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1.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(1): 2-7, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the impacts of food insecurity (FI) on child health, outlines clinical and public policy interventions to mitigate FI in children, and defines new paradigms in population health to ameliorate the harmful effects of FI in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of FI among children have dramatically increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular adverse impact on low-income children. Population health innovations in screening, referral, and social service integration offer new opportunities to address FI. SUMMARY: Despite advances in clinical practice and public policy, FI remains a persistent issue for many US children. Clinicians and policymakers have opportunities to leverage clinical and community-based integration to improve service delivery opportunities to ameliorate childhood hunger and racial and socioeconomic inequity in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Food Insecurity , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity/economics , Humans , Independent Living/economics , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554890

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased food insecurity worldwide, yet there has been limited assessment of shifts in the cost and affordability of healthy, equitable and sustainable diets. This study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and income supplements provided by the Australian government on diet cost and affordability for low-income households in an Australian urban area. The Healthy Diets ASAP method protocol was applied to assess the cost and cost differential of current and recommended diets before (in 2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (late 2020) for households with a minimum-wage and welfare-only disposable household income, by area of socioeconomic disadvantage, in Greater Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Data were collected between August and October, 2020, from 78 food outlets and compared with data collected in the same locations between May and October, 2019, in an earlier study. The price of most healthy food groups increased significantly during the pandemic-with the exception of vegetables and legumes, which decreased. Conversely, the price of discretionary foods and drinks did not increase during the pandemic. The cost of the current and recommended diets significantly increased throughout this period, but the latter continued to be less expensive than the former. Due to income supplements provided between May and September 2020, the affordability of the recommended diet improved greatly, by 27% and 42%, for households with minimum-wage and welfare-only disposable household income, respectively. This improvement in the affordability of the recommended diet highlights the need to permanently increase welfare support for low-income families to ensure food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy/economics , Food Insecurity/economics , Income , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Queensland/epidemiology
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00268520, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1542217

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi analisar tendências e desigualdades na prevalência de insegurança alimentar na pandemia de COVID-19, de acordo com fatores sociodemográficos e com medidas de distanciamento social. Dados de quatro inquéritos epidemiológicos seriados sobre a COVID-19 desenvolvidos entre maio e junho de 2020, com adultos e idosos residentes na cidade de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Insegurança alimentar foi avaliada por meio da versão curta da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA), com o período recordatório adaptado ao início das medidas de distanciamento social no município. As características sociodemográficas e a adoção de medidas de distanciamento social foram analisadas, e suas associações com a insegurança alimentar foram avaliadas utilizando-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A tendência temporal da insegurança alimentar de acordo com tais características foi avaliada usando-se regressão linear. As desigualdades na insegurança alimentar foram avaliadas utilizando-se o índice angular de desigualdade e o índice de concentração. Dos 1.550 indivíduos estudados, 29,4% (IC95%: 25,0; 34,4) apresentaram insegurança alimentar. A análise de desigualdade mostrou maior concentração da insegurança alimentar entre os mais jovens, os menos escolarizados e os que residiam em domicílios com cinco moradores ou mais. Ao longo dos quatro inquéritos, a prevalência de insegurança alimentar reduziu mais acentuadamente entre os mais jovens, naqueles que residiam em domicílios com até dois moradores e com dois ou mais trabalhadores. Evidenciou-se forte associação da insegurança alimentar com os aspectos sociodemográficos dos entrevistados, o que pode indicar o potencial impacto econômico da pandemia na situação alimentar dos domicílios.


The objective was to analyze trends and inequalities in the prevalence of food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic according to sociodemographic factors and social distancing measures. We analyzed data from four serial epidemiological surveys on COVID-19 in May and June 2020, with adults and elderly living in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Food insecurity was assessed with the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA), with the recall period adapted to the beginning of the social distancing period in the city. Sociodemographic characteristics and the adoption of social distancing measures were analyzed, and their associations with food insecurity were assessed with chi-square test. The temporal trend in food insecurity according to these characteristics was assessed via linear regression. Inequalities in food insecurity were assessed with the angular inequality index and concentration index. Of the 1,550 individuals studied, 29.4% (95%CI: 25.0; 34.4) presented food insecurity. Analysis of inequality showed higher concentration of food insecurity among the younger and less educated and those living with five or more residents in the same household. Over the course of the four surveys, prevalence of food insecurity decreased most sharply among the younger, those living in households with up to two residents, and those with two or more workers. There was a strong association between food insecurity and sociodemographic factors, which may indicate the pandemic´s potential economic impact on households' food situation.


