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3.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123770

ABSTRACT

Poor diet quality is commonly reported in young adults. This study aimed to measure the diet quality of students attending a large Australian university (including domestic and international students), and to examine the effect of food security status and other key factors likely to impact their diet quality. Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall Australian version, a cross-sectional survey collected dietary recalls from domestic and international students in one university in Sydney. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013) which gives a score out of 100. Food security status was measured by the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Differences in the mean HEIFA-2013 scores by student characteristics were determined by analysis of covariance. A total of 141 students completed one dietary recall. The mean HEIFA-2013 score for students was low (mean 52.4, 95% CI 50.0-54.8). Food-insecure students had a poorer diet quality (mean 43.7, 95% CI 35.7-51.8) than their food-secure peers (mean 53.2, 95% CI 50.8-55.7, p = 0.027). The mean HEIFA-2013 score was similar in domestic (mean 52.5, 95% CI 49.9-55.2) and international students (mean 51.9, 95% CI 46.3-57.5, p = 0.845). Those reporting self-perceived excellent cooking skills and higher cooking frequency had better diet quality. Interventions to improve food and nutrition knowledge and skills and address food insecurity may help tertiary education students cook more frequently and achieve better diet quality.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Food Supply , Young Adult , Humans , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Australia , Diet , Meals , Students , Cooking , Food Insecurity
4.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099681

ABSTRACT

Many individuals make financial, health and food related trade-offs to cope with the challenges of food insecurity and to meet their household needs for healthy, affordable food. A survey (n = 652) was conducted in nine rural counties in South Carolina, USA, during the COVID-19 pandemic from August 2020 to July 2021. We examine if level of food insecurity predicts hunger-coping trade-offs, and whether this relationship is moderated by easiness in food access and dependence on different food source types. Nearly one-third of the respondents experienced food insecurity. Making trade-offs between paying for food and other household expenses was common among the rural residents as on average they made nearly one type of trade-off in the past three months. The number of trade-offs was the highest among highly food insecure respondents (mean = 2.64), followed by moderately food insecure respondents (mean = 1.66); low food insecure respondents had the lowest number of trade-offs (mean = 0.39). The moderating effects of easiness in food access and dependence on food sources varied by level of food insecurity. The results show that individuals at different levels of food insecurity use different strategies to fulfill their food needs and social programs are more often utilized than personal food sources. We conclude with implications for addressing food insecurity in order to reduce the possibility of making trade-offs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Pandemics , Food Insecurity , Adaptation, Psychological
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1982, 2022 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is the lack of access to nutritious healthy food due to economic and financial insufficiencies. Food insecurity is expected to be higher during these difficult times in Lebanon, which is facing many financial, political, economic and health debates. The present study aims to find the prevalence of food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic and its correlates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 4001 participants from all Lebanese governorates (March-April 2022). The Ministry of Education and Higher Education randomly disseminated the link to parents of children aged between 5 and 11 years from public and private schools. RESULTS: The results showed that 1505 (37.6%) and 1497 (37.4%) had moderate and severe food insecurity. A significantly higher percentage of families with severe food insecurity was reported by fathers compared to mothers. In addition, participants who reported a bad overall health status of their children had a severe food insecurity. Moreover, those with a severe food insecurity had their children's daily snacking habit between meals decreased, with a decreased quantity of meals, intake of vegetables/fruits, the intake of balanced diet, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverages, consumption of sweets/candies/chocolate, consumption of unhealthy food, intake of immunity-boosting food, intake of nutrition supplements, participation in the house chores, number of sleeping hours and sleep quality, as well as stress/anxiety decreased. Finally, a higher mean financial burden was seen in families with severe food insecurity compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: The current study found a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Food insecurity should be seriously discussed in Lebanon due to its rapid development in the middle of all the crises facing the country in order to avoid short and long term consequences on human's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Feeding Behavior , Food Insecurity , Educational Status
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related disruptions have not only affected university students' learning and academic outcomes, but also other issues, such as food security status, mental health and employment. In Australia, international students faced additional pressures due to sudden border closures and lack of eligibility for government-provided financial support. This study explored the experiences of domestic and international university students residing in Australia during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic across a range of outcomes. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between July and September 2020 at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. The online survey included food insecurity status, mental health (psychological distress), disruptions to study, employment and sleep. A total of 105 students (n = 66 domestic and n = 39 international) completed the survey. Respondents reported having food insecurity (41.9%) and psychological distress (52.2%, with high and very high levels), with international students reporting significantly higher food insecurity (OR = 9.86 (95% CI 3.9-24.8), p < 0.001) and psychological distress scores (t(90) = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.30 to 8.81, p = 0.009) than domestic students. About one quarter of all respondents reported disruptions to study and employment status around the time of the survey. When asked what government support should be provided for international students, 'financial aid' was the most frequently suggested form of support. This research may help governments and educational institutions design appropriate support, particularly financial and psychological, for both international and domestic university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Australia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Food Insecurity
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1962, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting an estimated 260 million people. However, little evidence is available on how pandemic-related characteristics influence food security in a high-altitude population. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with food insecurity in high-altitude Peruvian cities during the second epidemic wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight Peruvian cities over 1,500 m above sea level. An online survey measuring food security, presence of anxiety & depressive symptoms, sleep quality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience, and sociodemographic characteristics was disseminated through social networks between December 2020 and February 2021. Generalized linear models were used to identify an association between the study variables. RESULTS: Of 700 participants, the median age was 23 years, and more than half were female (56.7%). The prevalence of food insecurity was 37.1%. Anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and PTSD were present in 72.7%, 64.1%, and 15% of respondents, respectively. The prevalence of food insecurity was higher in people with fair (PR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07) and very bad perception of their health (PR: 4.06, 95% CI: 2.63-6.26), individuals seeking mental health support (PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.62), and in those who lost their job due to the pandemic (PR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.62-2.04). Having moderate (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) and moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.27) also increased the prevalence of food insecurity. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the prevalence of food insecurity has increased in the Peruvian high-altitude population, revealing the need for preventive strategies. Identification of pandemic-related characteristics that influence food insecurity can guide interventions in at-risk individuals and reduce the long-term impact of this problem on overall health and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Peru/epidemiology , Cities , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Altitude , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
8.
Prev Med ; 164: 107268, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086855

