the stratified models. All models found a dose-response relationship between increasing levels of food insecurity and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to explore the factors that attenuated the relationship between food insecurity and poor mental health among foreign-born individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Food Supply , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Food Insecurity
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(3): 721-730, 2023 Mar.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324596

ABSTRACT

The scope of this study was to investigate the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of COVID-19 and its association with the emergency aid income-transfer program and the collecting of food donations by the population in a situation of social vulnerability. A cross-sectional study was carried out with socially vulnerable families eight months after confirming the first case of COVID-19 in Brazil. A total of 903 families, living in 22 underprivileged communities of Maceió, in the state of Alagoas, were included. Sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated, and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied. The association of food insecurity with the variables studied was performed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation, considering α = 5%. Of the total sample, 71.1% were food insecure, a situation associated with receiving food donations (PR = 1.14; 95%CI: 1.02; 1.27) and being a beneficiary of emergency aid (PR =1.23; 95%CI: 1.01; 1.49). The results show that the population in a situation of social vulnerability was strongly affected by food insecurity. On the other hand, the population group in question benefited from actions implemented at the outset of the pandemic.


O estudo objetivou investigar a prevalência de insegurança alimentar no contexto da COVID-19 e sua associação com o programa de transferência de renda Auxílio Emergencial e o recebimento de doação de alimentos na população em vulnerabilidade social. Estudo transversal, realizado com famílias em vulnerabilidade social, oito meses após a confirmação do primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil. Foram incluídas 903 famílias, residentes em 22 aglomerados subnormais de Maceió, em Alagoas. Avaliaram-se características sociodemográficas e foi aplicada a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. A associação da insegurança alimentar com as variáveis estudadas foi realizada por meio de regressão de Poisson com estimativa robusta das variâncias, considerando α = 5%. Do total da amostra, 71,1% estavma em insegurança alimentar, situação que se associou com o recebimento de doação de alimentos (RP = 1,14, IC95%: 1,02; 1,27) e ser beneficiário do Auxílio Emergencial (RP = 1,23, IC95%: 1,01; 1,49). Os resultados mostram que a população em vulnerabilidade social foi fortemente afetada pela insegurança alimentar. Em contrapartida, essa população foi beneficiada por ações que foram implementadas no início da pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Supply , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity
6.
Public Health Rep ; 138(4): 671-680, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While much has been reported about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food insecurity, longitudinal data and the variability experienced by people working in various industries are limited. This study aims to further characterize people experiencing food insecurity during the pandemic in terms of employment, sociodemographic characteristics, and degree of food insecurity. METHODS: The study sample consisted of people enrolled in the Communities, Households and SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology (CHASING) COVID Cohort Study from visit 1 (April-July 2020) through visit 7 (May-June 2021). We created weights to account for participants with incomplete or missing data. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to determine employment and sociodemographic correlates of food insecurity. We also examined patterns of food insecurity and use of food support programs. RESULTS: Of 6740 participants, 39.6% (n = 2670) were food insecure. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic White) participants, participants in households with children (vs no children), and participants with lower (vs higher) income and education levels had higher odds of food insecurity. By industry, people employed in construction, leisure and hospitality, and trade, transportation, and utilities industries had the highest prevalence of both food insecurity and income loss. Among participants reporting food insecurity, 42.0% (1122 of 2670) were persistently food insecure (≥4 consecutive visits) and 43.9% (1172 of 2670) did not use any food support programs. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic resulted in widespread food insecurity in our cohort, much of which was persistent. In addition to addressing sociodemographic disparities, future policies should focus on the needs of those working in industries vulnerable to economic disruption and ensure those experiencing food insecurity can access food support programs for which they are eligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Sociodemographic Factors , Food Supply , SARS-CoV-2 , Food Insecurity , Employment
7.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317797

