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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8956, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236302

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to characterize frailty and resilience in people evaluated for Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome (PACS), in relation to quality of life (QoL) and Intrinsic Capacity (IC). This cross-sectional, observational, study included consecutive people previously hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia attending Modena (Italy) PACS Clinic from July 2020 to April 2021. Four frailty-resilience phenotypes were built: "fit/resilient", "fit/non-resilient", "frail/resilient" and "frail/non-resilient". Frailty and resilience were defined according to frailty phenotype and Connor Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC-25) respectively. Study outcomes were: QoL assessed by means of Symptoms Short form health survey (SF-36) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) and IC by means of a dedicated questionnaire. Their predictors including frailty-resilience phenotypes were explored in logistic regressions. 232 patients were evaluated, median age was 58.0 years. PACS was diagnosed in 173 (74.6%) patients. Scarce resilience was documented in 114 (49.1%) and frailty in 72 (31.0%) individuals. Predictors for SF-36 score < 61.60 were the phenotypes "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 4.69, CI 2.08-10.55), "fit/non-resilient" (OR = 2.79, CI 1.00-7.73). Predictors for EQ-5D-5L < 89.7% were the phenotypes "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 5.93, CI 2.64-13.33) and "frail/resilient" (OR = 5.66, CI 1.93-16.54). Predictors of impaired IC (below the mean score value) were "frail/non-resilient" (OR = 7.39, CI 3.20-17.07), and "fit/non-resilient" (OR = 4.34, CI 2.16-8.71) phenotypes. Resilience and frailty phenotypes may have a different impact on wellness and QoL and may be evaluated in people with PACS to identify vulnerable individuals that require suitable interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , Frail Elderly , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Geriatric Assessment
3.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(4): 457-460, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233177
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 295, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327401

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Geriatric assessment (GA) is widely used to detect vulnerability in older patients. As this process is time-consuming, prescreening tools have been developed to identify patients at risk for frailty. We aimed to assess whether the Geriatric 8 (G8) or the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG-7) shows better performance in identifying patients who are in need of full GA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of patients aged ≥ 60 years with colorectal cancer were included. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the G8 and the KG-7 using the results of GA as the reference standard. ROC(Receiver Operating Characteristic) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the G8 and the KG-7. RESULTS: One hundred four patients were enrolled. A total of 40.4% of patients were frail according to GA, and 42.3% and 50.0% of patients were frail based on the G8 and the KG-7, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the G8 were 90.5% (95% CI: 77.4-97.3%) and 90.3% (95% CI: 80.1-96.4%), respectively. For the KG-7, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% (95% CI: 68.6-93.0%) and 72.6% (95% CI: 59.8-83.1%), respectively. Compared to the KG-7, the G8 had a higher predictive accuracy (AUC: (95% CI): 0.90 (0.83-0.95) vs. 0.78 (0.69-0.85); p < 0.01). By applying the G8 and the KG-7, 60 and 52 patients would not need a GA assessment, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both the G8 and the KG-7 showed a great ability to detect frailty in older patients with colorectal cancer. In this population, compared to the KG-7, the G8 had a better performance in identifying those in need of a full Geriatric Assessment.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Frailty , Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Frailty/diagnosis , Frail Elderly , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis
10.
Age Ageing ; 51(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314942

ABSTRACT

In the past, illness and dependence were viewed as inevitable consequences of old age. Now, we understand that there is a difference between age (the passing of chronological time) and ageing (the increased risk of adverse outcomes over time). Over the last 50 years, 'frailty' research has established that ageing is heterogeneous, variable and malleable. Significant advances have been made in frailty measurement (description of clinical features and development of clinical models), mechanisms (insights into pathogenesis) and management (development of interventions to reduce and/or prevent progression). Subsequently, the concept of frailty has informed health policy and clinical practice and started to change perceptions of older age held by the general public and the health sector. Here, we overview key achievements in frailty research and clinical practice and highlight the considerable number of known unknowns that may be addressed in the future.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Aging , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/therapy , Health Policy , Humans
11.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(3): 523-538, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308984

