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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793513

ABSTRACT

The lessening of food wastage, specifically among nations where about half of its worldwide quantity is produced, has turned to be a mammoth challenge for environmental, social and economic sustainability, and represents one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) within the Agenda 2030. The quantity of food being thrown away in spite of being in an edible condition has become alarming in middle and high income countries. The COVID-19 lockdown strategy, both at local and international levels, has expressively altered work, life and food consumption behaviors globally, directing to food wastage as a multi sectoral issue. Pakistan has no exception to such manifestations. The main objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions of rural people of Pakistan regarding food wastage during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate whether behavior about food wastage among rural households varied or not during the pandemic, a descriptive survey was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire and 963 responses were selected for further empirical investigations. The findings of the study reveal that food waste actually decreased in spite of an increased amount of purchased food during the lockdown. Our results highlight that the effect of the pandemic has led to reduction in food wastage among rural respondents, an increased consciousness for the morals of food waste, and awareness of environmental impacts of food wastage. The conclusions of this study highlight that rural consumers of Pakistan are emerging with a new level of responsiveness about food wastage with possible positive impact on the environment in terms of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and other pollutants. The study findings imply that this pandemic time provides a suitable window to raise awareness about food wastage among rural as well as urban households while contemplating effective strategies to overcome the issue of food wastage in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Consumer Behavior , Food Security , Refuse Disposal , Adult , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580546

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has negatively impacted many households' financial well-being, food security, and mental health status. This paper investigates the role financial resources play in understanding the relationship between food security and mental health among U.S. households using data from a survey in June 2020. Results show job loss and savings draw down to pay for household bills had a significant relationship with both lower food security and greater numbers of poor mental health days during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Food Security/economics , Humans , Male , Mental Health/economics , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339593

ABSTRACT

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Meals , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Academic Success , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lunch , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States/epidemiology
4.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211019854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249513

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of March 2020, leading to some form of lockdown across almost all countries of the world. The extent of the global pandemic due to COVID-19 has a significant impact on our lives that must be studied carefully to combat it. This study highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on crucial aspects of daily life globally, including; Food security, Global economy, Education, Tourism, hospitality, sports and leisure, Gender Relation, Domestic Violence/Abuse, Mental Health and Environmental air pollution through a systematic search of the literature. The COVID-19 global lockdown was initiated to stem the spread of the virus and 'flatten the curve' of the pandemic. However, the impact of the lockdown has had far-reaching effects in different strata of life, including; changes in the accessibility and structure of education delivery to students, food insecurity as a result of unavailability and fluctuation in prices, the depression of the global economy, increase in mental health challenges, wellbeing and quality of life amongst others. This review article highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown across the globe. As the global lockdown is being lifted in a phased manner in various countries of the world, it is necessary to explore its impacts to understand its consequences comprehensively. This will guide future decisions that will be made in a possible future wave of the COVID-19 pandemic or other global disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/transmission , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Education/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Masks/supply & distribution , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sports/psychology , Tourism
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217373, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171508

ABSTRACT

Importance: An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats. Objective: To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with 6 well-being dimensions in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled, repeated cross-sectional study used data from 14 187 762 households who participated in phase 1 of the population-representative US 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS). Households were invited to participate by email, text message, and/or telephone as many as 3 times. Data were collected via an online questionnaire from April 23 to July 21, 2020, and participants lived in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Exposures: Indicators of race/ethnicity, sex, and income and their intersections. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unemployment; food insufficiency; mental health problems; no medical care received for health problems; default on last month's rent or mortgage; and class cancellations with no distance learning. Race/ethnicity, sex, income, and their intersections were used to measure distributional implications across historically marginalized populations; state-specific, time-varying population mobility was used to measure lockdown intensity. Logistic regression models with pooled repeated cross-sections were used to estimate risk of dichotomous outcomes by social group, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: The 1 088 314 respondents (561 570 [51.6%; 95% CI, 51.4%-51.9%] women) were aged 18 to 88 years (mean [SD], 51.55 [15.74] years), and 826 039 (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.5%-63.1%) were non-Hispanic White individuals; 86 958 (12.5%; 95% CI, 12.4%-12.7%), African American individuals; 86 062 (15.2%; 95% CI, 15.0%-15.4%), Hispanic individuals; and 50 227 (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.5%-5.7%), Asian individuals. On average, every 10% reduction in mobility was associated with higher odds of unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), food insufficiency (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), mental health problems (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1), and class cancellations (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Across most dimensions compared with White men with high income, African American individuals with low income experienced the highest risks (eg, food insufficiency, men: OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.8-3.7; mental health problems, women: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1; medical care inaccessibility, women: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9; unemployment, men: OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.5-3.2; rent/mortgage defaults, men: OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 4.7-7.1). Other high-risk groups were Hispanic individuals (eg, unemployment, Hispanic men with low income: OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and women with low income across all races/ethnicities (eg, medical care inaccessibility, non-Hispanic White women: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, African American and Hispanic individuals, women, and households with low income had higher odds of experiencing adverse outcomes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders. Blanket public health policies ignoring existing distributions of risk to well-being may be associated with increased race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
6.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(7): 1798-1805, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceived effects of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown measures on food availability, accessibility, dietary practices and strategies used by participants to cope with these measures. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional multi-country online survey between May and July 2020. We used a study-specific questionnaire mainly based on the adaptation of questions to assess food security and coping strategies from the World Food Programme's 'Emergency Food Security Assessment' and 'The Coping Strategy Index'. SETTING: The questionnaire was hosted online using Google Forms and shared using social media platforms. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1075 adult participants from eighty-two countries completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: As a prelude to COVID-19 lockdowns, 62·7 % of the participants reported to have stockpiled food, mainly cereals (59·5 % of the respondents) and legumes (48·8 %). An increase in the prices of staples, such as cereals and legumes, was widely reported. Price increases have been identified as an obstacle to food acquisition by 32·7 % of participants. Participants reported having lesser variety (50·4 %), quality (30·2 %) and quantity (39·2 %) of foods, with disparities across regions. Vulnerable groups were reported to be facing some struggle to acquire adequate food, especially people with chronic diseases (20·2 %), the elderly (17·3 %) and children (14·5 %). To cope with the situation, participants mostly relied on less preferred foods (49 %), reduced portion sizes (30 %) and/or reduced the number of meals (25·7 %). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted food accessibility and availability, altered dietary practices and worsened the food insecurity situation, particularly in the most fragile regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(7): 1836-1840, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118770