ABSTRACT

Advancements in cancer treatments over the past several decades have led to improved cancer survival in adolescents and young adults (AYAs, ages 15-39 years). However, AYA cancer survivors are at an increased risk for "late effects", including cardiovascular, pulmonary and bone diseases as well as fatigue, infertility and secondary cancers. The treatments for cancer may also alter taste, lead to nutritional deficiencies and increase financial burdens that, when taken together, may increase the risk of food and nutrition security in AYA cancer survivors. Furthermore, although AYAs are often merged together in cancer survivorship studies, adolescents and young adults have distinct developmental, psychosocial and pathophysiological differences that may modify their risk of nutritional challenges. In this narrative review and "Call to Action", rationale is provided for why there is a need to better understand nutritional challenges and food insecurity in AYA cancer survivors as a special population. Then, recommendations for next steps to advance knowledge and policy in this field are provided. In particular, integrating screening for food and nutrition insecurity and enhancing awareness of existing resources (e.g., the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, SNAP) might help AYA cancer survivors combat nutritional deficiencies and reduce late effects while improving their overall survival and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Malnutrition , Neoplasms , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Food Insecurity
8.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284257, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314911

ABSTRACT

Transgender people often live with social vulnerability, largely promoted by gender-based prejudice. Our aim in this article was to raise preliminary data on how the COVID-19 pandemic and perceived prejudice have contributed to the problem of food and food insecurity in the transgender communities in Brazil. We conducted a web-based cross-sectional study, in which 109 transgender people from all regions of Brazil participated. We used the Chi-Square test and Poisson regression modeling with robust variance to estimate the association between food insecurity and the investigated factors. In our sample, 68.8% of transgender people experienced food insecurity, of these, 20.2% experienced severe food insecurity. Our results showed that the difficulties in purchasing food in the transgender community predate the COVID-19 pandemic, yet that the restrictive measures adopted have also impacted overall access to quality food. However, the main explanations for food insecurity were income and employment. In predicting food insecurity, the experiences of prejudice must be considered, and give rise to the hypothesis that specific conditions to which transgender people are exposed explain, to some degree, their vulnerability to food insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
9.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e54, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312414

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to examine associations between variables of COVID-19-related concerns and changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a sample of participants from the Brighter Bites program at risk for food insecurity. Cross-sectional data were collected during April-June 2020 using a rapid-response survey to understand social needs, COVID-19-related concerns and diet-related behaviours among families with children participating in Brighter Bites (n 1777) in the 2019-2020 school year at risk for food insecurity, within the surrounding Houston, Dallas, Austin, Texas area; Southwest Florida; Washington, D.C., United States. Of the 1777 respondents, 92 % of households reported being at risk for food insecurity. Among those from food insecure households, the majority were of Hispanic/Mexican-American/Latino (84⋅1 %) ethnic background, predominantly from Houston, Texas (71⋅4 %). During the pandemic, among individuals from food insecure households, 41 % (n 672) reported a decrease in FV intake, 32 % (n 527) reported an increase in FV intake, and 27 % (n 439) reported no change in FV intake. Those who reported concerns about financial stability had a 40 % greater risk of decreased FV intake compared to those not concerned about financial stability (RR 1⋅4; 95 % CI 1⋅0, 2⋅0; P = 0⋅03). The present study adds to this current body of sparse literature on how the initial phase of the pandemic impacted FV consumption behaviours among food insecure households with children. Effective interventions are needed to diminish the negative impact of COVID-19 on the population's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Diet , Vegetables , Food Insecurity
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280157, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311249