ABSTRACT

The challenging circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic caused a regression in baseline health of disadvantaged populations, including individuals with frail syndrome, older age, disability, and racial-ethnic minority status. These patients often have more comorbidities and are associated with increased risk of poor postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, longer length of stay, nonhome discharges, poor patient satisfaction, and mortality. There is critical need to advance frailty assessments to improve preoperative health in older populations. Establishing a gold standard for measuring frailty will improve identification of vulnerable, older patients, and subsequently direct designs for population-specific, multimodal prehabilitation to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , Frail Elderly , Preoperative Exercise , Ethnicity , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Minority Groups
12.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence and co-existence of frailty and malnutrition and 2) to identify factors related to frailty (including malnutrition) according to the level of frailty. METHODS: Data collection was conducted from July 11, 2021, to January 23, 2022, in 558 older adults residing in 16 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Korea. The FRAIL-NH and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form were used to measure frailty and nutrition, respectively. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 83.68 (± 7.39) years. Among 558 participants, 37 (6.6%), 274 (49.1%), and 247 (44.3%) were robust, prefrail, and frail, respectively. At the same time, 75.8% were categorized as having malnutrition status (malnourished: 18.1%; risk of malnutrition: 57.7%), and 40.9% had co-existing malnutrition and frailty. In the multivariate analysis, malnutrition was identified as the major frailty-related factor. Compared with a normal nutritional status, the incidence of frailty in the malnutrition group was 10.35 times (95% CI: 3.78-28.36) higher than the incidence of robustness and 4.80 times (95% CI: 2.69-8.59) higher than the incidence of prefrail. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty and malnutrition, and their co-existence, among older adults residing in LTCFs was high. Malnutrition is a major factor that increases the incidence of frailty. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the nutritional status of this population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Assessment , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Frail Elderly
13.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 533-544, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278575

ABSTRACT

Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by persistent COVID-19 symptoms that last for at least 2 months. In the elderly population, apart from the typical symptoms (fatigue, cough, or dyspnea), unspecific symptoms coexist (functional deterioration, cognitive impairment, or delirium) that can mitigate the prevalence of this syndrome in this age group. Its main consequence is the functional decline, leading to sarcopenia, frailty, and disability, in addition to the nutritional and cognitive disorders. Thus, a multicomponent and individualized program (exercise, diet, cognitive stimulation) should be designed for older people with persistent COVID, where new technologies could be useful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Frail Elderly , Humans , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
14.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 55(7): 564-568, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266924

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from individual to individual. People of advanced age with comorbidities have been identified as having a higher risk for severe disease or to die from COVID-19. Frailty is an essential risk factor in this respect. Approximately one fifth of the middle European population are older than 65 years, and of these 10-15% can be categorized as frail. The pandemic brings the healthcare systems in many countries to their limits. Deciding which patients should be transferred to intensive care units (ICU) raises ethical discussions. In some countries the Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is used to support this decision. Patients over 80 years of age suffering from COVID-19 show a 3.6-fold increase in the risk of mortality compared to the group aged 18-49 years. The risk of frail (CFS scores 6-9) patients is three times higher than for robust patients (CFS scores 1-3). A CFS score cut-off ≥ 6 clearly correlates with mortality of COVID-19 patients older than 65 years. Additionally, mid-term and long-term survival is determined by the degree of frailty at the time before COVID-19 rather than by the severity of the disease. Patients over 60 years are particularly at risk to develop a rapid loss of muscle mass during moderate or severe COVID-19. Patients being treated on ICUs lose 20-30% of their thigh extensor muscle mass within 10 days. The extent of sarcopenia associated with COVID-19 is decisive in determining the course of the disease and makes individually tailored rehabilitation programs necessary. Up to 50% of hospitalized patients need further rehabilitation after discharge. Aerobic training of low intensity combined with resistance training as well as a sufficient supply of calories and proteins in the diet are essential in this respect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/epidemiology , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Frail Elderly
15.
Intern Med J ; 52(9): 1602-1608, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Code Blues allow a rapid, hospital wide response to acutely deteriorating patients. The concept of frailty is being increasingly recognised as an important element in determining outcomes of critically ill patients. We hypothesised that increasing frailty would be associated with worse outcomes following a Code Blue. AIMS: To investigate the association between increasing frailty and outcomes of Code Blues. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective design of patients admitted to Frankston Hospital in Australia between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017 who triggered a Code Blue. Frailty evaluation was made based on electronic medical records as were the details and the outcomes of the Code Blue. The primary outcome measure was a composite of hospital mortality or Cerebral Performance Categories scale ≥3. Secondary outcomes included the immediate outcome of the Code Blue and hospital mortality. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight of 911 screened patients were included in the final analysis. Seventy-three were deemed 'frail' and the remainder deemed 'fit'. Seventy-eight percent of frail patients reached the primary outcome, compared with 41% of fit patients (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated frailty to be associated with primary outcome (odds ratio = 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.44; P = 0.01). A cardiac aetiology for the Code Blue was also associated with an increased odds of primary outcome (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.51-8.05; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is independently associated with the composite outcome of hospital mortality or severe disability following a Code Blue. Frailty is an important tool in prognostication for these patients and might aid in discussions regarding treatment limitations.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Frailty , Aged , Cohort Studies , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
16.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 1(1): e11, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254107
18.
Hypertens Res ; 46(5): 1188-1194, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284200

