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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631074

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought profound changes to all corners of society and affected people in every aspect of their lives. This survey-based study investigated how household food related matters such as food sourcing and consumption behaviors of 2,126 Chinese consumers in different age groups changed approximately two months into the COVID-19 quarantine. A new food sourcing mechanism, community-based online group grocery-ordering (CoGGO), was widely adopted by households, particularly among the youngest group studied (18-24 years of age). The same group showed a higher confidence in the food supply system during the quarantine and a greater propensity for weight gain while staying-at-home. The more mature age group (≥35 years of age) showed heightened vigilance and awareness, with fewer grocery-shopping trips, a higher tendency for purchasing extra food, and less tendency to waste food. Survey findings of the new food-sourcing mechanism, attitudes to food, and changes in behavior among different age groups provide valuable insights to guide policies and management interventions to address matters pertaining to food supply and distribution, food access and household food security, and food waste reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625463

ABSTRACT

Undergraduates may face challenges to assure food security, related to economic and mental distress, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess food insecurity and its associated factors in undergraduates during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 to February 2021 with 4775 undergraduates from all Brazilian regions. The questionnaire contained socio-economic variables, the validated Brazilian food insecurity scale, and the ESQUADA scale to assess diet quality. The median age of the students was 22.0 years, and 48.0% reported income decreasing with the pandemic. Food insecurity was present in 38.6% of the students, 4.5% with severe food insecurity and 7.7% moderate. Logistic regressions showed students with brown and black skin color/race presented the highest OR for food insecurity; both income and weight increase or reduction during the pandemic was also associated with a higher OR for food insecurity, and better diet quality was associated with decreased OR for food insecurity. Our study showed a considerable presence of food insecurity in undergraduates. Policy for this population must be directed to the most vulnerable: those with brown and black skin color/race, who changed income during the pandemic, and those presented with difficulties maintaining weight and with poor diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
3.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463779

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption to food security in many countries, including Kenya. However, the impact of this on food provision to children at an individual level is unknown. This small study aimed to provide a qualitative snapshot of the diets of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. During completion of 24-h food recalls, with 15 families with children aged 5-8 years, caregivers were asked about changes they had made to foods given to their children due to the pandemic. Food recalls were analysed to assess nutrient intakes. Qualitative comments were thematically analysed. Most of the families reported making some changes to foods they provided to their children due to COVID-19. Reasons for these changes fell into three themes, inability to access foods (both due to formal restriction of movements and fear of leaving the house), poorer availability of foods, and financial constraints (both decreases in income and increases in food prices). The COVID-19 pandemic has affected some foods parents in rural Kenya can provide to their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Eating , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Income , Kenya , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405463

ABSTRACT

Early care and education (ECE) settings are important avenues for reaching young children and their families with food and nutrition resources, including through the U.S. federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey of ECE providers in two U.S. states in November 2020 to identify approaches used to connect families with food and nutrition resources amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of sites reporting no approaches and adjusted Poisson models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio of the mean number of approaches, comparing sites that participate in CACFP to those that did not. A total of 589 ECE sites provided responses. Of those, 43% (n = 255) participated in CACFP. CACFP participating sites were more likely to report using any approaches to connecting families to food resources and significantly more likely to report offering "grab and go" meals, providing meal delivery, distributing food boxes to families, and recommending community food resources than non-CACFP sites. This study suggests that CACFP sites may have greater capacity to connect families to food resources amid emergencies than non-CACFP participating sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Arizona , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pennsylvania , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374475