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the change in the risk of food insecurity and maternal mental disorder (MMD) before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional survey. Between 17 July and 10 September 2020, mother-child pairs who were enrolled in a population-based survey in 2017 were re-contacted by telephone for consent and to complete a telephonic COVID-19 survey. We used the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale to assess food security and the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 to assess MMD. McNemar's test for paired data that also accounted for clustering was used. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of unemployment and receipt of government assistance with food insecurity and MMD in 2020. SETTING: Ceará, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and seventy-seven mother-child pairs completed the 2017 and 2020 surveys. At the time of the 2020 interview, the child cohort was 36-108 months of age. RESULTS: The proportion of mothers reporting food insecurity was 15·5 % higher (95 % CI 5·9, 25·1, P value < 0·001) during the pandemic in July-August 2020 as compared with November 2017, while the prevalence of MMD was 40·2 % higher during the pandemic (95 % CI 32·6, 47·8, P value < 0·001). Loss of formal employment was associated with increased risk of food insecurity, but not with the risk of MMD. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of food insecurity and MMD in Ceará increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the need for policies and interventions to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child health, nutrition and well-being in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E01, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061494

ABSTRACT

We examined levels of very low food security (VLFS) among low-income households with children in California before and shortly after the economic downturn from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Households were randomly sampled in 2018, 2019, and 2020; 11,653 mothers were administered the US Department of Agriculture 6-item Food Security Survey Module. Post-COVID-19 (April 27 to July 21, 2020, a period when stay-at-home restrictions were eased in the state), 14.0% of mothers reported VLFS versus 19.3% pre-COVID-19 (November 21, 2019, to March 14, 2020) (P = .003), 22.2% in 2019 (P < .001), and 19.0% in 2018 (P = .004). Existing systems to quickly obtain food assistance benefits in California and new federal benefits available in response to COVID-19 may have reduced VLFS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Welfare , Chronic Disease , Food Security , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Child , Child Welfare/economics , Child Welfare/ethnology , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Family Characteristics , Female , Food Security/methods , Food Security/standards , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
9.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(5): 1079-1087, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the associated factors of household food security (HFS) and household dietary diversity (HDD) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Both online survey and face-to-face interviews were employed in this cross-sectional study. The Household Food Security Scale and Household Dietary Diversity Score were used to access HFS and HDD, respectively. The HDD scores were derived from a 24-h recall of food intake from 12 groups. SETTING: Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: A total sample of 1876 households were recruited. RESULTS: The overall mean scores of HFS and HDD were 31·86 (sd 2·52) and 6·22 (sd 5·49), respectively. Being a rural resident, having no formal education, occupation of household head other than government job and low monthly income were potential determinants of lower HFS and HDD. Approximately 45 % and 61 % of Bangladeshi households did not get the same quantity and same type of food, respectively, as they got before the pandemic. Over 10 % of respondents reported that they lost their job or had to close their businesses, and income reduction was reported by over 70 % of household income earners during the COVID-19 pandemic, which in turn was negatively associated with HFS and HDD. CONCLUSION: Household socio-economic variables and COVID-19 effects on occupation and income are potential predictors of lower HFS and HDD scores. HFS and HDD deserve more attention during this pandemic particularly with reference to low-earning households and the households whose earning persons' occupation has been negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet Surveys , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(2): 295-304, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927618

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of food insecurity in the USA has increased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, past studies have not examined how the food security status of college students has been impacted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of food insecurity; determine the proportion of students experiencing a change in food security status; and identify characteristics associated with changes in food security status from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of college students. We administered a cross-sectional online survey to students from a large public university in the Southeastern USA. The 10-item U.S. Adult Food Security Module was used to assess food security status during the spring 2020 semester both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and students self-reported a variety of individual characteristics. The overall prevalence of food insecurity increased by approximately one-third during the spring 2020 semester from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. When examining the types of changes in food security status experienced by students, 12% improved, 68% stayed the same, and 20% worsened. A variety of characteristics were associated with an improvement or worsening of food security status category from before to during the pandemic. Similar to what is seen in other reports, we found that the overall proportion of college students in our sample experiencing food insecurity increased during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, some students showed improvements in food security status. Approaches for addressing food insecurity during and beyond the pandemic are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Southeastern United States , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
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