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated socioeconomic disparities in food insecurity. Non-citizens, who do not qualify for most publicly-funded food assistance programs, may be most vulnerable to food insecurity during the pandemic. However, no study has examined heterogeneity in food insecurity by immigration status and ethnicity in the context of the pandemic. We analyzed the 2020 non-restricted California Health Interview Survey to examine disparities in food insecurity by ethnicity and immigration status (i.e., US-born, naturalized, non-citizen) among Asians and Latinxs (N = 19,514) compared to US-born Whites. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed the association of immigration status and ethnicity with food insecurity. Decomposition analyses assessed the extent to which pandemic-related economic stressors, including experiencing reduced work hours or losing a job versus pre-pandemic socioeconomic position (SEP), accounted for disparities in food insecurity by ethnicity and immigration status. Regardless of immigration status, Latinxs were more likely to experience food insecurity than Whites. Based on the adjusted analyses, non-citizen, naturalized, and US-born Latinxs had a predicted probability of 12%, 11.4%, and 11.9% of experiencing food insecurity, respectively. In contrast, non-citizen Asians, but not US-born or naturalized Asians, reported greater food insecurity than Whites (12.5% vs. 8.2%). SEP accounted for 43% to 66% of the relationship between immigration status-ethnicity and food insecurity. The pandemic exacerbated economic hardship, but food insecurity was largely explained by long-standing SEP-related factors among Latinxs, regardless of immigration status, and non-citizen Asians. To address disparities in food insecurity, social assistance programs and COVID-19 economic relief should be extended to non-citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Emigration and Immigration , Risk Factors , Food Insecurity , Food Supply
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4145-4154, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079851

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the results of the research nested in the international project "Gender and COVID-19", which includes several topics related to the impact of the pandemic on the lives of women and their families, including food insecurity and hunger. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from December 2020 to November 2021 with 49 women living in two urban conglomerates, Cabana do Pai Tomás (Belo Horizonte, MG) and Sapopemba (São Paulo, SP), and two rural quilombola communities, Córrego do Rocha (Chapada do Norte, MG) and Córrego do Narciso (Araçuaí, MG). The analyses were based on the following categories: hunger-related feelings and terms; reduced food amount and quality; lack of food and nutrients; difficulties producing food, receiving emergency aid or food donations; governments evaluation and support networks. The respondents' reports show the challenges they experienced, their coping methods, and criticism of the government's lack of responses. Besides presenting a gender perspective, women, especially the leaders who worked in the construction of solidarity networks, are fundamental voices in planning actions to prevent and mitigate the impacts of emergencies in their communities.