El objetivo fue analizar tendencias y desigualdades en la prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria durante la pandemia de COVID-19, de acuerdo con factores sociodemográficos, así como con las medidas de distanciamiento social. Se analizaron datos de cuatro encuestas epidemiológicas seriadas sobre la COVID-19, desarrolladas entre mayo y junio de 2020, con adultos y ancianos residentes en la ciudad de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La inseguridad alimentaria se evaluó a través de la versión corta de la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria (EBIA), con un período recordatorio, adaptado al inicio de las medidas de distanciamiento social en el municipio. Fueron analizadas características sociodemográficas y la adopción de medidas de distanciamiento social, así como sus asociaciones con la inseguridad alimentaria, utilizándose un test de chi-cuadrado. Se evaluó la tendencia temporal de la inseguridad alimentaria de acuerdo con tales características, utilizándose la regresión lineal. Se evaluaron desigualdades en la inseguridad alimentaria, mediante el índice angular de desigualdad y el índice de concentración. De los 1.550 individuos estudiados, un 29,4% (IC95%: 25,0; 34,4) presentaron inseguridad alimentaria. El análisis de desigualdad mostró una mayor concentración de inseguridad alimentaria entre los más jóvenes, los menos escolarizados, y quienes residían en domicilios con cinco residentes o más. A lo largo de las cuatro encuestas, la prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria se redujo más acentuadamente entre los más jóvenes, en quienes residían en domicilios con hasta dos residentes y con dos o más trabajadores. Se evidenció una fuerte asociación de la inseguridad alimentaria con aspectos sociodemográficos de los entrevistados, lo que puede indicar el potencial impacto económico de la pandemia en la situación alimentaria de los domicilios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cities , Food Supply , SARS-CoV-2 , Food Insecurity
5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542687

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify changes in food distribution operations at emergency food assistance organizations (EFAOs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. EFAOs across the Houston metro area, TX (human service centers and food pantries) as well as the Houston Food Bank (HFB) participated in the qualitative study. Data were collected via individual semi-structured interviews and focus group (December 2020-February 2021), and coded using semi-structured thematic analysis. Categories were pre-identified based on the interview questions. Direct quotes supported subcategories. Directors from 18 EFAOs were interviewed; 8 HFB leadership staff participated in a focus group. Four major categories of change due to COVID-19 included new safety measures, changes in food distribution process, changes in volunteerism and staffing, and changes in amounts of food distributed. This study helps identify susceptibilities in EFAOs' food distribution chain should be addressed to manage future emergency food insecurity crises more effectively. An understanding of the changes/challenges incurred by EFAOs during the COVID-19 pandemic can inform policymakers to ensure local food distribution organizations are prepared to fill the needs during future a crisis of food insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Food Assistance , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , Texas/epidemiology
6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542686

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the prevalence, severity and socio-demographic predictors of food insecurity in Australian households during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, from the perspective of women. A cross-sectional online survey of Australian (18-50 years) women was conducted. The survey collected demographic information and utilised the 18-item US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of food security status. In this cohort (n = 1005), 19.6% were living in households experiencing food insecurity; with 11.8% experiencing low food-security and 7.8% very low food-security. A further 13.7% of households reported marginal food-security. Poor mental health status (K10 score ≥ 20) predicted household food insecurity at all levels. The presence of more than three children in the household was associated with low food-security (OR 6.24, 95% CI: 2.59-15.03). Those who were renting were 2.10 (95% CI: 1.09-4.05) times likely to experience very low food-security than those owning their own home. The COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increased prevalence of household food insecurity. This study supports the need for a range of responses that address mental health, financial, employment and housing support to food security in Australia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(12): 1055-1059, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the decrease in very low food security (VLFS) observed in California shortly after California's coronavirus disease (COVID-19) shutdown remained throughout Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2020. To investigate associations among unemployment, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) enrollment, and VLFS across FFY 2020. METHODS: Telephone interview responses from mothers from randomly sampled households from low-income areas throughout California to the 6-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module identified VLFS families. Logistic regression examined VLFS rates before vs after California's COVID-19 shutdown, with race/ethnicity, age, and education as covariates. Pearson correlations were calculated for unemployment, SNAP enrollment, and VLFS. RESULTS: Most (66.4%) of the 2,682 mothers were Latina. VLFS declined from 19.3% before to 14.5% after California's COVID-19 shutdown (adjusted odds ratio, 0.705; P = 0.002). The correlation for unemployment and SNAP household participation was 0.854 (P = 0.007), and for SNAP participation and VLFS was -0.869 (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Publicly-funded assistance programs may lower food insecurity, even during a time of increased economic hardship. Examining the specific factors responsible for the observed decline in VLFS has merit. Whether VLFS remains below the rate observed before California's COVID-19 shutdown is worthy of ongoing study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , California , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511823

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
11.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Child Dev ; 92(5): e781-e797, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501385

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates economic and psychological hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse sample (61% Latinx; 16% White; 9% Black; 14% mixed/other race) of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents (90% mothers; mean age = 35 years) and their elementary school-aged children (ages 4-11; 49% female) in rural Pennsylvania (N = 272). Families participating in a local food assistance program reported on food insecurity (FI) and parent and child mood and behavior daily from January to May 2020. Longitudinal models revealed that FI, negative parent and child mood, and child misbehavior significantly increased when schools closed; only FI and parent depression later decreased. FI decreased most among those who received the local food assistance program; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program receipt uniquely predicted decreases in child FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480752

ABSTRACT

College students represent a unique population of adults, who may be more likely to experience food insecurity due to their transient circumstances, limited access to resources, and increased educational expenses. But little is known about how college students and their households mitigate food insecurity, particularly during a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic. The Household Observations of Meals and Environments (HOME) Study described how college students in the US utilized multilevel resources, including an on-campus food pantry, to maintain food security during the pandemic. A convenience sample of college students (n = 18) were recruited from an on-campus food pantry and provided quantitative and qualitative data through online surveys and in-depth Zoom interviews. Survey data were analyzed to describe sociodemographic characteristics. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically to identify emergent themes. Social support and the use of an on-campus food pantry were primary factors in maintaining a food security safety net. Students faced barriers when trying to access federal and state food assistance programs and identified multilevel resources, their food security, and the role of social support as facilitators in their perceptions of food insecurity status and experiences. Findings highlight practical implications for research related to on-campus food insecurity interventions and policies to support food security among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Meals , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Universities
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 661345, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477884

ABSTRACT

Holiday clubs play a pivotal role in providing food and vital enrichment opportunities to alleviate food insecurity among children during the school holidays (holiday hunger). The need for these opportunities increased substantially for families throughout 2020, as food insecurity quadrupled in the UK during the Covid-19 pandemic. In this qualitative study, holiday club staff from England and Wales reflected on the adaptations they implemented in order to maintain food supplies and food-related enrichment activities for families during the first UK national Covid-19 lockdown and subsequently throughout the summer of 2020. Staff also reflected on the opportunities and challenges related to implementing these adaptations during this period. Twenty-five holiday club staff engaged in video-based interviews during August and September 2020. The findings revealed a range of innovative changes to holiday club food provision, and the challenges and opportunities faced varied across holiday clubs. Challenges during the pandemic in some clubs included staff shortages (typically due to furloughing and/or increased working demands) and difficulties sourcing adequate funding. However, staff identified that the opportunities for holiday clubs included enhanced partnership working during the pandemic, increased engagement with digital technology to communicate with families and deliver their online cooking sessions, and their ability to continue providing food and much needed creative opportunities for children unable to attend school and/or the holiday club. The ability of clubs to adapt their models of working when faced with adversity was essential in protecting their organisational resilience and delivering their vital services. The findings emphasise the important role that holiday clubs play in their communities and highlight their willingness to adapt and expand their role in response to the pandemic to continue to tackle food insecurity and provide vital food and food-related enrichment opportunities to families. The findings also identify lessons that can be applied to practise in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Holidays , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 128(1): 19-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of social determinants on the experience of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic within the pediatric population, how this impact may influence the long-term health and security of children, and what measures can be taken to ameliorate this impact moving forward. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic review of relevant literature and news sources. STUDY SELECTIONS: Relevant literature and news sources. RESULTS: There have been increases in housing insecurity and food insecurity during the pandemic, including global increases in poverty. Public policies such as school closures have had a disproportionate impact on those facing adverse social determinants. There has been a dramatic increase in reports of abuse-related injuries and other injuries indicative of child abuse during the pandemic. In addition, there are disproportionate impacts of COVID-19 based on race and ethnicity within the United States. It is clear that children are facing more adverse determinants as a result of this pandemic and that there are both short-term and long-term implications associated. For those living in poverty or with other adverse social determinants of health, the pandemic has made a bad situation worse. Ongoing studies are required to measure the impact of COVID-19 on those with adverse social determinants, in particular among children. CONCLUSION: Social determinants of health must be part of pandemic research priorities, public health and vaccination goals, and economic policy implementation. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has further served to shed a light on the broad disparities that exist within our society and their direct and indirect impacts on health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse , Family , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047314, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the single greatest contributor to global mortality. The successful introduction and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivered a reduction in HIV mortality. Consequently, an association was found between the scale-up of ART and an increased prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV (PLWH) such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. A higher quality diet can delay the onset of comorbidities related to HIV infection. Diet quality and its methods of assessment are not fully established among PLWH. This review will identify the diet quality and food insecurity indices that have been used among PLWH and how these constructs are associated with risk of developing CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The frameworks recommended by Arksey and O'Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual for conducting scoping reviews will be adopted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting. A search strategy was developed using keywords related to the topic. A preliminary MEDLINE (via PubMed) search was conducted on 11 November 2020 to develop a comprehensive search strategy. The final search will be conducted on PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Titles and abstracts of retrieved records will be screened independently by two reviewers. Data will be extracted from records that meet the inclusion criteria using a predesigned charting tool. Discrepancies in decisions made by reviewers will be resolved by consensus or the decision of a third reviewer. Extracted data will be presented in tables or charts. A descriptive summary of the charts or tables will follow. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review. Findings will inform other studies currently underway and will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/7k3ja.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463780

