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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264355, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793517

ABSTRACT

The supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak have led to changes in food prices globally. The impact of COVID-19 on the price of essential and perishable food items in developing and emerging economies has been lacking. Using a recent phone survey by the World Bank, this study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices of the three essential food items in India. The results indicate that price of basic food items such as atta (wheat flour) and rice increased significantly during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. In contrast, during the same period, the price of onions declined significantly. The findings may suggest panic-buying, hoarding, and storability of food items. The results further reveal that remittance income and cash transfers from the government negatively affected commodity prices. Thus, this study's findings suggest that families may have shifted the demand away from essential foods during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Food/economics , Commerce/trends , Flour/economics , Food/statistics & numerical data , Food Storage/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , History, 21st Century , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Triticum
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793513

ABSTRACT

The lessening of food wastage, specifically among nations where about half of its worldwide quantity is produced, has turned to be a mammoth challenge for environmental, social and economic sustainability, and represents one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) within the Agenda 2030. The quantity of food being thrown away in spite of being in an edible condition has become alarming in middle and high income countries. The COVID-19 lockdown strategy, both at local and international levels, has expressively altered work, life and food consumption behaviors globally, directing to food wastage as a multi sectoral issue. Pakistan has no exception to such manifestations. The main objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions of rural people of Pakistan regarding food wastage during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate whether behavior about food wastage among rural households varied or not during the pandemic, a descriptive survey was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire and 963 responses were selected for further empirical investigations. The findings of the study reveal that food waste actually decreased in spite of an increased amount of purchased food during the lockdown. Our results highlight that the effect of the pandemic has led to reduction in food wastage among rural respondents, an increased consciousness for the morals of food waste, and awareness of environmental impacts of food wastage. The conclusions of this study highlight that rural consumers of Pakistan are emerging with a new level of responsiveness about food wastage with possible positive impact on the environment in terms of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and other pollutants. The study findings imply that this pandemic time provides a suitable window to raise awareness about food wastage among rural as well as urban households while contemplating effective strategies to overcome the issue of food wastage in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Consumer Behavior , Food Security , Refuse Disposal , Adult , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception/physiology , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Am J Public Health ; 112(5): 776-785, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789251

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe food insecurity in the United States in December 2020 and examine associations with underuse of medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We fielded a nationally representative Web-based survey in December 2020 (n = 8318). Multivariable logistic regression models and predicted probabilities were used to evaluate factors associated with food insecurity and compare the likelihood of delaying or forgoing medical care because of cost concerns by food security status. Results. In December 2020, 18.8% of US adults surveyed reported experiencing food insecurity. Elevated odds of food insecurity were observed among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and low-income respondents. Experiencing food insecurity was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of forgoing any type of medical care as a result of cost concerns. Conclusions. Food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected non-White and low-income individuals. Experiencing food insecurity was a significant risk factor for delaying or forgoing medical care, an association that could have cumulative short- and long-term health effects. Public Health Implications. Comprehensive policies that target the most at-risk groups are needed to address the high rates of food insecurity in the United States and mitigate its adverse health effects. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(5):776-785. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306724).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 675-684, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779823

