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1.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(5): 1683-1686, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850010

ABSTRACT

This case series explores four cases of thrombi straddling patent foramen ovale (TSFO), an exceedingly rare event. The cases are compared regarding their presentations, evaluations, and management strategies including the first documented uses of percutaneous thromboembolectomy for the removal of a TSFO.


Subject(s)
Foramen Ovale, Patent , Thrombosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Humans , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Crit Care ; 70: 154048, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804459

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine critical Covid-19-acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV), using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) coupled with bubble test (BT), in order to search a right/left shunt. METHODS: A Cross-sectional and comparative study comparing several parameters according to the presence or not of shunt. RESULTS: 75 patients were included. Twenty-three shunts (31%) were detected: patent foramen oval (PFO) type [n=11 (15%)] and trans-pulmonary transit of bubbles (TPBT) [n = 12 (16%)]. The shunt did not affect P/F ratio (P/F=77 vs 81, p=0.97), nor mortality. CONCLUSION: A right/left shunt was detected in a third of studied patients similarly between PFO and TPBT without significant impact on P/F ratio or outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Humans , Prevalence , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
3.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 35(2)2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774387

ABSTRACT

The course of COVID-19 patients may be complicated by thromboembolic events. We report on a 48-year-old female COVID-19 patient who underwent surgical removal of a large intracardiac thrombus. As per our centre protocol, critically ill COVID-19 patients are anticoagulated by the direct thrombin inhibitor Argatroban with close monitoring of anti-IIa activity. An intra-atrial thrombus formation fixed in a patent foramen ovale but also large mobile portions in both atria was diagnosed 4 days after weaning and removal of the jugular and femoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulas. The thrombus was removed surgically via median sternotomy and on cardiopulmonary bypass. The thrombus had a bizarre appearance with several finger-like appendices, and histological analysis revealed a mixed picture of acute and chronic thrombus portions. This case highlights the risk of life-threatening thrombus formation in COVID-19 patients despite therapeutic thrombin inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Heart Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Heart Atria , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745764

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Syncope, often as a consequence of impending haemodynamic collapse, is associated with increased mortality. While loss of consciousness owing to cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced left ventricular preload is a common cause of collapse with large volume PE, other syndromes can also cause neurological deficit in thromboembolic disease. Here, we describe a case of a woman in her 60s, presenting to the emergency department with features of high-risk PE. During clinical examination, the patient collapsed and became unresponsive with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 4/15 despite normal haemodynamics. Neurological signs were noted and CT revealed evidence of a large territory cerebral infarction. Further cardiovascular investigations identified a grade 4 patent foramen ovale. We describe a challenging case of established venous thromboembolism complicated by paradoxical embolism, highlighting the importance of thorough clinical examination and investigation and discuss the current evidence base of treatments.


Subject(s)
Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnostic imaging , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(4): e023757, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673583

ABSTRACT

Background Proctoring represents a cornerstone in the acquisition of state-of-the-art cardiovascular interventions. Yet, travel restrictions and containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic limited on-site proctoring for training and expert support in interventional cardiology. Methods and Results We established a teleproctoring setup for training in a novel patent foramen ovale closure device system (NobleStitch EL, HeartStitch Inc, Fountain Valley, CA) at our institution using web-based real-time bidirectional audiovisual communication. A total of 6 patients with prior paradoxical embolic stroke and a right-to-left shunt of grade 2 or 3 were treated under remote proctorship after 3 cases were performed successfully under on-site proctorship. No major device/procedure-related adverse events occurred, and none of the patients had a residual right-to-left shunt of grade 1 or higher after the procedure. Additionally, we sought to provide an overview of current evidence available for teleproctoring in interventional cardiology. Literature review was performed identifying 6 previous reports on teleproctoring for cardiovascular interventions, most of which were related to the current COVID-19 pandemic. In all reports, teleproctoring was carried out in similar settings with comparable setups; no major adverse events were reported. Conclusions Teleproctoring may represent a feasible and safe tool for location-independent and cost-effective training in a novel patent foramen ovale closure device system. Future prospective trials comparing teleproctoring with traditional on-site proctoring are warranted.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/education , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 76-84, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566496