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity has multiple negative effects on maternal and child health and nutritional outcomes. There is a dearth of up-to-date evidence on the prevalence of food insecurity in Bangladesh based on geographical variations. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity based on geographical variations and its associated factors. We pooled data from seven cross-sectional surveys conducted in 15,009 households from March 2015 to May 2018. This study was a part of the evaluation of the Maternal Infant Young Child Nutrition Phase 2 programme implemented by BRAC, one of the largest international non-governmental organizations located in Bangladesh that covered rural areas in 26 districts and two urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We used Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (a widely used scale to measure household food insecurity) to estimate the food insecurity status from the data collected through a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Hot spot analysis was conducted using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The multiple logistic regression model was applied to explore the associated factors of food insecurity. The food insecurity hotspots were in the northwestern, central-southwestern, and coastal districts of Bangladesh. The overall prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity were 12.7%, 13.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. In the adjusted model, household heads and caregivers of children with five or more years of schooling had respectively 42% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.64) and 46% (AOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.61) less likelihood to suffer from food insecurity. Households in the middle (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.65) and rich (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.36) wealth status had lower odds of food insecurity. Food insecurity is widely spread in rural districts of Bangladesh and the degree of vulnerability is higher among the households of the northwestern, central-southwestern, and coastal areas of Bangladesh. Comprehensive interventions including strategies for poverty reduction and education for all might be effective to reduce food insecurity at rural households in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Child , Infant , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279414, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Food security is an important policy issue in India. As India recently ranked 107th out of 121 countries in the 2022 Global Hunger Index, there is an urgent need to dissect, and gain insights into, such a major decline at the national level. However, the existing surveys, due to small sample sizes, cannot be used directly to produce reliable estimates at local administrative levels such as districts. DESIGN: The latest round of available data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey (HCES 2011-12) done by the National Sample Survey Office of India used stratified multi-stage random sampling with districts as strata, villages as first stage and households as second stage units. SETTING: Our Small Area Estimation approach estimated food insecurity prevalence, gap, and severity of each rural district of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (EIGP) region by modeling the HCES data, guided by local covariates from the 2011 Indian Population Census. PARTICIPANTS: In HCES, 5915 (34429), 3310 (17534) and 3566 (15223) households (persons) were surveyed from the 71, 38 and 18 districts of the EIGP states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal respectively. RESULTS: We estimated the district-specific food insecurity indicators, and mapped their local disparities over the EIGP region. By comparing food insecurity with indicators of climate vulnerability, poverty and crop diversity, we shortlisted the vulnerable districts in EIGP. CONCLUSIONS: Our district-level estimates and maps can be effective for informed policy-making to build local resiliency and address systemic vulnerabilities where they matter most in the post-pandemic era. ADVANCES: Our study computed, for the Indian states in the EIGP region, the first area-level small area estimates of food insecurity as well as poverty over the past decade, and generated a ranked list of districts upon combining these data with measures of crop diversity and climatic vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Poverty , Family Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 11(7): 2144-2149, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has been associated with poorer asthma control in children, but research lacks in adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of food insecurity and its association with asthma control in adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted in US adults with asthma. Survey questions included how worried or concerned participants were about food security since the pandemic. Asthma control was assessed using the Asthma Control Test, with uncontrolled asthma defined as Asthma Control Test score less than or equal to 19. Self-report of food insecurity since the pandemic was assessed. Food insecurity variables were dichotomized into high insecurity (≥3) or low insecurity (<3). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the total participants (N = 866), 82.79% were female; mean age of participants was 44 ± 15.05 years, their mean Asthma Control Test score was 19.25 ± 4.54, and 18.48% had high food insecurity. Participants with high food insecurity were more likely to have uncontrolled asthma (74.38%) compared with those with lower food insecurity (34.99%; P < .01). The relationship between asthma control and food insecurity remained significant after adjusting for age, education, sex, race, anxiety, and living stability concerns due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity exists in adults with asthma and is associated with uncontrolled asthma. Providers should consider screening their patients for food insecurity when treating individuals with uncontrolled asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Food Insecurity , Asthma/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283078, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300666

ABSTRACT

We assessed food insecurity, dietary diversity and the right to adequate food among households in communities in Eastern Uganda that were affected by major landslides in 2010 and 2018. A prospective cohort study was applied to select 422 households during May-August (the food-plenty season) of 2019. In January-March (the food-poor season) of 2020, 388 households were re-assessed. Socio-demographic, food security, dietary diversity and right to adequate food data were collected using structured questionnaires. Four focus groups discussions and key informant interviews with 10 purposively sampled duty-bearers explored issues of food insecurity, dietary and the right to adequate food. The affected households had significantly higher mean (SE) food insecurity scores than controls, both during the food plenty season: 15.3 (0.5) vs. 10.8 (0.5), and during food-poor season: 15.9 (0.4) vs. 12.5 (0.0). The affected households had significantly lower mean (SE) dietary diversity scores than controls during the food plenty season: 5.4 (0.2) vs. 7.5 (0.2) and during the food poor season: 5.2 (0.2) vs. 7.3 (0.1). Multivariate analyses showed that the disaster event, education and main source of livelihood, were significantly associated with household food security and dietary diversity during the food-plenty season whereas during the food-poor season, the disaster event and education were associated with household food security and dietary diversity. During both food seasons, the majority of affected and control households reported to have consumed unsafe food. Cash-handout was the most preferred for ensuring the right to adequate food. Comprehension and awareness of human rights principles and state obligations were low. The severity of food-insecurity and dietary diversity differed significantly between the affected and control households during both food seasons. Moreover, the right to adequate food of landslide victims faced challenges to its realization. There is need for policy and planning frameworks that cater for seasonal variations, disaster effects and right to adequate food in order to reduce landslide victims' vulnerability to food insecurity and poor dietary diversity. In the long-term, education and income diversification program interventions need to be integrated into disaster recovery programs since they are central in enhancing the resilience of rural livelihoods to shocks and stressors on the food system.