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To identify key effects of the pandemic and its economic consequences on menstrual product insecurity with implications for public health practice and policy. Methods. Study participants (n = 1496) were a subset of individuals enrolled in a national (US) prospective cohort study. Three survey waves were included (March‒October 2020). Menstrual product insecurity outcomes were explored with bivariate associations and logistic regression models to examine the associations between outcomes and income loss. Results. Income loss was associated with most aspects of menstrual product insecurity (adjusted odds ratios from 1.34 to 3.64). The odds of not being able to afford products for those who experienced income loss was 3.64 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14, 6.19) that of those who had no income loss and 3.95 times (95% CI = 1.78, 8.79) the odds for lower-income participants compared with higher-income participants. Conclusions. Pandemic-related income loss was a strong predictor of menstrual product insecurity, particularly for populations with lower income and educational attainment. Public Health Implications. Provision of free or subsidized menstrual products is needed by vulnerable populations and those most impacted by pandemic-related income loss.(Am J Public Health. 2022;112(4):675-684. (https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306674).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Menstrual Hygiene Products , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Humans , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(4): 299-310, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of micro-pantries in addressing food insecurity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews with 20 micro-pantry users and 10 stakeholders during April and May, 2020. SETTING: Six US states. PARTICIPANTS: Users, aged ≥ 18 years, had obtained food from a micro-pantry in the past 2 weeks; stakeholders, aged ≥ 18 years, played a role in organizing micro-pantries at the community, regional, or national levels. PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: Impact of COVID-19 on food insecurity and use of micro-pantries to mitigate it; benefits of, suggested improvements to, and adoption and administration of micro-pantries. ANALYSIS: We transcribed the data verbatim and performed deductive qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Micro-pantry users had increased their use of both micro-pantries and regular food pantries during the pandemic. Micro-pantries helped stretch resources. Users appreciated the anonymity and choice; the mutual aid aspects reduced stigma. Stakeholders described micro-pantries as providing a direct way for neighbors to help neighbors during the pandemic. They described a decentralized and informal system of administration. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Findings suggest that micro-pantries provided a supplemental food source that supported the resilience of communities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Food , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 590, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We estimated socioeconomic factors associated with food insecurity during the first year of the Covid pandemic in the UK and explored potential mechanisms explaining these associations. METHODS: Data were from the April, July, and September 2020 waves of the UK Understanding Society Covid Survey. Food insecurity was measured as 'not having access to healthy and nutritious food' and 'reporting being hungry but not eating'. Logistic regression estimated the relationship between socioeconomic factors and food insecurity. A decomposition approach explored if financial vulnerability and having Covid-19 explained associations between socioeconomics factors and food insecurity. RESULTS: Single parents and young people aged 16-30 years had a higher odds of reporting both measures of food insecurity. Financial insecurity explained 5% to 25% of the likelihood of reporting being food insecure for young people and single parents depending on the food insecurity measure used. Experiencing Covid-19 symptoms explained less than 5% of the likelihood of being food insecure for single parents but approximately 30% of not having access to healthy and nutritious food for young people. CONCLUSION: Policies providing additional financial support may help to reduce the impact of Covid-19 on food insecurity in the UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1027-1037, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic initially doubled the rates of food insecurity across the USA and tripled rates among households with children. Despite the association among food insecurity, chronic disease and psychological distress, narratives depicting the experiences of already food insecure populations are notably underrepresented in the literature. The current study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on clients of a food pantry who were also enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). DESIGN: A qualitative study probing the effects of the pandemic on daily living, food needs, food buying and food insecurity. Interview transcripts were analysed using a combined deductive and inductive approach. SETTING: Interviews were conducted via telephone between May and June of 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Equal numbers of English- and Spanish-speaking clients (n 40 total). RESULTS: Three main findings emerged: (1) the pandemic increased economic distress, such as from job loss or increased utility bills due to sustained home occupancy and (2) the pandemic increased food needs, food prices and food shortages. In combination with economic stressors, this led to greater food insecurity; (3) increased economic stress and food insecurity contributed to increased psychological stress, such as from fear of infection, isolation and children being confined at home. CONCLUSIONS: Despite federal legislation and state and local programmes to alleviate food insecurity, COVID-19 exacerbated economic hardship, food insecurity and psychological distress among urban SNAP and food pantry clients. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective policies and programmes to ameliorate the short- and long-term health and economic inequities exacerbated by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1013-1026, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the dietary quality of Canadian children and adults and household food insecurity status. DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed with one 24-h recall. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately or severely food insecure based on their responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module. We applied multivariable analyses of variance to determine whether % energy from ultra-processed foods, fruit and vegetable intake, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores, macronutrient composition and micronutrient intakes per 1000 kcal differed by food insecurity status after accounting for income, education and region. Analyses were run separately for children 1-8 years and 9-18 years and men and women 19-64 years of age. SETTING: Ten provinces in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Respondents to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, aged 1-64 years, with complete food insecurity data and non-zero energy intakes, N 15 909. RESULTS: Among adults and children, % energy from ultra-processed foods was strongly related to severity of food insecurity, but no significant trend was observed for fruit and vegetable intake or HEI score. Carbohydrate, total sugar, fat and saturated fat intake/1000 kcal did not differ by food insecurity status, but there was a significant negative trend in protein/1000 kcal among older children, a positive trend in Na/1000 kcal among younger children and inverse associations between food insecurity severity and several micronutrients/1000 kcal among adults and older children. CONCLUSIONS: With more severe household food insecurity, ultra-processed food consumption was higher, and diet quality was generally lower among both adults and children.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Supply , Adolescent , Adult , Canada , Child , Female , Food Insecurity , Fruit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 930-943, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We determined the prevalence and identified predictors of food insecurity in four African countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses at study enrolment. SETTING: From January 2013 to March 2020, people living with HIV (PLWH) and without HIV were enrolled at twelve clinics in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Participants reporting not having enough food to eat over the past 12 months or receiving <3 meals/d were defined as food insecure. Robust Poisson regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95 % CI for predictors of food insecurity among all participants and separately among PLWH. RESULTS: 1694/3496 participants (48·5 %) reported food insecurity at enrolment, with no difference by HIV status. Food insecurity was more common among older participants (50+ v. 18-24 years aPR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59). Having 2-5 (aPR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·30) or >5 dependents (aPR 1·17, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·35), and residing in Kisumu West, Kenya (aPR 1·63, 95 % CI 1·42, 1·87) or Nigeria (aPR 1·20, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·41) was associated with food insecurity. Residing in Tanzania (aPR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·53, 0·80) and increasing education (secondary/above education v. none/some primary education aPR 0·73, 95 % CI 0·66, 0·81) was protective against food insecurity. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced PLWH were more likely to be food secure irrespective of viral load. CONCLUSION: Food insecurity was highly prevalent in our cohort though not significantly associated with HIV. Policies aimed at promoting education, elderly care, ART access in PLWH and financial independence could potentially improve food security in Africa.