ABSTRACT

Arterial thrombotic events in younger patients without a readily apparent etiology present significant diagnostic and management challenges. We present a structured approach to diagnosis with consideration of common causes, including atherosclerosis and embolism, as well as uncommon causes, including medications and substances, vascular and anatomic abnormalities, systemic disorders, and thrombophilias. We highlight areas of management that have evolved within the past 5 years, including the use of dual-pathway inhibition in atherosclerotic disease, antithrombotic therapy selection in embolic stroke of undetermined source and left ventricular thrombus, the role of closure of patent foramen ovale for secondary stroke prevention, and the thrombotic potential of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and vaccination. We conclude with a representative case to illustrate the application of the diagnostic framework and discuss the importance of consideration of bleeding risk and patient preference in determining the appropriate management plan.


Subject(s)
Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy , Adult , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Embolism/complications , Embolism/diagnosis , Embolism/therapy , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Humans , Secondary Prevention , Stroke/prevention & control , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(7): 1090-1092, jul. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1506252

ABSTRACT

In patients with severe COVID-19, it has been proposed as mechanism of respiratory failure, intra and extrapulmonary shunt. However, there are no reported or documented cases of this mechanism. Also, there are studies showing this mechanism is not relevant. In this report, we present the case of a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, who after two months, during his rehabilitation period, presented persistent hypoxemia with orthodeoxia. Persistent oval foramen with shunt from right to left was diagnosed. The patient underwent a percutaneous closure of the defect and at 48 hours oxygen therapy could be discontinued and the patient discharged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Dyspnea , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypoxia/etiology
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933975, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) presents with positional dyspnea and hypoxemia defined as arterial desaturation of at least 5% or a drop in PaO2 of at least 4 mmHg. Causes of POS include a variety of cardiopulmonary etiologies and has been reported in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 pneumonia. However, clinical presentation and outcomes in a patient with multiple interrelated mechanisms of shunting has not been documented. CASE REPORT An 85-year-old man hospitalized for hypertensive emergency and severe COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed with platypnea orthodeoxia on day 28 of illness. During his disease course, the patient required supplemental oxygen by high-flow nasal cannula but never required invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest imaging revealed evolving mixed consolidation and ground-glass opacities with a patchy and diffuse distribution, involving most of the left lung. Echocardiography was ordered to evaluate for intracardiac shunt, which revealed a patent foramen ovale. Closure of the patent foramen ovale was not pursued. Management included graded progression to standing and supplemental oxygen increases when upright. The patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility and his positional oxygen requirement resolved on approximately day 78. CONCLUSIONS The present case highlights the multiple interrelated mechanisms of shunting in patients with COVID-related lung disease and a patent foramen ovale. Eight prior cases of POS after COVID-19 pneumonia have been reported to date but none with a known patent foramen ovale. In patients with persistent positional oxygen requirements at follow-up, quantifying shunt fraction over time through multiple modalities can guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(12): 174, 2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptogenic stroke represents a heterogenous but clinically important collection of stroke etiologies for which our understanding continues to grow. Here, we review our current knowledge and most recent recommendations on secondary prevention for common causes of cryptogenic stroke including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, atrial cardiopathy, patent foramen ovale, and substenotic atherosclerotic disease as well as the under-recognized mechanisms of occult malignancy, heart failure, and, most recently, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: The results from recent observational studies and randomized clinical trials have provided greater insight into the causal relationship and attributable risk of these suspected etiologies and have identified potential strategies to reduce the rates of recurrence. However, further clinical trials are needed to confirm the benefits of specific stroke prevention strategies, including the patient populations most likely to benefit from anticoagulation. There is ongoing research aimed at both reducing the proportion of ischemic strokes classified as cryptogenic and resolving much of the clinical equipoise that still exists. The results of these studies have the potential to provide us with a better understanding of these occult mechanisms and allow for more targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447987