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had serious repercussions on the global economy, work force, and food systems. In Lebanon, the pandemic overlapped with an economic crisis, which threatened to exacerbate food insecurity (FI). The present study aims to evaluate the trends and projections of FI in Lebanon due to overlapping health and economic crises. Data from Gallup World Poll (GWP) 2015-2017 surveys conducted in Lebanon on nationally representative adults (n = 3000) were used to assess FI trends and explore its sociodemographic correlates. Predictive models were performed to forecast trends in FI (2018-2022), using GWP data along with income reduction scenarios to estimate the impact of the pandemic and economic crises. Pre crises, trend analyses showed that FI could reach 27% considering wave year and income. Post crises, FI was estimated to reach on average 36% to 39%, considering 50-70% income reduction scenarios among Lebanese population. FI projections are expected to be higher among females compared to males and among older adults compared to younger ones (p < 0.05). These alarming findings call for emergency food security policies and evidence-based programs to mitigate the burden of multiple crises on the FI of Lebanese households and promote resilience for future shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Economic Recession/trends , Food Insecurity/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Supply/economics , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Resilience, Psychological , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335159

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity increased substantially in the USA during the early stages of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential sociodemographic and food access-related factors that were associated with continuing or transitioning into food insecurity in a diverse population. An electronic survey was completed by 367 households living in low-income communities in Central Texas during June-July 2020. Multinomial logistic regression models were developed to examine the associations among food insecurity transitions during COVID-19 and various sociodemographic and food access-related factors, including race/ethnicity, children in the household, loss of employment/wages, language, and issues with food availability, accessibility, affordability, and stability during the pandemic. Sociodemographic and food access-related factors associated with staying or becoming newly food insecure were similar but not identical. Having children in the household, changes in employment/wages, changing shopping location due to food availability, accessibility and/or affordability issues, issues with food availability, and stability of food supply were associated with becoming newly food insecure and staying food insecure during the pandemic. Identifying as Latino and/or Black was associated with staying food insecure during COVID-19. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic did not create new food insecurity disparities. Rather, the pandemic exacerbated pre-existing disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Texas/epidemiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15450, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333986

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has become one of the greatest threats to human health, causing severe disruptions in the global supply chain, and compromising health care delivery worldwide. Although government authorities sought to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, by restricting travel and in-person activities, failure to deploy time-sensitive strategies in ramping-up of critical resource production exacerbated the outbreak. Here, we developed a mathematical model to analyze the effects of the interaction between supply chain disruption and infectious disease dynamics using coupled production and disease networks built on global data. Analysis of the supply chain model suggests that time-sensitive containment strategies could be created to balance objectives in pandemic control and economic losses, leading to a spatiotemporal separation of infection peaks that alleviates the societal impact of the disease. A lean resource allocation strategy can reduce the impact of supply chain shortages from 11.91 to 1.11% in North America. Our model highlights the importance of cross-sectoral coordination and region-wise collaboration to optimally contain a pandemic and provides a framework that could advance the containment and model-based decision making for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Food Supply/economics , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
10.
Public Health ; 195: 152-157, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The retail food industry, a major essential business, is among the very few thriving sectors during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such prosperity on the store side does not guarantee a sufficient food supply for all populations. This study aims to understand if people's risk perception and food security status shaped their food procurement behaviors during the early outbreak of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Extended from the theory of risk perception, food consumers may behave differently during a disastrous event in terms of store patronization. The study evaluates how food procurement behaviors are affected by perceived risk aversion, resource scarcity, and consumers' food security status. METHODS: The study examines how people with different food security statuses made grocery shopping decisions at the risk of epidemic exposure based on a nationwide survey of 2590 participants in the U.S. during the early break of the pandemic in April 2020. The study uses a moderated mediation analysis on in-store shopping frequency and food expenditure. RESULTS: People having a food-secure status before the pandemic spent significantly more as a result of the reduced shopping frequency (i.e., the secure-insecure subgroup ß = -0.18, P < .01; the secure-secure subgroup ß = -0.35, P < .01). The increase in food expenditure was insignificant for people who were food-insecure before the pandemic (i.e., the insecure-insecure subgroup, ß = -0.01, P > .05; the insecure-secure subgroup, ß = -0.11, P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The study reports that in general people reduced the frequency of grocery shopping trips to avoid epidemic exposure while increasing the food expenditure per trip. The increase in food expenditure was not statistically significant among the food-insecure populations likely due to their budget constraints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Commerce , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Food , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256618

