Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 49
Filter
1.
Age Ageing ; 51(3)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769119

ABSTRACT

This commentary discusses the role and value of qualitative data when undertaking quality improvement (QI) focussing on the care of older adults. To illustrate this, we reflect on our own experiences of planning a QI project to improve the documentation of Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) scores in the emergency department (ED) during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. National clinical guidance for COVID-19 states that all adults over the age of 65 should be given a CFS at the first point of contact during hospital admission. Therefore, there is a need to improve CFS documentation, specifically in acute care settings. We describe how qualitative methods facilitated an understanding of the barriers to CFS documentation in ED. Staff see the CFS as a useful tool for inter-professional communication, though there are tensions between clinical guidance and their beliefs. Staff had moral concerns about how an ED-allocated CFS might limit available treatment options for older adults. Our findings demonstrate how qualitative methods can illuminate the important social and moral dimensions of why improvement does or does not occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Data Accuracy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Quality Improvement
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 251, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic with poorly understood long-term consequences. Determining the trajectory of recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization is critical for prioritizing care, allocating resources, facilitating prognosis, and informing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Participants age 18 years or older who were hospitalized for ≥24 h due to COVID-19 completed phone/video call virtual assessments (including the 10-time chair rise test) and survey forms at three time points (2-6, 12, and 18 weeks) after hospital discharge. Univariate logistic and linear regression models assessed the associations of the outcomes with primary predictors (categorical age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and categorical pre-hospitalization frailty) at baseline; the same were used to assess differences in change from week 2-6 (continuous outcomes) or outcome persistence/worsening (categorical) at last contact. RESULTS: One hundred nine adults (age 53.0 [standard deviation 13.1]; 53% female) participated including 43 (39%) age 60 or greater; 59% identified as an ethnic and/or racial minority. Over 18 weeks, the mean time to complete the 10-time chair rise test decreased (i.e., improved) by 6.0 s (95% CI: 4.1, 7.9 s; p < 0.001); this change did not differ by pre-hospital frailty, race/ethnicity group, or sex, but those age ≥ 60 had greater improvement. At weeks 2-6, 67% of participants reported a worse Clinical Frailty Scale category compared to their pre-hospitalization level, whereas 42% reported a worse frailty score at 18 weeks. Participants who did not return to pre-hospitalization levels were more likely to be female, younger, and report a pre-hospitalization category of 'very fit' or 'well'. CONCLUSIONS: We found that functional performance improved from weeks 2-6 to 18 weeks of follow-up; that incident clinical frailty developed in some individuals following COVID-19; and that age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pre-hospitalization frailty status may impact recovery from COVID-19. Notably, individuals age 60 and older were more likely than those under age 45 years to return to their pre-hospitalization status and to make greater improvements in functional performance. The results of the present study provide insight into the trajectory of recovery among a representative cohort of individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Telemedicine , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
3.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(12): 1147-1153, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The demographic characteristics, performance status, frequency of comorbidities and survival rate of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show variability geographically and different risk scoring systems have been used to assess this population. Here, we present data from a Turkish cohort, focusing on identifying similarities and differences, relative to other reports in the literature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 310 patients diagnosed with MM were enrolled. Their demographic characteristics were investigated retrospectively. For performance assessment; the ECOG-IMWG Myeloma Frailty Score, R-MCI and HCT-SCI scoring indexes were used. PFS and OS periods, as well as the causes of deaths, were determined. RESULTS: The mean age of all study participants was 65 ± 10 years. The mean PFS and OS periods were 24.14± 26.11 and 65.3 ± 4.4 months, respectively. The median R-MCI, CCI and HCT-CI scores were five, four and three points, respectively. Myeloma-related complications were the leading cause of death, with a frequency of 51%. CONCLUSION: Among the scoring systems utilised, R-MCI was more convenient to apply due to its ease of use and practicality. Our study supports the heterogeneous course of myeloma and highlights geographic differences including comorbidities, causes of death and overall survival.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Multiple Myeloma , Aged , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
4.
Age Ageing ; 51(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722192

ABSTRACT

Populations in Asian developed economies are rapidly ageing, such that, currently, Hong Kong and Japan have the longest life expectancy at birth for both men and women. However, extended lifespan is not necessarily accompanied by prolongation of health span, such that there is increasing prevalence of frailty and dependency, which translates into increase in complex health and social needs as well as increase in absolute numbers of older adults that require such needs. Consideration of social determinants of healthy ageing would be important in the design of equitable health and social care systems. There is a trend towards development of integrated medical social care in the community in Asian countries. Long-term care insurance and also philanthropic support play a role in the financing of such care models.