ABSTRACT

Right-to-left (RTL) interatrial shunt (IAS) may complicate select cases of COVID-19 pneumonia. We describe the use of serial imaging to monitor shunt in critically ill patients. A 52-year-old man presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. Hypoxia worsened despite maximal medical therapy and non-invasive ventilation. On day 8, saline microbubble contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with RTLIAS. Invasive ventilation was initiated the next day. The course was complicated by intermittent severe desaturation without worsening aeration or haemodynamic instability, so PFO closure was considered. However, on day 12, saline microbubble contrast-enhanced transoesophageal echocardiography excluded RTLIAS. The patient was extubated on day 27 and discharged home 12 days later. Thus, RTLIAS may be dynamic and changes can be detected and monitored by serial imaging. Bedside echocardiography with saline microbubble contrast, a simple, minimally invasive bedside test, may be useful in the management of patients with severe hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 1886-1887, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316793

ABSTRACT

An 89-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a fall, general malaise and low oxygen saturations. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and commenced on standard therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia. She improved initially but reported ongoing dyspnoea exacerbated by position. Following investigations to rule out other causes, she was given a diagnosis of platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS). She was treated with gradual verticalization therapy with supplemental oxygen and subsequently discharged to an intermediate care bed (ICB).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218216

ABSTRACT

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare entity characterised by respiratory distress and/or hypoxia developing in the sitting/upright posture, which is relieved in the supine posture. It is caused by cardiac, pulmonary and non-cardiopulmonary diseases. COVID-19 can have varying respiratory manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae-like pulmonary fibrosis. POS has been rarely reported in patients with COVID-19. Here we report a case of POS in a patient recovering from severe COVID-19 ARDS. As he was gradually mobilised after his improvement, he had worsening dyspnoea in the sitting position with significant relief on assuming a supine posture. He was diagnosed with POS after ruling out other causes of POS. He was treated with oxygen support in upright posture and chest physiotherapy was continued, to which he showed improvement. POS is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 which needs awareness as it can be diagnosed easily and can respond to continued supportive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211002274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191430

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to address several challenging questions in the management of young patients (those age 60 and under) who present with ischemic stroke. Do genetic thrombophilic states, strongly associated with venous thrombosis, independently cause arterial events in adults? Should cases of patent foramen ovale be closed with mechanical devices in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What are the optimal treatments for cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid artery dissection, and antiphospholipid syndrome and are DOACs acceptable treatment for these indications? What is the mechanism underlying large vessel stroke in patients with COVID-19? This is a narrative review. We searched PubMed and Embase and American College of physicians Journal club database for English language articles since 2000 looking mainly at randomized clinical trials, Meta analyses, Cochran reviews as well as some research articles viewed to be cutting edge regarding anticoagulation and cerebrovascular disease. Searches were done entering cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid dissection, anticoagulation therapy and stroke, antiphospholipid antibody and stroke, stroke in young adults, cryptogenic stroke and anticoagulation, patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke, COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cervical Vertebrae/blood supply , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/complications
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 889-897, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103504

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited monogenic hemoglobinopathy characterized by formation of sickle erythrocytes under conditions of deoxygenation. Sickle erythrocytes can lead to thrombus formation and vaso-occlusive episodes that may result in hemolytic anemia, pain crisis and multiple organ damage. Moreover, SCD is characterized by endothelial damage, increased inflammatory response, platelet activation and aggravation, and activation of both the intrinsic and the extrinsic coagulation pathways. Cerebrovascular events constitute an important clinical complication of SCD. Children with SCD have a 300-fold higher risk of acute stroke and by the age of 45 about 25% of patients have suffered an overt stoke. Management and prevention of stroke in patients with SCD is not well defined. Moreover, the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) increases the risk of the occurrence of an embolic cerebrovascular event. The role of PFO closure and antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy has not been well investigated. Moreover, during COVID-19 pandemic and taking into account the increased rates of thrombotic events and the difficulties in blood transfusion, management of SCD patients is even more challenging and difficult, since data are scarce regarding stroke occurrence and management in this specific population in the COVID-19 era. This review focuses on pathophysiology of stroke in patients with SCD and possible treatment strategies in the presence of PFO.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Stroke/etiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/physiopathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Humans , Primary Prevention , Prognosis , Recurrence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/prevention & control
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