Subject(s)
Landslides , Humans , Uganda , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297818

ABSTRACT

Confusing health messages and environmental changes intended to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus have affected the dietary behavior of older African Americans. We investigated the impact of COVID-19-related factors on diet quality and the relationship between food access and diet quality. We surveyed 150 African Americans aged 55 years and above during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data obtained included socio-demographic and health information, and COVID-19-related knowledge and perceptions. Dietary intake data was obtained using the Diet History Questionnaire III. Analyses included bivariate and multivariable statistics. Overall, based on United States Department of Agriculture guidelines, the diet quality of older African Americans was poor. Lower knowledge and a lower perceived threat of COVID-19 were significantly associated with poor diet quality. Additionally, older African Americans with chronic diseases and food insecurity had poor diet quality. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the fragility of diet quality. The combined impact of poor knowledge and perceived threat of COVID-19, chronic disease, and food insecurity contribute to poor diet quality in this population. This study adds to the well-known need for strategies to support the right to a healthy diet, particularly during COVID-19 and future pandemics. Proactive interventions to counteract the potential consequences of poor diets are needed.


Subject(s)
Black or African American , COVID-19 , Diet , Food Insecurity , Nutrition Assessment , Humans , Black or African American/psychology , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/standards , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Eating , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Middle Aged , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Access to Healthy Foods/standards , Access to Healthy Foods/statistics & numerical data
15.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295704

ABSTRACT

Research related to food insecurity (FI) among European university student populations is currently limited, especially the studies carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and identify possible predictors of FI among students from a Spanish public university, the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional observational study design was used, in which a total of 422 students completed an online survey. Results were weighted according to age and field of education. Binary logistic regressions adjusted by sex, age, and campus were applied to identify FI predictors. FI in 19.6, 2.6, and 0.7% of the population was mild, moderate, and severe, respectively. The three main predictors of FI were a decrease in the main source of income (OR, 2.80; 95% IC, 2.57-3.06), not receiving scholarships during the pandemic (OR, 2.32; 95% IC, 2.18-2.47), and living arrangements before the pandemic (not living with parents/relatives) (OR, 2.03, 95% IC, 1.89-2.18). This study found a high prevalence of FI among the students surveyed, and the strongest predictors of this FI were related to socioeconomic status. A robust and comprehensive policy response is recommended to mitigate FI in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Universities , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Food Supply , Students , Food Insecurity
16.
J Nutr ; 153(4): 922-923, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295192
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294259