Neste artigo apresentamos resultados de uma pesquisa que integra o projeto internacional "Gender and COVID-19", que contempla diversos temas relacionados aos impactos da pandemia na vida de mulheres e suas famílias, entre eles a insegurança alimentar e a fome. Foram feitas entrevistas semiestruturadas entre dezembro de 2020 e novembro de 2021 com 49 mulheres, moradoras de dois aglomerados urbanos, Cabana do Pai Tomás (Belo Horizonte, MG) e Sapopemba (São Paulo, SP), e de duas comunidades rurais quilombolas, Córrego do Rocha (Chapada do Norte, MG) e Córrego do Narciso (Araçuaí, MG). As análises foram baseadas nas seguintes categorias: sentimentos e termos relacionados à fome; redução na quantidade e qualidade de alimentos; ausência de alimento e nutrientes; dificuldades para produzir alimento, receber auxílio emergencial e/ou doação de alimentos; avaliação dos governos e redes de apoio. Os relatos das entrevistadas evidenciam os desafios vivenciados, suas formas de enfrentamento e críticas à falta de respostas dos governos. Além de apresentarem uma perspectiva de gênero, as mulheres, em especial as lideranças que atuaram na construção de redes de solidariedade, são vozes fundamentais no planejamento de ações de prevenção e mitigação dos impactos de situações emergenciais em suas comunidades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Food Supply , Food Insecurity
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066052

ABSTRACT

A large body of research suggests that neighborhood disparities in food access persist. Emerging evidence suggests that the global COVID-19 pandemic likely exacerbated disparities in food access. Given the potential role that alternative food networks (AFNs) and local food sources may play during times of extreme scarcity, this study examines urban agriculture (e.g., community farms and gardens) as a sustainable strategy to address food insecurity. In-depth qualitative interviews with fifteen community stakeholders revealed several major themes including food insecurity as a feature of systemic racism, food affordability and distance to food as major barriers to food security, and the role of AFNs in creating community empowerment. Our findings indicate that urban agricultural practices help build social capital, inform and educate community members about healthy eating behaviors, and facilitate the distribution of affordable food. Implications for future research and policy targeting sustainable food distribution in marginalized communities of color are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Agriculture , Baltimore , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e054137, 2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe access to food and symptoms of depression among patients with chronic diseases or their caregivers, and assess associated factors during the COVID-19 lockdown in rural Rwanda. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit 220 patients enrolled in the HIV, non-communicable diseases, mental health, paediatric development clinic and oncology programmes in three rural districts of Rwanda. OUTCOME MEASURES: Telephone-based interviews were conducted to collect data on the number of daily meals before and during the COVID-19, and depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate factors associated with households reporting a reduction in daily meals and with the survey respondent reporting symptoms of depression. RESULTS: Of the participants, 19.1% reported a reduction in daily number of meals for either adults or children in their households during lockdown and 24.6% had depression. Reporting a reduction in daily meals was associated with the district of residence and estimated household's monthly income. Self-reported depression was significantly associated with negative experiences during lockdown, including reporting feeling depressed or fear (AOR 4.82; 95% CI 2.08 to 11.21), loneliness (AOR 4.33; 95% CI 1.32 to 14.13), reduction in daily meals (AOR 4.15; 95% CI 1.56 to 11.00) and lack of access to healthcare (OR 3.29; 95% CI 1.32 to 8.23). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that significant reduction in access to food affected rural Rwandans with chronic diseases during COVID-19 lockdown, and the lockdown effect varied by household's pre-pandemic level of vulnerability to food insecurity. Reduction in household meals, as well as other self-reported effects of the lockdown, were associated with worse psychological status of survey respondents. Economic and food support should be considered by governments and non-governmental organisations to protect those most vulnerable including patients with chronic diseases against the effects of pandemics and their associated containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Rwanda/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055230

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is widespread in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic intensified the need for food assistance and created opportunities for collaboration among historically-siloed organizations. Research has demonstrated the importance of coalition building and community organizing in Policy, Systems, and Environmental (PSE) change and its potential to address equitable access to food, ultimately improving population health outcomes. In New Haven, community partners formed a coalition to address systems-level issues in the local food assistance system through the Greater New Haven Coordinated Food Assistance Network (CFAN). Organizing the development of CFAN within the framework of Collaborating for Equity and Justice (CEJ) reveals a new way of collaborating with communities for social change with an explicit focus on equity and justice. A document review exploring the initiation and growth of the network found that 165 individuals, representing 63 organizations, participated in CFAN since its inception and collaborated on 50 actions that promote food access and overall health. Eighty-one percent of these actions advanced equitable resource distribution across the food system, with forty-five percent focused on coordinating food programs to meet the needs of underserved communities. With the goal of improving access to food while addressing overall equity within the system, the authors describe CFAN as a potential community organizing model in food assistance systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Health Equity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , Social Justice , United States
13.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1370-1371, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039531
14.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 39-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039211