Subject(s)
Food Supply , HIV Infections , Aged , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Uganda
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 817-818, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758083
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 522, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malawi is at the brink of experiencing food insecurity amidst the COVID-19 pandemic as the vast majority of its population lives in extreme poverty. While measures are being implemented to avert the spread of COVID-19, little is known about how COVID-19 policy measures have impacted food insecurity in urban Malawi. This study addresses this gap by exploring the implications of COVID-19 policy measures on food insecurity in low-income areas of Blantyre in Malawi. METHODS: We used Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory to explore the implications of COVID-19 policy measures on peoples' access to food. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen participants comprising of private school teachers, street vendors, sex workers, and minibus drivers. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis in which emerging patterns and themes from the transcripts were identified. RESULTS: The COVID-19 lockdown measures undermined participants' ability to maintain livelihoods. These measures have increased the vulnerability of the residents to food insecurity, forcing them to face severe challenges to accessing adequate food to support their families as a result of low incomes, job loss, and business disruptions. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the need for the Malawi government to seriously consider the provision of basic necessities such as food to the urban poor. We also suggest that the Malawi government should continue and expand the social cash transfer or relief funding packages by targeting the most vulnerable groups in the city. There is also a need for the government to engage all stakeholders and work collaboratively with people at local level in policymaking decisions in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Malawi/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Urban Population
14.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 17, 2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Australian food supply through changed consumer purchasing patterns, and potentially, household food security. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the prevalence of food insecurity and food supply issues, and perspectives of food supply stakeholders in regional Australia. METHODS: A mixed-methods consumer survey and in-depth interviews with food supply stakeholders were conducted in regional Australia, more specifically South West Western Australia between May and July 2020, immediately after the 1st wave of the pandemic. RESULTS: The prevalence of food insecurity was 21% among consumers, and significantly more prevalent for those aged less than 30 years and living with a disability. Most consumers (73%) agreed that the COVID-19 pandemic had impacted the food supply. Food insecure respondents were more likely to report that food was more expensive, resulting in changes to the types and quantities of food bought. Food supply stakeholders perceived that consumers increased their intention to buy locally grown produce. Panic buying temporarily reduced the availability of food for both food suppliers and consumers, regardless of their food security status. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided novel insights from South West Australian consumer and food supply stakeholder perceptions. Food insecure consumers provided insights about the high cost of food and the subsequent adaptation of their shopping habits, namely type and amount of food purchased. Stakeholder perceptions largely focused on supply chain issues and corroborated consumer reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Security , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742473

ABSTRACT

At present, there are large number of articles on the impact of COVID-19, but there are only a few articles on the impact of COVID-19 and international agriculture. Agriculture product is different from other industrial products. If domestic food cannot be self-sufficient, it must be resolved through imports. This will inevitably face the dilemma between the opening up agriculture and the risk of importing COVID-19. This paper pioneered the use of entropy method, TOPSIS method and grey correlation analysis to predict the correlation between agricultural opening to the outside world and the input and spread of COVID-19. We use the correlation matrix quantifying the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and agricultural openness to deduce that there is a significant positive correlation between the flow of agricultural products caused by China's agricultural opening-up and the spread of COVID-19, and use the proposed matrix to predict the spread risk of COVID-19 in China. The results of the empirical analysis can provide strong evidence for decision-makers to balance the risk of COVID-19 transmission with the opening of agricultural markets, and they can take this evidence into full consideration to formulate reasonable policies. This has great implications both for preventing the spread of COVID-19 and for agricultural opening-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Food , Food Supply , Humans
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725883

