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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 894-898, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324449

ABSTRACT

Nobody supposed that after one year of the pandemia, the SARS-CoV-2 Virus and its emerging mutants dominates the press, our lives and the health system as a whole. As for Geriatric Medicine, many things have also changed: The majority of COVID-19 patients are no more the (oldest) old and mortality is less observed in multimorbid persons, as most of them have been vaccinated. (Oldest) old persons are still especially vulnerable to die due to a COVD-19 infection. In longterm care, a significant higher mortality was seen in the former waves, but now, some longterm care facilities have more places that they can fill. This is a situation that many European countries would never have anticipated.Ressource allocationin stormy times is now more openly discussed, especially who should be admitted to intensive care units. This has led to more detailed and new guidelines which may help even when the pandemia is over. Here, some thoughts regarding the care of older adults in times of the pandemia are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Geriatrics , Resource Allocation/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geriatrics/trends , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications
2.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(7): 921-925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on the levels of activity among older patients with frailty or underlying diseases. A total of 175 patients (79.0±7.0 years) undergoing outpatient or home-based rehabilitation, stratified into groups, based on frailty status. The percentage of patients who went out at least once a week decreased after the outbreak from 91% to 87%, from 65% to 46%, and from 47% to 36% in the non-frail, frail, and nursing care requirement groups, respectively. The proportion of older patients participating in exercise during the outbreak was 75%, 51%, and 41% in the non-frail, frail, and nursing care requirement groups, respectively. The proportion of older patients participating in voluntary exercise after instruction was lowest in the frail group (35%). Older patients with frailty are susceptible to the negative effects of refraining from physical activity and require careful management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2419-2429, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frailty leaves older adults vulnerable to adverse health outcomes. Frailty assessment is recommended by multiple COVID-19 guidelines to inform care and resource allocation. We aimed to identify, describe, and synthesize studies reporting the association of frailty with outcomes (informed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim [health, resource use, and experience]) in individuals with COVID-19. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Studies reporting associations between frailty and outcomes in the setting of COVID-19 diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS: Following review of titles, abstracts and full text, we included 52 studies that contained 118,373 participants with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic studies tool. Our primary outcome was mortality, secondary outcomes included delirium, intensive care unit admission, need for ventilation and discharge location. Where appropriate, random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted and unadjusted effect measures by frailty instrument. RESULTS: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) was the most used frailty instrument. Mortality was reported in 37 studies. After confounder adjustment, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with mortality in COVID-19 positive patients (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.14; hazard ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.33-2.61). On an unadjusted basis, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with increased odds of delirium and reduced odds of intensive care unit admission. Results were generally consistent using other frailty instruments. Patient-reported, cost and experience outcomes were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Frailty is associated with a substantial increase in mortality risk in COVID-19 patients, even after adjustment. Delirium risk is also increased. Frailty assessment may help to guide prognosis and individualized care planning, but data relating frailty status to patient-reported outcomes are urgently needed to provide a more comprehensive overview of outcomes relevant to older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Frailty/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Odds Ratio , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis
4.
Nurse Pract ; 46(6): 37-42, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232226

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The impact of COVID-19 on older adults may not be readily apparent. Personal protective and social distancing measures can reduce activity levels, increase feelings of isolation and loss, and result in lapsed medical care. NPs must recognize detrimental impacts on overall health and wellness and assist older adults in overcoming them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , United States/epidemiology
5.
Anesthesiology ; 134(4): 577-587, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preoperative frailty is strongly associated with postoperative complications and mortality. However, the pathways between frailty, postoperative complications, and mortality are poorly described. The authors hypothesized that the occurrence of postoperative complications would mediate a substantial proportion of the total effect of frailty on mortality after elective noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Following protocol registration, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of intermediate- to high-risk elective noncardiac surgery patients (2016) using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. The authors conducted Bayesian mediation analysis of the relationship between preoperative frailty (exposure, using the Risk Analysis Index), serious complications (mediator), and 30-day mortality (outcome), comprehensively adjusting for confounders. The authors estimated the total effect of frailty on mortality (composed of the indirect effect mediated by complications and the remaining direct effect of frailty) and estimated the proportion of the frailty-mortality association mediated by complications. RESULTS: The authors identified 205,051 patients; 1,474 (0.7%) died. Complications occurred in 20,211 (9.9%). A 2 SD increase in frailty score resulted in a total association with mortality equal to an odds ratio of 3.79 (95% credible interval, 2.48 to 5.64), resulting from a direct association (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% credible interval, 1.34 to 2.30) and an indirect association mediated by complications (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% credible interval, 1.58 to 2.96). Complications mediated 57.3% (95% credible interval, 40.8 to 73.8) of the frailty-mortality association. Cardiopulmonary complications were the strongest mediators among complication subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Complications mediate more than half of the association between frailty and postoperative mortality in elective noncardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Perioperative Period/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(6): 751-756, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) and the incidence of frailty among initially non-frail older adults in Japan. DESIGN: A follow-up online survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Among the 1,600 baseline online survey participants, 388 adults were already frail, and 275 older adults did not respond to the follow-up survey. Thus, the final number of participants in this study was 937 (follow-up rate: 77.3%). METHODS: We assessed the total PA time at four time points according to the COVID-19 waves in Japan: January 2020 (before the pandemic), April 2020 (during the first wave), August 2020 (during the second wave), and January 2021 (during the third wave). We then investigated the incidence of frailty during a one-year follow-up period (during the pandemic). RESULTS: The total PA time during the first, second, and third waves of the pandemic decreased from the pre-pandemic PA time by 33.3%, 28.3%, and 40.0%, respectively. In particular, the total PA time of older adults who were living alone and socially inactive decreased significantly: 42.9% (first wave), 50.0% (second wave), and 61.9% (third wave) less than before the pandemic, respectively. Additionally, they were at a significantly higher risk of incident frailty than those who were not living alone and were socially active (adjusted odds ratio: 2.04 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.10]). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that older adults who live alone and are socially inactive are more likely to experience incident frailty/disability due to decreased PA during the pandemic. Understanding this mechanism may be crucial for maintaining the health status of older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Internet , Social Isolation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 731-738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218451

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted frail older adults, especially residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities. This has appropriately led to prioritization of frail older adults and LTC residents, and those who care for them, in the vaccination effort against COVID-19. Older adults have distinct immunological, clinical, and practical complexity, which can be understood through a lens of frailty. Even so, frailty has not been considered in studies of COVID-19 vaccines to date, leading to concerns that the vaccines have not been optimally tailored for and evaluated in this population even as vaccination programs are being implemented. This is an example of how vaccines are often not tested in Phase 1/2/3 clinical trials in the people most in need of protection. We argue that geriatricians, as frailty specialists, have much to contribute to the development, testing and implementation of COVID-19 vaccines in older adults. We discuss roles for geriatricians in ten stages of the vaccine development process, covering vaccine design, trial design, trial recruitment, establishment and interpretation of illness definitions, safety monitoring, consideration of relevant health measures such as frailty and function, analysis methods to account for frailty and differential vulnerability, contributions in regulatory and advisory roles, post-marketing surveillance, and program implementation and public health messaging. In presenting key recommendations pertinent to each stage, we hope to contribute to a dialogue on how to push the field of vaccinology to embrace the complexity of frailty. Making vaccines that can benefit frail older adults will benefit everyone in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatricians/organization & administration , Physician's Role , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 149, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions regarding treatment limitations. Our study sought to determine the interaction of frailty and age in elderly COVID-19 ICU patients. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study of COVID-19 patients ≥ 70 years admitted to intensive care in 138 ICUs from 28 countries was conducted. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Frailty was assessed using the clinical frailty scale. Additionally, comorbidities, management strategies and treatment limitations were recorded. RESULTS: The study included 1346 patients (28% female) with a median age of 75 years (IQR 72-78, range 70-96), 16.3% were older than 80 years, and 21% of the patients were frail. The overall survival at 30 days was 59% (95% CI 56-62), with 66% (63-69) in fit, 53% (47-61) in vulnerable and 41% (35-47) in frail patients (p < 0.001). In frail patients, there was no difference in 30-day survival between different age categories. Frailty was linked to an increased use of treatment limitations and less use of mechanical ventilation. In a model controlling for age, disease severity, sex, treatment limitations and comorbidities, frailty was independently associated with lower survival. CONCLUSION: Frailty provides relevant prognostic information in elderly COVID-19 patients in addition to age and comorbidities. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04321265 , registered 19 March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(5): 1116-1127, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty screening using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) has been proposed to guide resource allocation in acute care settings during the pandemic. However, the association between frailty and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prognosis remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between frailty and mortality over 6 months in middle-aged and older patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and the association between acute morbidity severity and mortality across frailty strata. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center in Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1830 patients aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19 (March-July 2020). MEASUREMENTS: We screened baseline frailty using the CFS (1-9) and classified patients as fit to managing well (1-3), vulnerable (4), mildly (5), moderately (6), or severely frail to terminally ill (7-9). We also computed a frailty index (0-1; frail >0.25), a well-known frailty measure. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between frailty and time to death within 30 days and 6 months of admission. We also examined whether frailty identified different mortality risk levels within strata of similar age and acute morbidity as measured by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS: Median age was 66 years, 58% were male, and 27% were frail to some degree. Compared with fit-to-managing-well patients, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for 30-day and 6-month mortality were, respectively, 1.4 (1.1-1.7) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) for vulnerable patients; 1.5 (1.1-1.9) and 1.5 (1.1-1.8) for mild frailty; 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 1.9 (1.5-2.4) for moderate frailty; and 2.1 (1.6-2.7) and 2.3 (1.8-2.9) for severe frailty to terminally ill. The CFS achieved outstanding accuracy to identify frailty compared with the Frailty Index (area under the curve = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93-0.95) and predicted different mortality risks within age and acute morbidity groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results encourage the use of frailty, alongside measures of acute morbidity, to guide clinicians in prognostication and resource allocation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization , Prognosis , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Time Factors
11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 282-287, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: 1. to evaluate mortality risk excess in the population residing in nursing care homes (NCHs) compared to non-NCHs before the COVID-19 outbreak; 2. to verify if the outbreak modified risk excess; 3. to estimate the COVID-19 impact; 4. to ascertain incidence-mortality relationship. DESIGN: cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: Mantua and Cremona provinces (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy) - included in ATS Val Padana - with COVID-19 incidence rate 7.5‰ and 16.9‰, respectively. Inhabitants aged >= 75 years as of 1st January 2018, 2019, and 2020 (three cohorts), stratified in NCH or not. The indicators calculated were: 1. rate ratio (RR) for NCH vs non-NCH, adjusted by gender, age, chronic diseases number, at least 1 hospitalisation, at least 1 Emergency room access in the previous year, for 2018, 2019, and 2020; 2. adjusted RR, 2019 and 2020 vs 2018, both sub-cohorts (i.e., NCH and non-NCH). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: first four-month period mortality of the considered years. RESULTS: aproximately 100,000 inhabitants by year, 7% in NCH. In the 2020 first four-month period, 4,343 deaths occurred of which 45% in NCH. RR in NCH population vs non-NCH for the year 2018 was 2.13 (95%CI 1.94-2.34); for the year 2019 was 2.70 (95%CI 2.43-3.00); for the year 2020 was 6.98 (95%CI 6,49-7,50). Adjusted RR for NCH population in 2020 vs 2018 was 2.22 (95%CI 2.05-2.42) in the whole ATS Val Padana; 1.58 (95%CI 1.40-1.77) in Mantua Province; 2.93 (2.62-3.27) in Cremona Province. Adjusted RR in non-NCH population in the year 2020 vs 2018 was 1.59 (95%CI 1.48-1.70) in the whole ATS; 1.34 (95%CI 1.23-1.46) in Mantua Province; 1.89 (95%CI 1.73-2.07) in Cremona Province. CONCLUSIONS: the NCH population experienced an excess risk mortality compared to non-NCH before the COVID-19; this excess increased during the outbreak. In 2020, in NCHs the risk was more than double compared to the 2018 risk, while in non-NCHs it rose approximately by 60%. The gap between NCHs/non-NCHs COVID-19 impact was higher in Cremona than in Mantua.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Confidence Intervals , Female , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geography, Medical , Humans , Incidence , Institutionalization/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk
12.
Front Public Health ; 8: 609695, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058476

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting the population disproportionately and is continuously widening the health gap among the population. Based on some recent studies on COVID-19 and the older population, the various cascades toward health inequity have been projected. This study highlights how the COVID-19 is met by health inequity triggers, such as global trade inequality, ageist social regulations, and the existing social inequity. While those triggers are applicable to all the populations, there seems to be specific amplifiers for health inequity among the older populations. In particular, six types of amplifiers have been identified: (1) expansion of riskscape, (2) reduction of social ties, (3) uncertainty of future, (4) losing trust in institutions, (5) coping with new knowledge, and (6) straining on public spending. While the fundamental mitigating responses to health inequity among the older population is tackling existing inequalities, this study may help to shed light on emerging vulnerabilities among the older population to alleviate far-reaching consequences of COVID-19 of the identified inequity amplifiers.