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a constant struggle for many communities and food needs are often amplified during times of crisis. The objective of this article is to describe the progress in our community food policy council partnership by presenting the elements of success in facilitating policy change and programs that have helped our community in rural Pennsylvania respond to a variety of challenges, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We also critically examine ongoing challenges and implications for our work. The elements that have contributed to sustaining our collective work include having a common agenda; collaboration; maintaining independent but mutually supporting member organizational goals; valuing those who are most impacted; and continuous communication. By applying these elements of partnership, the council remains focused on healthy food access, particularly during this COVID-19 crisis and ongoing food-related inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Nutrition Policy , Rural Population
15.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(4): 424-429, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035694

ABSTRACT

Food allergy is a substantial public health concern associated with risk of severe or potentially life-threatening reactions and requiring life-altering changes in dietary habits. This increasingly prevalent health concern is associated with adverse medical, nutritional, psychosocial, and economic effects on the estimated 32 million affected individuals in the United States. Management of food allergy requires life-altering dietary modifications and constant vigilance to avoid implicated allergens to minimize the risk of anaphylaxis, which can lead to considerable anxiety and reduced quality of life. Specialized diets are expensive and often difficult to access, particularly for low-income and minority individuals with food allergy. The overlap of food insecurity with diet-treated illnesses further increases the burden on patients with food allergies and their families, with overall rates of food insecurity increasing substantially during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Universal screening to identify food insecure households and connect them with appropriate resources is a critical step in addressing unmet needs at the individual and family level. At the systems level, integrated advocacy approaches addressing the complex interplay between multiple societal issues such as poverty, systemic racism, wage inequality, housing insecurity, lack of transportation, and other social determinants of health are vital to ensure access to safe, healthy, nutritionally complete options for patients with food allergies and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Hypersensitivity , Adult , Allergens , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Quality of Life , United States/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15511, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028731

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant multifaceted threat to the global community. Ethiopia, as a Sub-Saharan African country, is suffering from chronic food insecurity, and the emergence of such a pandemic will exacerbate the situation. As a result, this study investigated the spatial variation of non-resilience to food insecurity, its relationship with COVID-19, and household coping strategies to become resilient in the long run among households in the East Gojjam Zone of Northwest Ethiopia. From September 22 to December 24, 2020, an agro-ecological-based cross-sectional study of 3532 households was conducted to assess the spatial distribution and associated factors of non-resilience to household food insecurity. The enumeration areas (EAs) and households were chosen using a multistage sampling technique. Data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire and checklist using an Android device loaded with an Open Data Kit (ODK) template. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the specific factors associated with household non-resilience to food insecurity. A thematic analysis was conducted to investigate the opportunities and challenges of resilience for household food insecurity. Nearly two-thirds (62.5%) of the households were farmers, 67.9% lived in rural areas, and nearly three-quarters (73.8%) earned less than or equal to ETB 2100 per month. Males headed more than four-fifths of the households (81.7%). We found that nearly two-thirds of the households (60.02%), 95% CI 58.40, 61.64) were food insecure. After bivariate logistic regression, we found that households who were divorced (AOR = 2.54 (1.65, 3.87)), daily laborers (AOR = 2.37 (1.15, 4.87)), government employees (AOR = 2.06 (1.05, 4.05)), residents of highland and hot areas (AOR = 11.5 (5.37, 16.77)) and lowland areas (AOR = 1.35 (1.02, 3.15)) were frustrated by COVID-19 (AOR = 1.23 (1.02, 1.50)) and price inflation (1.89 (AOR = 1.42, 2.56))) were at higher odds of being non-resilient to household food insecurity at a 95% confidence level. Geospatial hot spot analysis revealed that Kurar kebele (the lowest government administrative unit) in Dejen District and Debre Markos town were the red-hotspot areas of household non-resilience to food insecurity. Less than a quarter of the households attempted to cope with food insecurity by adjusting their food consumption, while more than 60% of the households chose none of the coping strategies tested. According to the thematic analysis, the degree of poverty (lack of asset ownership), the COVID-19 pandemic, farm decreased variety, and low crop productivity were identified as challenges to coping with the hardship of resilience to food insecurity. During the COVID-19 pandemic and public emergency, the proportion of households that were unprepared for food insecurity reached its peak. It was recognized that a segment of the population with low economic capacity was more vulnerable to food insecurity and less resilient. Tough developmental gains will be undermined in this case. As a result, each responsible body and stakeholder should develop and implement solid corrective plans for the local context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Supply , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Food Insecurity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274434, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021971