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, has imposed enormous challenges on the health system, economy, and food supply and has substantially modified people's lifestyles. This study aimed to (1) explore the dietary diversity during the lockdown time in China and (2) examine factors associated with dietary diversity including socio-economic characteristics, sources for food and food purchases, and specific dietary behaviors responding to COVID-19 and isolation. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted online in March 2020. Multi-stage sampling was used to recruit participants living in Hubei Province and other parts of China. Dietary diversity was assessed using the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) and clustering analysis was used to categorize people with different propensities of methods for purchasing or obtaining foods. Logistic regression was used to model the associations among HDDS, participants' characteristics, approaches to purchase or obtain food, and behaviors adopted to cope with COVID-19. Results: A total of 1938 participants were included in the analysis. The overall mean HDDS was 9.7 ± 2.1, and the median (25th, 75th) was 10 (8, 12). There were relatively low consumptions of fish, legumes, and miscellaneous foods (e.g., processed food like snacks and beverages). After adjusting for age, family income, and geographic regions, people living in places where laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases were above 500 (ORadjusted = 0.79, 95%CI 0.65, 0.96), or living in Hubei Province (ORadjusted = 0.60, 95%CI 0.39, 0.93) had a lower HDDS. During isolation time, the most common sources for food and food purchases were in-house storage and in person grocery shopping. More than half of the participants (55.9%) purchased food at least once via online ordering and delivery services. There was no significant difference in HDDS among people with distinct dependences on different ways to obtain or purchase food (i.e., dependence on in-person grocery shopping, dependence on both in-house storage and in-person grocery shopping, or dependence on online food purchasing). We also identified a total of 37.7% participants who consumed certain foods or nutritional supplements to cope with COVID-19, which included vitamin C, probiotics, other dietary supplements, alcohol, and vinegar. People who reported these specific dietary behaviors had a significantly higher HDDS (ORadjusted = 1.23, 95%CI 1.02, 1.45) than those who did not do so. This study revealed an overall good dietary diversity among the studied Chinese residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we observed a lower dietary diversity among people living in areas with a high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Online ordering and delivery services were popular and could serve as a feasible method to obtain and purchase food, contributing to ensure diversified diets during the time of lockdown. Certain dietary behaviors associated with COVID-19 were also identified and had significant impacts on HDDS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diet/classification , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/standards , Diet/trends , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Female , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population , Young Adult
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725881

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically increased food insecurity in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to understand the early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among low-income adults in the US as social distancing measures began to be implemented. On 19-24 March 2020 we fielded a national, web-based survey (53% response rate) among adults with <250% of the federal poverty line in the US (N = 1478). Measures included household food security status and COVID-19-related basic needs challenges. Overall, 36% of low-income adults in the US were food secure, 20% had marginal food security, and 44% were food insecure. Less than one in five (18.8%) of adults with very low food security reported being able to comply with public health recommendations to purchase two weeks of food at a time. For every basic needs challenge, food-insecure adults were significantly more likely to report facing that challenge, with a clear gradient effect based on severity of food security. The short-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are magnifying existing disparities and disproportionately affecting low-income, food-insecure households that already struggle to meet basic needs. A robust, comprehensive policy response is needed to mitigate food insecurity as the pandemic progresses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725911

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe differences in participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Children (WIC), and school meal programs by household characteristics prior to and during the pandemic, and to examine the association of program participation with food security status and food pantry use. We analyze secondary data (n = 470) from an online survey collected in July/August 2020 using weighted multiple logistic regression models. Participation in SNAP declined among households with children in the first four months of the pandemic, while participation in WIC increased slightly, and participation in school meals remained unchanged. There were significant differences in SNAP, WIC, and school meal programs use by race/ethnicity, income, and urbanicity before and during the pandemic. Food insecurity prevalence was higher among SNAP participants at both periods but the gap between participants and non-participants was smaller during the pandemic. Pantry use and food insecurity rates were consistently higher among federal nutrition assistance program participants, possibly suggesting unmet food needs. These results highlight the need for increased program benefits and improved access to food, particularly during periods of hardship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Dietary Supplements , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702775

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the types of shocks that disrupt and negatively impact urban household food security is of critical importance to develop relevant and targeted food security emergency preparedness policies and responses, a fact magnified by the current COVID-19 pandemic. This gap is addressed by the current study which draws from the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) city-wide household food insecurity survey of Nairobi city in Kenya. It uses both descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling using General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to examine the relationship between household food security and 16 different shocks experienced in the six months prior to the administration of the survey. The findings showed that only 29% of surveyed households were completely food secure. Of those experiencing some level of food insecurity, more experienced economic (55%) than sociopolitical (16%) and biophysical (10%) shocks. Economic shocks such as food price increases, loss of employment, and reduced income were all associated with increased food insecurity. Coupled with the lack of functioning social safety nets in Nairobi, households experiencing shocks and emergencies experience serious food insecurity and related health effects. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a major negative economic impact on many vulnerable urban households. As such, there is need for new policies on urban food emergencies with a clear emergency preparedness plan for responding to major economic and other shocks that target the most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Hunger , Income , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Young Adult
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