Subject(s)
Aging , Frailty , Aged , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/therapy , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Life Expectancy , Male
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prompt and efficient identification and stratification of patients who are frail is important, as this cohort are at high risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. Numerous frailty screening tools have been developed to support their identification across different settings, yet relatively few have emerged for use in emergency departments (EDs). This protocol provides details for a systematic review aiming to synthesize the accumulated evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy and clinimetric properties of frailty screening instruments to identify frail older adults in EDs. METHODS: Six electronic databases will be searched from January 2000 to March 2021. Eligible studies will include adults aged ≥60 years screened in EDs with any available screening instrument to identify frailty (even if not originally designed for this purpose). Studies, including case-control, longitudinal, and cohort studies, will be included, where instruments are compared to a reference standard to explore diagnostic accuracy. Predictive accuracy for a selection of outcomes, including mortality, institutionalization, and readmission, will be assessed. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity will be examined, and a random effects meta-analysis performed if appropriate. CONCLUSION: Understanding whether frailty screening on presentation to EDs is accurate in identifying frailty, and predicting these outcomes is important for decision-making and targeting appropriate management.


Subject(s)
Frail Elderly , Frailty , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frailty/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Mass Screening , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Middle Aged , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 58, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has reminded how older adults with frailty are particularly exposed to adverse outcomes. In the acute care setting, consideration of evidence-based practice related to frailty screening and management is needed to improve the care provided to aging populations. It is important to assess for frailty in acute care so as to establish treatment priorities and goals for the individual. Our study explored understanding on frailty and practice of frailty screening among different acute care professionals in Singapore, and identify barriers and facilitators concerning frailty screening and its implementation. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussion among nurses and individual interviews among physicians from four departments (Accident & Emergency, Anesthesia, General Surgery, Orthopedics) in three acute hospitals from the three public health clusters in Singapore. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling of specific clinicians seeing a high proportion of older patients at the hospitals. Thematic analysis of the data was performed using NVIVO 12.0. RESULTS: Frailty was mainly but inadequately understood as a physical and age-related concept. Screening for frailty in acute care was considered important to identify high risk patients, to implement targeted treatment and care, and to support decision making and prognosis estimation. Specific issues related to screening, management and implementation were identified: cooperation from patient/caregivers, acceptance from healthcare workers/hospital managers, need for dedicated resources, guidelines for follow-up management and consensus on the scope of measurement for different specialties. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated the need for 1) frailty-related education program for patients/care givers and stakeholders 2) inter-professional collaboration to develop integrated approach for screening and management of hospital patients with frailty and 3) hospital-wide consensus to adopt a common frailty screening tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
8.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(11): 1111-1114, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534958

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns and social distancing have been important and successful strategies to limit the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus. However, excess deaths related to non-COVID-19 causes have been reported, suggesting issues around availability and use of health services, particularly for people with conditions needing ongoing medical support. In addition, evidence indicates that a range of age-related diseases and frailty are impacted by physical activity and social engagement, both limited in lockdown situations. It is therefore important to learn from the effects of lockdowns in order to limit any impacts, while still protecting people from the infection. This editorial summarizes two research themes at the Centre for Ageing Research at Lancaster University in the UK, one assessing impacts of lockdown for people living with a long-term neurodegenerative condition, Parkinson's disease, and one assessing longitudinal impacts on frailty and wellbeing, with older adults aged over 70, including those living with at least one long-term condition. Uncertainty related to Parkinson's disease and to COVID-19 amplified each other, and cancelled clinical appointments and limitations on physical activity had very significant impacts on wellbeing for this group. In the longitudinal study, frailty was more severe during lockdown periods. While lockdowns reduce spread of the virus, becoming frailer could make older adults more vulnerable to the effects of the virus during these periods. Regular exercise during lockdown had beneficial effects aiding recovery once restrictions relaxed. These studies suggest factors that could lessen negative impacts of future lockdowns. Maintaining physical activity and providing access to health services during periods of lockdown are suggested as priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 73: 101513, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530617