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the estimated prevalence of food insecurity for Black non-Hispanic households was higher than the national average due to health disparities exacerbated by forms of racial discrimination. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Black households have experienced higher rates of food insecurity when compared to other populations in the United States. The primary objectives of this review were to identify which risk factors have been investigated for an association with food insecurity, describe how food insecurity is measured across studies that have evaluated this outcome among African Americans, and determine which dimensions of food security (food accessibility, availability, and utilization) are captured by risk factors studied by authors. Food insecurity related studies were identified through a search of Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Web of Science™ (Clarivate), on May 20, 2021. Eligible studies were primary research studies, with a concurrent comparison group, published in English between 1995 and 2021. Ninety-eight relevant studies were included for data charting with 37 unique measurement tools, 115 risk factors, and 93 possible consequences of food insecurity identified. Few studies examined factors linked to racial discrimination, behaviour, or risk factors that mapped to the food availability dimension of food security. Infrequently studied factors, such as lifetime racial discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and income insecurity need further investigation while frequently studied factors such as age, education, race/ethnicity, and gender need to be summarized using a systematic review approach so that risk factor impact can be better assessed. Risk factors linked to racial discrimination and food insecurity need to be better understood in order to minimize health disparities among African American adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1230-1244, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021451

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity and mental disorders are pressing public health issues during COVID-19. Empirical evidence on the extent to which food insecurity affects mental health outcomes of American adults as the pandemic unfolds remains limited. Longitudinal data from the Understanding Coronavirus in America survey collected biweekly between April and December 2020 were used (N=4,068). Respondents were asked about their food insecurity experiences and stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Linear mixed-effect models were estimated. Food insecurity was associated with higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms declined among food-secure U.S adults. However, mental health trajectories of respondents with various food insecurity categories remained stable or worsened over time. The mental health gap between food-secure and food-insecure groups widened over time. Food insecurity has substantial mental health implications amidst the pandemic. Screening for and addressing food insecurity may alleviate the mental health burden borne by food-insecure people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Mental Disorders , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 115, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic has been impacted by necessary public health restrictions. Tasmania, an island state south of the Australian mainland, recorded no community transmission of COVID-19 between May 2020 to November 2021 due to strong border restrictions. This study aimed to determine the changes in prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of food insecurity throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Tasmania, Australia. METHODS: In May 2020 (survey 1: during lockdown), September 2020 (survey 2: eased restrictions) and May 2021 (survey 3: 1-year post-lockdown), cross-sectional, online surveys using convenience sampling methods determined food insecurity in Tasmanian adults using the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, in addition to key sociodemographic questions. Crude and age-adjusted prevalence of food insecurity was calculated, and binary logistic regression determined at-risk groups and changes in prevalence over time. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of food insecurity was 27.9% during lockdown (n = 1168), 19.5% when restrictions had eased (n = 1097) and 22.6% 1-year post-lockdown (n = 1100). Young adults, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, individuals with disabilities, families with dependents and temporary residents were at highest risk across all time points. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of food insecurity was higher than pre-pandemic levels across all three time points. Our results indicate the potential long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security in Australia, where despite easing social distancing restrictions and a lack of COVID-19 transmission, the prevalence of food insecurity reduced, but did not recover to pre-pandemic levels 1-year following a lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , Young Adult
20.
J Healthc Qual ; 44(5): 305-312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Food insecurity has been linked to numerous chronic conditions and higher healthcare costs; however, screening for food insecurity lags behind screening for other social determinants of health, particularly in the hospital setting. Although our hospital serves a population with a high prevalence of food insecurity, no process previously existed to universally screen patients. Our multidisciplinary team developed and implemented a process to screen hospitalized adults for food insecurity and connect them with food resources, which we piloted on a 26-bed hospital medicine unit. We integrated a validated 2-item screen into the electronic health record (EHR) nursing admission workflow, and provided 2 weeks of nursing education before process implementation. Adherence to screening was monitored weekly and adjustments were made using plan-do-study-act cycles. After 28 weeks, 361/587 (61.5%; weekly average 61.1%) encounters were screened (compared with a baseline of 2.2%), with 21/361 (5.8%) identified as food insecure. The implementation of an EHR-based food insecurity screening process in the hospital setting increased screening and identification of food insecure patients. Through improved integration of screening questions into the existing nursing workflow and continued education, success was sustained despite challenges with nursing staff turnover and staff shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Supply , Adult , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers
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