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been present for many months, influencing diets such as the gluten-free diet (GFD), which implies daily challenges even in non-pandemic conditions. Persons following the GFD were invited to answer online ad hoc and validated questionnaires characterizing self-perceptions of the pandemic, current clinical condition, dietary characteristics, adherence to GFD, anxiety, and depression. Of 331 participants, 87% experienced shortage and higher cost of food and 14.8% lost their jobs. Symptoms increased in 29% and 36.6% failed to obtain medical help. Although 52.3% increased food preparation at home and purchased alternative foodstuffs, 53.8% had consumed gluten-containing foods. The Health Eating Index was intermediate/"needs improvement" (mean 65.6 ± 13.3 points); in 49.9% (perception) and 44.4% (questionnaire), adherence was "bad". Anxiety and depression scores were above the cutoff in 28% and 40.4%, respectively. Adherence and mental health were strongly related. The likelihood of poor adherence was 2.3 times higher (p < 0.004) in participants declaring that pandemic altered GFD. Those suffering depressive symptoms were 1.3 times more likely to have poor adherence (p < 0.000). Depression and faulty GFD (mandatory for treatment) appear, affecting a high proportion of participants, suggesting that support measures aimed at these aspects would help improve the health condition of people that maintain GFD. Comparisons of data currently appearing in the literature available should be cautious because not only cultural aspects but conditions and timing of data collection are most variable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Celiac Disease/psychology , Diet, Gluten-Free/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Diet, Gluten-Free/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Healthy , Female , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0251060, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206208

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in the US, many businesses were shut down temporarily. Essential businesses, most prominently grocery stores, remained open to ensure access to food and household essentials. Grocery shopping presents increased potential for COVID-19 infection because customers and store employees are in proximity to each other. This study investigated shoppers' perceptions of COVID-19 infection risks and put them in context by comparing grocery shopping to other activities outside home, and examined whether a proactive preventive action by grocery stores influence shoppers' perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Our data were obtained via an anonymous online survey distributed between April 2 and 10, 2020 to grocery shoppers in New York State (the most affected by the pandemic at the time of the study) and Washington State (the first affected by the pandemic). We found significant factors associated with high levels of risk perception on grocery shoppers. We identified some effective preventive actions that grocery stores implement to alleviate anxiety and risk perception. We found that people are generally more concerned about in-store grocery shopping relative to other out-of-home activities. Findings suggest that a strict policy requiring grocery store employees to use facemasks and gloves greatly reduced shoppers' perceived risk rating of infection of themselves by 37.5% and store employees by 51.2%. Preventive actions by customers and businesses are critical to reducing the unwitting transmission of COVID-19 as state governments prepare to reopen the economy and relax restrictions on activities outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Perception/ethics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Family Characteristics , Food , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , New York , Perception/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Washington
13.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171161

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change/economics , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Developing Countries/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy/economics , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Politics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 607, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between food insecurity and mental health outcomes among low-income Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 2714 low-income respondents nationwide from June 29, 2020 to July 21, 2020. A proportional odds logit model was employed to estimate the associations between food insecurity and anxiety and between food insecurity and depression. RESULTS: Food insecurity is associated with a 257% higher risk of anxiety and a 253% higher risk of depression. Losing a job during the pandemic is associated with a 32% increase in risk for anxiety and a 27% increase in risk for depression. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity caused by the pandemic was associated with increased risk of mental illness. The relative risk of mental illness from being food insecure is almost three-fold that of losing a job during the pandemic. Public health measures should focus on getting direct subsidies of food purchases to poor families, especially families with children. They should also reduce the stigma and shame that is associated with accepting charitable foods.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Pandemics , Unemployment/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(3): 519-530, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how food insecurity is related to emerging adults' food behaviours and experiences of neighbourhood safety and discrimination and to identify resources needed to support their health during the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: Rapid response online survey. Participants completed the six-item US Household Food Security Survey Module, a brief measure of food insufficiency, and measures of food behaviours, neighbourhood safety and discrimination. Open-ended questions were used to assess changes in eating behaviours during COVID-19 and needed resources. SETTING: C-EAT (COVID-19 Eating and Activity over Time) study invitations were sent by email and text message to a longitudinal cohort. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 218 emerging adults (mean age = 24·6 (sd 2·0) years, 70·2 % female) completed a survey in April-May 2020 during a stay-at-home order in Minnesota. RESULTS: The past year prevalence of food insecurity was 28·4 %. Among food-insecure respondents, 41·0 % reported both eating less and experiencing hunger due to lack of money in the past month. Food-insecure respondents were less likely than those who were food secure to have fruits/vegetables at home and more likely to have frequent fast-food restaurant meals, feel unsafe in their neighbourhood and experience discrimination during the stay-at-home order. Food-insecure adults reported changes including eating more food prepared at home, eating more take-out restaurant meals and purchasing more energy-dense snacks as a result of events related to COVID-19. Resources most needed to support their health included eligibility for more food assistance and relief funds. CONCLUSIONS: Food-insecure emerging adults experience many barriers to maintaining healthful eating patterns during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Food Insecurity , Residence Characteristics , Social Discrimination , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Fast Foods , Female , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Fruit , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Minnesota/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(8): e00161320, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-999872