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the culprit of an ongoing pandemic responsible for the loss of over 3 million lives worldwide within a year and a half. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected people develop no or mild symptoms, some become severely ill and may die from COVID-19-related complications. In this review, we compile and comment on a number of biomarkers that have been identified and are expected to enhance the detection, protection and treatment of individuals at high risk of developing severe illnesses, as well as enable the monitoring of COVID-19 prognosis and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Consistent with the emerging notion that the majority of COVID-19 deaths occur in older and frail individuals, we researched the scientific literature and report the identification of a subset of COVID-19 biomarkers indicative of increased vulnerability to developing severe COVID-19 in older and frail patients. Mechanistically, increased frailty results from reduced disease tolerance, a phenomenon aggravated by ageing and comorbidities. While biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity, biomarkers of disease tolerance may predict resistance to COVID-19 with socio-economic factors such as access to adequate health care remaining as major non-biomolecular influencers of COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Aging , Biomarkers , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pract Neurol ; 21(6): 464-465, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526524
11.
Panminerva Med ; 64(1): 24-30, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older people hospitalized for COVID-19 are at highest risk of death. Frailty Assessment can detect heterogeneity in risk among people of the same chronological age. We investigated the association between frailty and in-hospital and medium-term mortality in middle-aged and older adults with COVID-19 during the first two pandemic waves. METHODS: This study is an observational multicenter study. We recorded sociodemographic factors (age, sex), smoking status, date of symptom onset, biological data, need for supplemental oxygen, comorbidities, cognitive and functional status, in-hospital mortality. We calculated a Frailty Index (FI) as the ratio between deficits presented and total deficits considered for each patient (theoretical range 0-1). We also assessed the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Mortality at follow-up was ascertained from a regional registry. RESULTS: In total, 1344 patients were included; median age 68 years (Q1-Q3, 56-79); 857 (64%) were men. Median CFS score was 3 (Q1-Q3 2-5) and was lower in younger vs. older patients. Median FI was 0.06 (Q1-Q3 0.03-0.09) and increased with increasing age. Overall, 244 (18%) patients died in-hospital and 288 (22%) over a median follow-up of 253 days. FI and CFS were significantly associated with risk of death. In two different models using the same covariates, each increment of 0.1 in FI increased the overall hazard of death by 35% (HR=1.35, 95%CI 1.23-1.48), similar to the hazard for each increment of CFS (HR=1.37, 95%CI 1.25-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, assessed with the FI or CFS, predicts in-hospital and medium-term mortality and may help estimate vulnerability in middle-aged and older COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Frail Elderly , Frailty/complications , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(6): 892-901, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to identify depressed mood and frailty and its related factors in older people during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. METHODS: Since 2010, we have conducted questionnaire surveys on all older residents, who are not certified in the long-term care insurance, living in one district of Tokyo municipality. These residents are divided into two groups by birth month, that is those born between April and September and those born between October and March, and each group completes the survey every 2 years (in April and May). Study participants were older residents who were born between April and September and who completed the survey in spring 2018 and in spring 2020, the pandemic period. Depressed mood and frailty were assessed using the Kihon Checklist, which is widely used by local governments in Japan. We had no control group in this study. RESULTS: A total of 1736 residents responded to both surveys. From 2018 to 2020, the depressed mood rate increased from 29% to 38%, and frailty increased from 10% to 16%. The incidence of depressed mood and frailty was 25% and 11%, respectively. Incidence of depressed mood was related to subjective memory impairment and difficulty in device usage, and incidence of frailty was related to being older, subjective memory impairment, lack of emotional social support, poor subjective health, and social participation difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with subjective memory impairment may be a high-risk group during the coronavirus pandemic. Telephone outreach for frail older people could be an effective solution. We recommend extending the scope of the 'reasonable accommodation' concept beyond disability and including older people to build an age-friendly and crisis-resistant community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101493, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491714