ABSTRACT

Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to stress resulting from physiological decline associated with aging. Topics of hypertension management and its association with frailty and cognitive function, recent studies of coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) in elderly is discussed in this narrative review. While various guidelines for hypertension recommend that frailty is taken into account in treatment decisions, specific assessment tools and clinical decision criteria have not been explicitly established. Hypertension is prevalent in frail individuals, although a direct association has not been reported. Therefore, optimal blood pressure (BP) control is critical for managing cardiovascular risk reduction and preserving quality of life in frail hypertensive patients. BP typically decreases in later life or situations in which patients are dependent on nursing care. Mortality is reported to be high among frail patients with lower BP, raising questions about appropriate BP targets for frail patients. Cognitive decline is one of the domains of frailty, and is associated with a loss of autonomy, lack of self-management, and compromised quality of life. It remains to be clarified whether antihypertensive treatment is beneficial for cognitive function especially in older individuals. Increased severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection has been reported in older people. Clinical manifestations and biomarkers particular to older patients, and lifestyle changes including social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic is reported. From the knowledge from recent literatures, future perspectives for holistic approach and management of frail older people is addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Frailty/complications , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Frail Elderly , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology
19.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 27(2): 77-78, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281575
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 131: 155-161, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is a scarcity of data on the outcomes and predictors of therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in frail patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective study including consecutive COVID-19 outpatients referred by primary care physicians for mAb treatment. The outcomes evaluated were 60-day mortality, time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance, need for hospitalization, and O2 therapy. RESULTS: Among 1026 COVID-19 patients enrolled, 60.2% received casirivamab/imdevimab and 39.8% sotrivimab. Median age was 63 years, 52.4% were males and median time from positive nasopharyngeal swab to mAbs administration was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). 78.1% were vaccinated. Overall, the 60-day mortality was 2.14%. No differences in outcomes were observed between the two mAbs used. No difference was observed in mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (P = 0.925); although, lower rate of hospitalization (P <0.005), less need for O2 therapy (P <0.0001) and reduced nasopharyngeal swab negativity time (P <0.0001) were observed in vaccinated patients. Early administration of mAbs was associated with lower mortality (P <0.007), whereas corticosteroid use worsened prognosis (P <0.004). The independent predictors associated with higher mortality were older age (P <0.0001), presence of active hematologic malignancies (P <0.0001), renal failure (P <0.041), and need for O2 therapy (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: This study shows similar effectiveness among mAbs used, regardless of vaccination status and identifies patients with COVID-19 in whom mAbs have poor activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Frail Elderly , Prospective Studies , Outpatients , Risk Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral
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