ABSTRACT

Peruvian households have experienced one of the most prevalent economic shocks due to COVID-19, significantly increasing their vulnerability to food insecurity (FI). To understand the vulnerability characteristics of these households among the Peruvian young population, including the role of the government's response through emergency cash transfer, we analysed longitudinal data from the Young Lives study (n = 2026), a study that follows the livelihoods of two birth cohorts currently aged 18 to 27 years old. FI was assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale. Household characteristics were collected before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in Peru to characterise participants' vulnerability to FI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between government support and participants' vulnerability characteristics to FI. During the period under study (March to December 2020), 24% (95% CI: 22.1-25.9%) of the participants experienced FI. Families in the top wealth tercile were 49% less likely to experience FI. Larger families (>5 members) and those with increased household expenses and decreased income due to COVID-19 were more likely to experience FI (by 35%, 39% and 42%, respectively). There was no significant association between government support and FI (p = 0.768). We conclude that pre-pandemic socioeconomic status, family size, and the economic disruption during COVID-19 contribute to the risk of FI among the Peruvian young population, while government support insufficiently curtailed the risk to these households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Financial Support , Food Insecurity/economics , Food Supply/economics , Government , Pandemics/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Income , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20072, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462036

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the Corona pandemic as a public health emergency. This pandemic affects the main pillars of food security. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and the probability of hospitalization and the length of the recovery period after getting COVID-19. The cross-sectional study was performed through the census on COVID-19 patients diagnosed in Fasa, Iran. Informed consent, demographic, and food security questionnaire were completed over the phone. Then, all patients were followed up until recovery. Data were analyzed using SPSS26 and Chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression (P < 0.05). In this study, 219 COVID-19 patients [100 (54.7%) male and 119 (54.3%) female] with a mean age of 40.05 ± 15.54 years old were examined. Possibility of hospitalization and the length of the recovery period of more than one month was significantly longer in the food-insecure group (P = 0.001) and (P = 0.37), respectively, but the mean length of hospital stay in the two groups was not significantly different (P = 0.76). After adjusting for all confounding variables, people with food insecurity were 3.9 times more likely to be hospitalized than those with food security. Overall, we observed that food-insecure people were significantly more likely to be hospitalized than the secure group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 60(5): 548-563, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454960

ABSTRACT

Historically, food insecurity has been a problem for the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States. Variations in food insecurity exist among this population by origin, immigration status, household composition, and region. The coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated existing vulnerabilities this population faces with food insecurity including limited economic resources, reliance on programs unprepared for atypical circumstances, closure of avenues providing access to meals, and unemployment. This paper reviews key factors related to the current rate of food insecurity among the Hispanic/Latino population in the mainland United States and is an exemplar of similar variability found in Puerto Rico. Recommendations for reducing food insecurity in this population are provided. (word count:109).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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