ABSTRACT

During emergencies, older adults stand among the most vulnerable, facing long-lasting food insecurity and overall health issues. The "365+ Days of Care" food aid program addressed food insecurity and poor quality of life among vulnerable older adults following a devastating wildfire in Greece. Our aim was to evaluate the program's efficiency, using a process evaluation framework and a partial cost-utility analysis. In total, n = 133 wildfire-hit residents (≥65 years) received daily tailored, pre-cooked meals and/or weekly food packages. The study outcomes were assessed from baseline to 12 months later. Focus groups and interviews (n = 30), researcher observations, and questionnaires were used to assess the beneficiaries' perception of the initiative. Within the 12-month follow-up period, food insecurity and malnutrition risk decreased, whereas Mediterranean diet adherence; quality of life; and physical, social, and mental health were improved (p < 0.05). A one-point increase in food insecurity was positively associated with improved quality of life, general health, limitation in activities, body pain, vitality, and pain/discomfort (p's < 0.05), and it was marginally associated with mobility, anxiety/depression, and self-evaluated health status (p's < 0.1). Quantitative and qualitative data characterized it as successful, acceptable, beneficial, and of high quality. The partial cost-utility ratio was one QALY gained per EUR 22.608. The utilization of well-designed food aid programs during emergencies can alleviate food insecurity and improve quality of life in older adults.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Food Supply , Food Insecurity , Health Status
18.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 722, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity indicates the difficulty of constantly obtaining adequate food because of limited economic resources. Food insecurity challenges the desired health outcomes. Although extensive literature has examined the associations between food security and health, low-wage informal sector workers have been less frequently addressed in this topic. The present study has focused on food insecurity among the workers working in the informal sector enterprises who experienced entrenched disadvantage during COVID-19 and examines the relationship between food insecurity and health status as measured by self-reported physical and mental health conditions. METHODS: This study has utilized cross-sectional data collected from workers working in informal manufacturing and business enterprises in Dhaka city of Bangladesh. The Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) with eight items is used to screen for food insecurity, and the Short Form 12v2 (SF12v2) scale with 12 questions, and validated for use with Bengali respondents, is used to measure the health status of the informal workers. A health production function has been constructed where the health status (both physical and mental) of workers is associated with food insecurity and other socio-economic and health care factors. Empirical analyses of the study have included descriptive statistics, mean score comparisons, and multivariate regression analyses to identify the predictive factors of the physical and mental health status of the workers. RESULTS: A moderate to severe food insecurity is found to be responsible for the poor health status (both physical and mental) of the selected working group population. Moreover, age over 40 years, having a large family, dissatisfaction with the work place, and the prevalence of occupational health risks are linked to lower physical health, while dissatisfaction with the work place and the incidence of severe diseases contribute to poor mental health status along with food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Extending social and economic protection towards health coverage and basic consumption is suggested as an immediate action to save lives and ensure productivity of the informal workers. Besides, an increase in income and ensuring decent working conditions are also recommended for the health, safety and satisfaction of workers working in informal sector enterprises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Informal Sector , Humans , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Food Insecurity , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303383

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity among the student population is a prominent issue in South African university institutions. However, personal experiences and the myriad of underlying factors contributing to the issue remain poorly documented. Among other factors, these universities are characterized by the admission of a majority of their student population from poor backgrounds with limited financial capabilities, and this affects their food security status. The purpose of this study was to view the patterns of food insecurity among students, with a focus on alcohol consumption as one of the various factors influencing student food security status. Data were collected from 156 student respondents from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban University of Technology, Mangosuthu University of Technology, and the University of Zululand. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale revealed that from the total sample, only 21.79% reported themselves as food secure, whilst the remainder reported varying levels of food insecurity with 17.31% of students being food insecure, 16.03% mildly food insecure, and 44.87% severely food insecure. On the other hand, a prevalence of 73.08% (n = 114) of alcohol consumption was found among the sampled students. Ordered probit models results suggested that students' alcohol consumption prevalence was determined by gender, level of study, exercise/playing sport, marital status, and distance to campus, which all had statistically significant effects on students' alcohol consumption. Most crucially, gender, institution and campus positively affected students' food security status, while the income variable made a negative significant contribution towards student food security status. Therefore, a link between students' finances and food insecurity was evident. However, further research is required to delve into the link between the level and impact of students' alcohol consumption and its implications on their financial status, and thus food security status. This is crucial information which will help policymakers understand these underlying factors and experiences and thus find solutions for issues related with food insecurity.


Subject(s)
Food Supply , Students , Humans , Universities , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290726

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and the measures imposed to control it have impacted food security globally, particularly among vulnerable populations. Food insecurity, in turn, has repercussions on health, exacerbating pre-existing inequalities. This scoping review maps the literature describing associations between the COVID-19 pandemic and food insecurity among migrants, with a particular view toward health. A total of 909 papers were extracted through four electronic databases, and 46 studies were included. The migrant populations described originated mainly from Latin America (11/46) and were located in North America (21/46). Most studies included refugees and asylum seekers (20/46). The main challenges described were financial hardship (28/46), the effect of migrants' documentation status on using public food aid (13/46), and the suspension of or reduction in humanitarian assistance due to the economic recession (7/46). The impact of food insecurity on migrants' mental and physical health was described in 26 of the 46 studies. Authorities in all destination countries should focus their attention and efforts into ensuring nutrition security for migrants in a holistic way, including their economic and legal integration, to be better prepared for health crises in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Food Insecurity
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