ABSTRACT

Research on frailty has expanded in the last decade, but direct evidence supporting its implementation in clinical practice may be limited. This mapping review synthesizes the contexts-of-use and overall clinical applicability of recent pre-COVID frailty research. We sampled 476 articles from articles published on frailty in PubMed and EMBASE in 2017-2018, of which 150 articles were fully appraised for the contexts-of-use, definitions, and interventions. A clinical applicability framework was used to classify articles as practice-changing, practice-informing, or not practice-informing. Of the 476 sampled articles, 31% (n = 150) used frailty in functions that could inform a clinical indication: predictor or mediator (26%, n = 125), selection criterion (3%, n = 15), and effect modifier (2%, n = 10). Articles spanned all health disciplines, and cohort studies comprised 91% (n = 137) of studies and trials 9% (n = 13). Thirty-eight frailty definitions using varied cut-offs and a wide range of interventions were identified. Among all articles, 13% (n = 63) of articles were practice-informing, 2% (n = 11) potentially practice-changing, and 0.2% (n = 1) clearly practice-changing. Lack of well-defined intervention and identifiable effect (96%) or originality (83%) were predominant reasons reducing applicability. Only a minority of recent frailty research provides direct evidence of applicability to practice. Future research on frailty should focus on translating frailty, as a risk factor, into a clinical indication and address definition ambiguity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(3): 535-543, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcopenia is a newly described, aging-associated condition. Social frailty is an important condition whose prevalence may have risen by physical distancing during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, the relationship between these two remains unclear. AIMS: To examine the association between osteosarcopenia and social frailty. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from outpatients visiting general geriatric hospital frailty clinics. Bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD of < 70% of the young adult mean, according to the Japan Osteoporosis Society. Sarcopenia was diagnosed as per the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 recommendation. Osteosarcopenia was defined as the co-existence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. We defined social frailty using a questionnaire comprising four items: general resources, social resources, social behavior, and basic social needs. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed with social frailty status and osteosarcopenia as the dependent and independent variables, respectively. RESULTS: We included 495 patients (mean age = 76.5 ± 7.2 years) in the analysis; of these, 58.2% were robust and 17.2%, 13.5%, and 11.1% had osteoporosis alone, sarcopenia alone, and osteosarcopenia, respectively. Social frailty prevalence increased stepwise from 8.0% in robust patients to 11.8%, 17.9%, and 29.1% among those with osteoporosis alone, sarcopenia alone, and osteosarcopenia, respectively (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only osteosarcopenia was significantly associated with social frailty (pooled odds ratio: 2.117; 95% confidence interval: 1.104-4.213). DISCUSSION: Comprehensive assessment of osteosarcopenia and social frailty is needed for disability prevention in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Osteoporosis/complications , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
15.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(9): 1845-1852.e1, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a cohort of adults aged ≥80 years, the overlapping effect of clinical severity, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and frailty, for the in-hospital death risk stratification of COVID-19 older patients since emergency department (ED) admission. DESIGN: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted in the ED of a teaching hospital that is a referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We enrolled all patients with aged ≥80 years old consecutively admitted to the ED between April 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: Clinical variables assessed in the ED were evaluated for the association with all-cause in-hospital death. Evaluated parameters were severity of disease, frailty, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, delirium, and dependency in daily life activities. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for poor outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients aged ≥80 years were enrolled [median age 85 years (interquartile range 82-89); 346 were males (47.3%)]. According to the Clinical Frailty Scale, 61 (8.4%) were classified as fit, 417 (57.2%) as vulnerable, and 251 (34.4%) as frail. Severe disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.59], ≥3 comorbidities (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.13), male sex (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.87), and frailty (HR 6.93, 95% CI 1.69-28.27) for vulnerable and an overall HR of 12.55 (95% CI 2.96-53.21) for frail were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The ED approach to older patients with COVID-19 should take into account the functional and clinical characteristics of patients being admitted. A sole evaluation based on the clinical severity and the presence of comorbidities does not reflect the complexity of this population. A comprehensive evaluation based on clinical severity, multimorbidity, and frailty could effectively predict the clinical risk of in-hospital death for patients with COVID-19 aged ≥80 years at the time of ED presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(8): 755-756, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343864