Subject(s)
Ageism/psychology , Ageism/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Age Ageing ; 50(3): 631-640, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, older patients had an increased risk of hospitalisation and death. Reports on the association of frailty with poor outcome have been conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the independent association between frailty and in-hospital mortality in older hospitalised COVID-19 patients in the Netherlands. METHODS: This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands, including all patients aged ≥70 years, who were hospitalised with clinically confirmed COVID-19 between February and May 2020. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, disease severity and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,376 patients were included (median age 78 years (interquartile range 74-84), 60% male). In total, 499 (38%) patients died during hospital admission. Parameters indicating presence of frailty (CFS 6-9) were associated with more co-morbidities, shorter symptom duration upon presentation (median 4 versus 7 days), lower oxygen demand and lower levels of C-reactive protein. In multivariable analyses, the CFS was independently associated with in-hospital mortality: compared with patients with CFS 1-3, patients with CFS 4-5 had a two times higher risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0)) and patients with CFS 6-9 had a three times higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.8-4.3)). CONCLUSIONS: The in-hospital mortality of older hospitalised COVID-19 patients in the Netherlands was 38%. Frailty was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality, even though COVID-19 patients with frailty presented earlier to the hospital with less severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e256-e262, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between diet and frailty in community-dwelling older adults during the period of restriction on outings due to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHOD: A mail survey targeting adults aged 65 years or older, including questions on sex, age, height, weight, and social participation, was conducted in May 2020. The participants' dietary variety score and frailty score were then calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 322 women aged 65 years or older and who were living in the community were recruited for the study; 253 were finally analyzed. The mean age of the 253 participants was 80.0 ± 6.4 years. The dietary variety score and frailty scores were significantly correlated in the linear regression analysis (ß: -0.224, p < .001). In the multivariate regression analysis, these factors remained significantly correlated in Model 1, which was adjusted for age (ß: -0.229, p < .001), and Model 2, which was adjusted for age, body mass index, and other confounding factors (ß: -0.208, p = .001). DISCUSSION: Diet was correlated with frailty in older adults living in the community during the period of restriction on outings due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/epidemiology , Women's Health/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Japan
15.
Prev Med ; 143: 106351, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A possible protective effect of seasonal influenza vaccination against the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic has been suggested. METHODS: We used publicly available data bases to explore the hypothesis as well as the effect of multiple social and environmental factors in the 20 Italian regions. RESULTS: Our results suggest that vaccination against seasonal influenza might beneficially impact on incidence and severity of the novel corona virus epidemic. Population density and vehicular traffic were also moderately associated with cumulative incidence of COVID-19. None of the other variables we considered showed an effect on cumulative incidence, case fatality rate or mortality from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Extending influenza vaccination coverage particularly among the elderly, vulnerable individuals with specific chronic medical conditions, health care workers, and workers in other essential services, early in the upcoming 2020 influenza season, might help reduce the health impact of a second epidemic wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geography/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(1): 39-42, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930232

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to clarify the association between frailty and changes in lifestyle and physical or psychological conditions among community-dwelling older adults affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 countermeasures in Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out between 8 May and 12 June 2020 in Japan. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed among 1353 older adults. To assess frailty, we used the frailty screening index. To assess changes in lifestyle and physical or psychological conditions, we developed the Questionnaire for Change of Life (QCL), which comprised five items related to frailty. Cronbach's α was calculated as a measure of internal consistency of QCL. We compared the score for each item in the QCL between the frailty and non-frailty groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to show the factors that affect frailty status. RESULTS: In total, 856 older adults (63.3%) were analyzed. A total of 83 participants (9.7%) had frailty, and 755 participants (90.3%) had non-frailty. Cronbach's α for QCL was 0.552. We observed a significant decrease in daily movement, leg muscle strength and meal size among older adults with frailty compared with non-frailty (P < 0.001). Subjective leg muscle strength (odds ratio 3.257, 95% confidence interval 2.236-4.746) was negatively correlated with frailty. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that each individual QCL item should be used in analyses involving the QCL. This report showed that subjective lifestyle changes affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 countermeasures were associated with frailty status. In particular, as older adults were aware of a decrease in their leg muscle strength, they were significantly more frail. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 39-42.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/epidemiology , Life Style , Quarantine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to determine whether bolus vitamin D supplementation taken either regularly over the preceding year or after the diagnosis of COVID-19 was effective in improving survival among hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients consecutively hospitalized for COVID-19 in a geriatric unit were included. Intervention groups were participants regularly supplemented with vitamin D over the preceding year (Group 1), and those supplemented with vitamin D after COVID-19 diagnosis (Group 2). The comparator group involved participants having received no vitamin D supplements (Group 3). Outcomes were 14-day mortality and highest (worst) score on the ordinal scale for clinical improvement (OSCI) measured during COVID-19 acute phase. Potential confounders were age, gender, functional abilities, undernutrition, cancer, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, glycated hemoglobin, number of acute health issues at admission, hospital use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, and pharmacological treatments of respiratory disorders. RESULTS: The three groups (n = 77; mean ± SD, 88 ± 5years; 49% women) were similar at baseline (except for woman proportion, p = 0.02), as were the treatments used for COVID-19. In Group 1 (n = 29), 93.1% of COVID-19 participants survived at day 14, compared to 81.2% survivors in Group 2 (n = 16) (p = 0.33) and 68.7% survivors in Group 3 (n = 32) (p = 0.02). While considering Group 3 as reference (hazard ratio (HR) = 1), the fully-adjusted HR for 14-day mortality was HR = 0.07 (p = 0.017) for Group 1 and HR = 0.37 (p = 0.28) for Group 2. Group 1 had longer survival time than Group 3 (log-rank p = 0.015), although there was no difference between Groups 2 and 3 (log-rank p = 0.32). Group 1, but not Group 2 (p = 0.40), was associated with lower risk of OSCI score ≥5 compared to Group 3 (odds ratio = 0.08, p= 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID-19 and better survival in frail elderly.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Frailty/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/blood , Frailty/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 532-537, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) after preventive protocol implementation. METHODS: A total of 5750 HCWs were included in the study. Those in contact with COVID-19 patients were allocated into a high-risk or a low-risk group based on contact type (PPE- or non-PPE-protected); high-risk workers underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests, while among low-risk workers, swab tests were carried out only for symptomatic workers (active surveillance). The prevalence was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: 3570 HCWs had contact with 1065 COVID-19 patients. Among them, 3494 were subjected to active surveillance (low-risk group); 2886 (82.60%) were subjected to a swab test; and 15 were positive (0.52%). Seventy-six HCWs (2.13% of exposed) were included in the high-risk group, and a swab test was mandatory for each participant. Overall, 66 (86.84% of high-risk) were negative, and 10 were positive (13.16%), resulting in a higher risk of infection than in the low-risk group [OR = 29.00; 95% CI:12.56-66.94; p < 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: To date, the SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence is 0.70% among exposed HCWs and 0.435% among all HCWs working at the examined university hospital. The correct use of PPE and the early identification of symptomatic workers are essential factors to avoiding nosocomial clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040341, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Local activities that functioned to prevent frailty in the elderly have been suspended or reduced as a countermeasure against COVID-19. As a result, frailty rates are expected to increase, and frailty is expected to worsen as a secondary problem associated with COVID-19 countermeasures. Therefore, this study aims to determine the extent of frailty in the elderly associated with lifestyle changes implemented as COVID-19 countermeasures, to ascertain actual lifestyle changes and clarify the existence of Corona-Frailty. We will also conduct Corona-Frailty screening to verify the effect of support provided as feedback to supporters of the elderly. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The survey target area is Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phase I aims to verify the short-term effects of COVID-19. A questionnaire will be distributed to 465 community-dwelling elderly people, and responses will be obtained by post. Frailty will be evaluated using the Frailty Screening Index. Respondents who are frail and have had many changes in their lifestyle will be screened as high-risk people, and feedback will be provided to local supporters. The aim of Phase II will be to verify the long-term effects of COVID-19 and the effect of screening. A similar survey will be distributed twice after the first survey, once after 6 months and again after 1 year and the frailty rate will be tested. Furthermore, out of the subjects identified with frailty in Phase I, the progress of those who were screened and those who were not screened will be compared between groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Takasaki University of Health and Welfare (approval number: 2009). The results of this study will be reported to the policymaker, presented at academic conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000040335.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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