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A pandemia por COVID-19 representa um dos maiores desafios da saúde pública deste século, causando impactos na saúde e nas condições de vida das populações em todo o mundo. Tem sido apontado pela literatura que a pandemia afeta de diversas formas o sistema alimentar hegemônico. No Brasil, a pandemia amplifica as desigualdades sociais, raciais e de gênero já existentes, comprometendo ainda mais a garantia do Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada (DHAA) e a concretização da segurança alimentar e nutricional, especialmente entre os mais vulneráveis. Nesse contexto, este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as primeiras ações, em âmbito federal, do governo brasileiro para a mitigação dos efeitos da pandemia que podem repercutir na segurança alimentar e nutricional, considerando as recentes mudanças institucionais das políticas e programas. Foi realizada uma revisão narrativa da literatura e utilizado como fontes de informação os boletins do Centro de Coordenação de Operações do Comitê de Crise para Supervisão e Monitoramento dos Impactos da COVID-19 e homepages de ministérios setoriais, de março a maio de 2020. As ações foram sistematizadas segundo as diretrizes da Política Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Foi identificada a criação de arranjos institucionais para o gerenciamento da crise. Dentre as ações propostas, destacam-se aquelas relacionadas ao acesso à renda, como o auxílio emergencial, e a alimentos, como a autorização para a distribuição de alimentos fora do ambiente escolar com os recursos federais do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. No entanto, os retrocessos e desmontes na área de segurança alimentar e nutricional podem comprometer a capacidade de resposta do Governo Federal no contexto da COVID-19.


Resumen: La pandemia por COVID-19 representa uno de los mayores desafíos de la salud pública de este siglo, causando impactos en la salud y condiciones de vida de las poblaciones en todo el mundo. Se ha señalado por parte de la literatura que la pandemia afecta de diversas formas el sistema alimentario hegemónico. En Brasil, la pandemia amplifica las desigualdades sociales, raciales y de género ya existentes, comprometiendo todavía más la garantía del Derecho Humano a la Alimentación Adecuada (DHAA) y la concretización de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, especialmente entre los más vulnerables. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar las primeras acciones, en el ámbito federal, del gobierno brasileño para la mitigación de los efectos de la pandemia que puedan repercutir en la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, considerando los recientes cambios institucionales de las políticas y programas. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura y se utilizaron como fuentes de información los boletines del Centro de Coordinación de Operaciones del Comité de Crisis para la Supervisión y Monitoreo de los Impactos de la COVID-19 y homepages de ministerios sectoriales, de marzo a mayo de 2020. Las acciones se sistematizaron según las directrices de la Política Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional. Se identificó la creación de soluciones institucionales para la gestión de la crisis. Entre las acciones propuestas, se destacan aquellas relacionadas con el acceso a la renta, como el apoyo de emergencia, y de alimentos, como la autorización para la distribución de alimentos fuera del ambiente escolar con los recursos federales del Programa Nacional de Alimentación Escolar. No obstante, los retrocesos y recortes en el área de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional pueden comprometer la capacidad de respuesta del Gobierno Federal en el contexto de la COVID-19.


Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic poses one of this century's greatest public health challenges, with impacts on the health and living conditions of populations worldwide. The literature has reported that the pandemic affects the hegemonic food system in various ways. In Brazil, the pandemic amplifies existing social, racial, and gender inequalities, further jeopardizing the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and the attainment of food and nutritional security, especially among more vulnerable groups. In this context, the article aims to analyze the first measures by the Brazilian Federal Government to mitigate the pandemic's effects and that may have repercussions on food and nutritional security, considering the recent institutional changes in policies and programs. A narrative literature review was performed, and the information sources were the bulletins of the Center for Coordination of Operations by the Crisis Committee for Supervising and Monitoring the Impacts of COVID-19 and homepages of various government ministries, from March to May 2020. The actions were systematized according to the guidelines of the National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis identified the creation of institutional crisis management arrangements. The proposed actions feature those involving access to income, emergency aid, and food, such as authorization for food distribution outside schools with federal funds from the National School Feeding Program. However, the setbacks and dismantlement in food and nutritional security may undermine the Federal Government's capacity to respond to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nutrition Policy , Resource Allocation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy , Brazil , Public Health , Nutritional Status , Federal Government , Vulnerable Populations , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(17): 3236-3240, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960256

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the relationship between both poverty and food insecurity (FI) and the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as presenting possible strategies and actions for increasing social protection in the fight against these conditions in the current epidemiological context, especially for low-income countries. This is a narrative review concerning COVID-19, poverty, and food and nutritional insecurity. The COVID-19 pandemic may increase poverty and FI levels, resulting from the absence of or weak political, economic and social interventions to maintain jobs, as well as compromised food production and distribution chains and reduced access to healthy foods in different countries around the world, especially the poorest ones, where social and economic inequality was already historically high; the pandemic heightens and uncovers the vulnerability of poor populations. Public policies focused on guaranteeing the human right to adequate food must be improved and implemented for populations in contexts of poverty with the aim of providing food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Poverty , COVID-19/economics , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income , Nutrition Policy , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 142, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946292

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause uncertainty to Uganda's food security among underprivileged households. The Corona virus Response Team inaugurated a relief food distribution campaign, ensuing from the countrywide COVID-19 lockdown to counter the rising food insecurities in many urban and rural poor households. However, the relief response campaign has received a lot of critics from both rural and urban communities who were planned as the beneficiaries. Three months into the COVID-19 pandemic the population reports; delays in the distribution, poor quality supplies, arrests and continued restrictions, slow paced distribution among household, and a negative impact on the health care system. As a learning from the current experience, we recommend; a multisectoral engagement, better planning, a decentralized food distribution, and formulation of clear food distribution guidelines to guide the future responses. Use of mobile cash transfers to reach out to the food insecure households can support local economies and lower the cost on middlemen and interrelated corruption.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Assistance , Food Supply , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Family Characteristics , Food Assistance/economics , Food Assistance/organization & administration , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations
20.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918929

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of many and may have influenced dietary habits through factors such as food security status and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to identify dietary habits and their associations with food insecurity and attitudes among adults living in the United States within three months post-mandated quarantine. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2020. Participants (n = 3133) responded to a 71-item questionnaire regarding demographics (n = 7), health information (n = 5), lifestyle habits (n = 8), dietary habits (n = 37), food attitudes (n = 8), and food security status (n = 6). Frequency counts and percentages were tabulated, and multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine associations using STATA v14 at a statistical significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that most participants indicated no change in dietary habits (43.6-87.4%), yet participants reported increased consumption of sweets (43.8%) and salty snacks (37.4%). A significant positive association for food attitude scores (1.59, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.70; p < 0.001) and food security scores (1.19, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.45; p < 0.001) on total dietary habit scores was found. Future extensive population studies are recommended to help public health authorities frame actions to alleviate the impact that mandated quarantine has on dietary habits.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
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