17.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 18(5): 247-253, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has put a strain on health systems. Predictors of adverse outcomes need to be investigated to properly manage COVID-19 patients. The Braden Scale (BS), commonly used for the assessment of pressure ulcer risk, has recently been proposed to identify frailty. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive utility of the BS for prediction of in-hospital mortality in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to non-ICU wards. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center cohort study evaluating all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted over a 2-month period (from March 6 to May 7, 2020) to the COVID-19 general wards of our institution. Demographic, clinical, and nursing assessment data, including admission BS, were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the BS score and in-hospital death. RESULTS: Braden Scale was assessed in 146 patients (mean age 74.7 years; 52% males). On admission, 46 had a BS ≤ 15, and 100 patients had a BS > 15. Mortality among patients with BS ≤ 15 was significantly higher than in patients with BS > 15 (45.7% vs. 16%; p < .001). On multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for potentials confounders (age, Barthel scale, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension), the admission BS remained inversely associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.60, 0.96]; p = .020). LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Admission BS could be used as a simple bedside predictive tool able to early identify non-ICU COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis who might benefit from specific and timely interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 389, 2021 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults at a higher risk of adverse outcomes and mortality if they get infected with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). These undesired outcomes are because ageing is associated with other conditions like multimorbidity, frailty and disability. This paper describes the impact of frailty on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) management and outcomes. We also try to point out the role of inflamm-ageing, immunosenescence and reduced microbiota diversity in developing a severe form of COVID-19 and a different response to COVID-19 vaccination among older frail adults. Additionally, we attempt to highlight the impact of frailty on intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, and hence, the rationale behind using frailty as an exclusion criterion for critical care admission. Similarly, the importance of using a time-saving, validated, sensitive, and user-friendly tool for frailty screening in an acute setting as COVID-19 triage. We performed a narrative review. Publications from 1990 to March 2021 were identified by searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS. Based on this search, we have found that in older frail adults, many mechanisms contribute to the severity of COVID-19, particularly cytokine storm; those mechanisms include lower immunological capacity and status of ongoing chronic inflammation and reduced gut microbiota diversity. Higher degrees of frailty were associated with poor outcomes and higher mortality rates during and after ICU admission. Also, the response to COVID-19 vaccination among frail older adults might differ from the general population regarding effectiveness and side effects. Researches also had shown that there are many tools for identifying frailty in an acute setting that could be used in COVID-19 triage, and before ICU admission, the clinical frailty scale (CFS) was the most recommended tool. CONCLUSION: Older frail adults have a pre-existing immunopathological base that puts them at a higher risk of undesired outcomes and mortality due to COVID-19 and poor response to COVID-19 vaccination. Also, their admission in ICU should depend on their degree of frailty rather than their chronological age, which is better to be screened using the CFS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1065-1073, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We explored potential predictive variables associated with outcomes using baseline clinical parameters of 500 hospitalised patients with COVID -19 in a single centre, UK. METHODS: Retrospective study collecting demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted at Southend University Hospital from 20th February to 7th May 2020. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort admitted to hospital with Covid-19 was 69.4 and 58% were over 70. Comorbidities were more frequently observed in non-survivors, whose mean Clinical Frailty Scale was significantly higher (5 vs 3) than survivors, p < 0.001. In addition, mean C-reactive protein was significantly higher. CONCLUSION: Older and frailer patients with high inflammatory markers were at risk of poor outcomes. Integrated frailty and age-based risk stratification is essential, in addition to monitoring saturation /FiO2 ratio (SFR) and inflammatory markers throughout the disease course to allow for early intervention to improve patient outcomes. A frailty-based risk-stratification approach, rather than age may prove more valuable when considering interventions in patients with multiple comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1085-1089, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252326

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To clarify the actual frail status over 6 months with the COVID-19 countermeasures. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted between the baseline assessment from May 11 to July 10 in 2020, and the follow-up assessment from November 11, 2020, to January 10, 2021, in Japan. The survey forms were distributed among 1953 community-dwelling older adults. Frailty status was assessed using the Frailty Screening Index. RESULTS: In total, 702 older adults (35.2%) returned the survey forms, and 593 (mean age = 78.8 years, and 77.4% females) older adults without missing values for the survey forms were analyzed. Pre-frail and frail prevalence were 55.0 and 7.9% at the baseline, and 57.3 and 11.8% at the follow-up, respectively. Frailty transition that indicated transition from robust or pre-frail at the baseline to frail at the follow-up was 9.9%. CONCLUSION: Increase in frailty might indicate frailty related to implementation of COVID-19 countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL