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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 295, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327401

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Geriatric assessment (GA) is widely used to detect vulnerability in older patients. As this process is time-consuming, prescreening tools have been developed to identify patients at risk for frailty. We aimed to assess whether the Geriatric 8 (G8) or the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG-7) shows better performance in identifying patients who are in need of full GA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of patients aged ≥ 60 years with colorectal cancer were included. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the G8 and the KG-7 using the results of GA as the reference standard. ROC(Receiver Operating Characteristic) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the G8 and the KG-7. RESULTS: One hundred four patients were enrolled. A total of 40.4% of patients were frail according to GA, and 42.3% and 50.0% of patients were frail based on the G8 and the KG-7, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the G8 were 90.5% (95% CI: 77.4-97.3%) and 90.3% (95% CI: 80.1-96.4%), respectively. For the KG-7, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% (95% CI: 68.6-93.0%) and 72.6% (95% CI: 59.8-83.1%), respectively. Compared to the KG-7, the G8 had a higher predictive accuracy (AUC: (95% CI): 0.90 (0.83-0.95) vs. 0.78 (0.69-0.85); p < 0.01). By applying the G8 and the KG-7, 60 and 52 patients would not need a GA assessment, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both the G8 and the KG-7 showed a great ability to detect frailty in older patients with colorectal cancer. In this population, compared to the KG-7, the G8 had a better performance in identifying those in need of a full Geriatric Assessment.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Frailty , Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Frailty/diagnosis , Frail Elderly , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis
3.
Age Ageing ; 51(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314942

ABSTRACT

In the past, illness and dependence were viewed as inevitable consequences of old age. Now, we understand that there is a difference between age (the passing of chronological time) and ageing (the increased risk of adverse outcomes over time). Over the last 50 years, 'frailty' research has established that ageing is heterogeneous, variable and malleable. Significant advances have been made in frailty measurement (description of clinical features and development of clinical models), mechanisms (insights into pathogenesis) and management (development of interventions to reduce and/or prevent progression). Subsequently, the concept of frailty has informed health policy and clinical practice and started to change perceptions of older age held by the general public and the health sector. Here, we overview key achievements in frailty research and clinical practice and highlight the considerable number of known unknowns that may be addressed in the future.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Aging , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/therapy , Health Policy , Humans
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 134, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) is a scoring tool predictive of poor outcome in hospitalised patients. Older patients with COVID-19 have increased risk of poor outcome, but it is not known if frailty may impact the predictive performance of NEWS2. We aimed to investigate the impact of frailty on the performance of NEWS2 to predict in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised due to COVID-19. METHODS: We included all patients admitted to a non-university Norwegian hospital due to COVID-19 from 9 March 2020 until 31 December 2021. NEWS2 was scored based on the first vital signs recorded upon hospital admission. Frailty was defined as a Clinical Frailty Scale score ≥ 4. The performance of a NEWS2 score ≥ 5 to predict in-hospital mortality was assessed with sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) according to frailty status. RESULTS: Out of 412 patients, 70 were aged ≥ 65 years and with frailty. They presented less frequently with respiratory symptoms, and more often with acute functional decline or new-onset confusion. In-hospital mortality was 6% in patients without frailty, and 26% in patients with frailty. NEWS2 predicted in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 86%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64%-97% and AUROC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65-0.81 in patients without frailty. In older patients with frailty, sensitivity was 61%, 95% CI 36%-83% and AUROC 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.75. CONCLUSION: A single NEWS2 score at hospital admission performed poorly to predict in-hospital mortality in patients with frailty and COVID-19 and should be used with caution in this patient group. Graphical abstract summing up study design, results and conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Warning Score , Frailty , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospitalization , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 35(5): 1139-1143, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only limited studies analyzed a possible relationship between frailty and infections. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between higher multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) values, a tool for evaluating multidimensional frailty, and the prevalence of infectious diseases, including antibiotics' cost and the prevalence of MDR (multidrug resistance) pathogens. METHODS: Older patients, affected by COVID-19, were enrolled in the hospital of Palermo over four months. RESULTS: 112 participants (mean age 77.6, 55.4% males) were included. After adjusting for potential confounders, frailer participants had a higher odds of any positivity to pathogens (prevalence: 61.5%, odds ratio = 15.56, p < 0.0001) compared to a prevalence of 8.6% in more robust, including MDR, and a higher costs in antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MPI values, indicating frailer subjects, were associated with a higher prevalence of infections, particularly of MDR pathogens, and a consequent increase in antibiotics' cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Prognosis , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Geriatric Assessment/methods
6.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 483-500, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278107

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 clinical presentation is extremely heterogenous, especially in older patients due to the possible presence of atypical symptoms, such as delirium, hyporexia and falls. The clinical characteristics at onset are influenced by the presence of common health-related conditions in older people, such as comorbidity, disability and frailty, and not simply by chronological age. Few studies investigated the tendency of Covid-19 symptoms to aggregate in cluster and the use of cluster approach might better describe the clinical complexity of the acute disease. Concerning the prognostic significance of Covid-19 clinical presentation in older people, the available literature still provides discordant results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 55(7): 564-568, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266924

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from individual to individual. People of advanced age with comorbidities have been identified as having a higher risk for severe disease or to die from COVID-19. Frailty is an essential risk factor in this respect. Approximately one fifth of the middle European population are older than 65 years, and of these 10-15% can be categorized as frail. The pandemic brings the healthcare systems in many countries to their limits. Deciding which patients should be transferred to intensive care units (ICU) raises ethical discussions. In some countries the Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is used to support this decision. Patients over 80 years of age suffering from COVID-19 show a 3.6-fold increase in the risk of mortality compared to the group aged 18-49 years. The risk of frail (CFS scores 6-9) patients is three times higher than for robust patients (CFS scores 1-3). A CFS score cut-off ≥ 6 clearly correlates with mortality of COVID-19 patients older than 65 years. Additionally, mid-term and long-term survival is determined by the degree of frailty at the time before COVID-19 rather than by the severity of the disease. Patients over 60 years are particularly at risk to develop a rapid loss of muscle mass during moderate or severe COVID-19. Patients being treated on ICUs lose 20-30% of their thigh extensor muscle mass within 10 days. The extent of sarcopenia associated with COVID-19 is decisive in determining the course of the disease and makes individually tailored rehabilitation programs necessary. Up to 50% of hospitalized patients need further rehabilitation after discharge. Aerobic training of low intensity combined with resistance training as well as a sufficient supply of calories and proteins in the diet are essential in this respect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/epidemiology , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Frail Elderly
8.
Intern Med J ; 52(9): 1602-1608, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Code Blues allow a rapid, hospital wide response to acutely deteriorating patients. The concept of frailty is being increasingly recognised as an important element in determining outcomes of critically ill patients. We hypothesised that increasing frailty would be associated with worse outcomes following a Code Blue. AIMS: To investigate the association between increasing frailty and outcomes of Code Blues. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective design of patients admitted to Frankston Hospital in Australia between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017 who triggered a Code Blue. Frailty evaluation was made based on electronic medical records as were the details and the outcomes of the Code Blue. The primary outcome measure was a composite of hospital mortality or Cerebral Performance Categories scale ≥3. Secondary outcomes included the immediate outcome of the Code Blue and hospital mortality. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight of 911 screened patients were included in the final analysis. Seventy-three were deemed 'frail' and the remainder deemed 'fit'. Seventy-eight percent of frail patients reached the primary outcome, compared with 41% of fit patients (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated frailty to be associated with primary outcome (odds ratio = 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.44; P = 0.01). A cardiac aetiology for the Code Blue was also associated with an increased odds of primary outcome (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.51-8.05; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is independently associated with the composite outcome of hospital mortality or severe disability following a Code Blue. Frailty is an important tool in prognostication for these patients and might aid in discussions regarding treatment limitations.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Frailty , Aged , Cohort Studies , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 27(2): 89-95, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the association of higher FI-LAB scores, derived from common laboratory values and vital signs, with hospital and post-hospital outcomes in Veterans hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of 7 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers in Florida and Puerto Rico. Patients aged 18 years and older hospitalized with COVID-19 and followed for up to 1 year post discharge or until death. Clinical Frailty Measure: FI-LAB. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hospital and post-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 671 eligible patients, 615 (91.5%) patients were included (mean [SD] age, 66.1 [14.8] years; 577 men [93.8%]; median stay, 8 days [IQR:3-15]. There were sixty-one in-hospital deaths. Veterans in the moderate and high FI-LAB groups had a higher proportion of inpatient mortality (13.3% and 20.6%, respectively) than the low group (4.1%), p <0.001. Moderate and high FI-LAB scores were associated with greater inpatient mortality when compared to the low group, OR:3.22 (95%CI:1.59-6.54), p=.001 and 6.05 (95%CI:2.48-14.74), p<0.001, respectively. Compared with low FI-LAB scores, moderate and high scores were also associated with prolonged length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and transfer. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study of patients admitted to 7 VHA Hospitals during the first surge of the pandemic, higher FI-LAB scores were associated with higher in-hospital mortality and other in-hospital outcomes; FI-LAB can serve as a validated, rapid, feasible, and objective frailty tool in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 that can aid clinical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Veterans , Aged , Male , Humans , Frailty/diagnosis , Frail Elderly , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Hospitals , Vital Signs
10.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 14(2): 333-343, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Older patients with COVID-19 can present with atypical complaints, such as falls or delirium. In other diseases, such an atypical presentation is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, it is not known whether this extends to COVID-19. We aimed to study the association between atypical presentation of COVID-19, frailty and adverse outcomes, as well as the incidence of atypical presentation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational multi-center cohort study in eight hospitals in the Netherlands. We included patients aged ≥ 70 years hospitalized with COVID-19 between February 2020 until May 2020. Atypical presentation of COVID-19 was defined as presentation without fever, cough and/or dyspnea. We collected data concerning symptoms on admission, demographics and frailty parameters [e.g., Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)]. Outcome data included Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, discharge destination and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 780 patients, 9.5% (n = 74) of those patients had an atypical presentation. Patients with an atypical presentation were older (80 years, IQR 76-86 years; versus 79 years, IQR 74-84, p = 0.044) and were more often classified as severely frail (CFS 6-9) compared to patients with a typical presentation (47.6% vs 28.7%, p = 0.004). Overall, there was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between the two groups in univariate analysis (32.4% vs 41.5%; p = 0.173) or in multivariate analysis [OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.34-1.0); p = 0.058]. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with an atypical presentation of COVID-19 were more frail compared to patients with a typical presentation. Contrary to our expectations, an atypical presentation was not associated with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Frail Elderly , Retrospective Studies
11.
Emerg Med Australas ; 34(5): 675-686, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235770

ABSTRACT

Residents from residential aged care services (RACS) (i.e. nursing homes) many of whom are frail or disabled, are frequently transferred to ED for treatment of acute episodes of illness or injury. This review scoped the research related to the ways in which frailty or activities of daily living (ADL) measures are used for clinical purposes, either prior to the transfer of patients to ED or in ED themselves. A search for original studies up to June 2021 that included participants aged 65 years or over was conducted across four databases. Abstracts were first reviewed, leading to full text screening and article selection. Thirty-four studies were included in the scoping review. Most of the ADL and frailty assessments were conducted in residential aged care settings. In seven studies, ADL or frailty assessments in the aged care setting contributed to reduced transfer rates to ED. No results were found that associated the assessment of ADL or frailty with decisions related to treatment in the ED. A single ED study involved specialist emergency nursing in an ED as an intervention which included frailty assessment and led to decreased hospitalisation. This scoping review confirms an opportunity for further research into the ways frailty and ADL assessments are used for decision making in relation to the transfer of frail older people to ED, including how these assessments influence their treatment.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 18, 2023 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty is an age-associated state of increased vulnerability to stressors that strongly predicts poor health outcomes. Epidemiological evidence on frailty is limited during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether frailty is associated with the risk of infection is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We derived a robust Frailty Index (FI) to measure the prevalence of frailty and its risk factors in community-dwelling older adults in Southern Switzerland (Ticino), and we explored the association between frailty and serologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In September 2020, we recruited a random sample of community-dwelling older adults (65 +) in the Corona Immunitas Ticino prospective cohort study (CIT) and assessed a variety of lifestyle and health characteristics. We selected 30 health-related variables, computed the Rockwood FI, and applied standard thresholds for robust (FI < 0.1), pre-frail (0.1 ≤ FI < 0.21), and frail (FI ≥ 0.21). RESULTS: Complete data for the FI was available for 660 older adults. The FI score ranged between zero (no frailty) and 0.59. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty were 10.3% and 48.2% respectively. The log-transformed FI score increased by age similarly in males and females, on average by 2.8% (p < 0.001) per one-year increase in age. Out of 481 participants with a valid serological test, 11.2% were seropositive to either anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA or IgG. The frailty status and seropositivity were not statistically associated (p = 0.236). CONCLUSION: Advanced age increases the risk of frailty. The risk of COVID-19 infection in older adults may not differ by frailty status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Male , Female , Aged , Humans , Cohort Studies , Frail Elderly , Prevalence , Switzerland/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 1, 2023 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a physiological condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors. In patients with COVID-19, frailty is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between clinical presentation, analytical and radiological parameters at admission, and clinical outcomes according to frailty, as defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), in old people hospitalized with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included people aged 65 years and older and admitted with community-acquired COVID-19 from 3 March 2020 to 31 April 2021. Patients were categorized using the CFS. Primary outcomes were symptoms of COVID-19 prior to admission, mortality, readmission, admission in intensive care unit (ICU), and need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Analysis of clinical symptoms, clinical outcomes, and CFS was performed using multivariable logistic regression, and results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of the 785 included patients, 326 (41.5%, 95% CI 38.1%-45.0%) were defined as frail (CFS ≥ 5 points): 208 (26.5%, 95% CI 23.5%-29.7%) presented mild-moderate frailty (CFS 5-6 points) and 118 (15.0%, 95% CI 12.7%-17.7%), severe frailty (7-9 points). After adjusting for epidemiological variables (age, gender, residence in a nursing home, and Charlson comorbidity index), frail patients were significantly less likely to present dry cough (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83), myalgia-arthralgia (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.75), and anosmia-dysgeusia (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.94). Confusion was more common in severely frail patients (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.64-5.97). After adjusting for epidemiological variables, the risk of in-hospital mortality was higher in frail patients (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.79-4.25), including both those with mild-moderate frailty (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.23-3.19) and severe frailty (OR 5.44, 95% CI 3.14-9.42). Readmission was higher in frail patients (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.07-4.16), but only in mild-moderate frailty (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.17-4.75).. CONCLUSION: Frail patients presented atypical symptoms (less dry cough, myalgia-arthralgia, and anosmia-dysgeusia, and more confusion). Frailty was an independent predictor for death, regardless of severity, and mild-moderate frailty was associated with readmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , Inpatients , Anosmia , Cough , Dysgeusia , Myalgia , Frail Elderly , Geriatric Assessment/methods
14.
Age Ageing ; 51(12)2022 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: frailty imparts a higher risk for hospitalisation, mortality and morbidity due to COVID-19 infection, but the broader impacts of the pandemic and associated public health measures on community-living people with frailty are less known. METHODS: we used cross-sectional data from 23,974 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging participants who completed a COVID-19 interview (Sept-Dec 2020). Participants were included regardless of whether they had COVID-19 or not. They were asked about health, resource, relationship and health care access impacts experienced during the pandemic. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of impacts was estimated by frailty index quartile. We further examined if the relationship with frailty was modified by sex, age or household income. RESULTS: community-living adults (50-90 years) with greater pre-pandemic frailty reported more negative impacts during the first year of the pandemic. The frailty gradient was not explained by socio-demographic or health behaviour factors. The largest absolute difference in adjusted prevalence between the most and least frail quartiles was 15.1% (challenges accessing healthcare), 13.3% (being ill) and 7.4% (increased verbal/physical conflict). The association between frailty and healthcare access differed by age where the youngest age group tended to experience the most challenges, especially for those categorised as most frail. CONCLUSION: although frailty has been endorsed as a tool to inform estimates of COVID-19 risk, our data suggest it may have a broader role in primary care and public health by identifying people who may benefit from interventions to reduce health and social impacts of COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , Frail Elderly , Longitudinal Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Independent Living , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Aging
15.
Age Ageing ; 51(12)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: dementia may increase care home residents' risk of COVID-19, but there is a lack of evidence on this effect and on interactions with individual and care home-level factors. METHODS: we created a national cross-sectional retrospective cohort of care home residents in Wales for 1 September to 31 December 2020. Risk factors were analysed using multi-level logistic regression to model the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality. RESULTS: the cohort included 9,571 individuals in 673 homes. Dementia was diagnosed in 5,647 individuals (59%); 1,488 (15.5%) individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We estimated the effects of age, dementia, frailty, care home size, proportion of residents with dementia, nursing and dementia services, communal space and region. The final model included the proportion of residents with dementia (OR for positive test 4.54 (95% CIs 1.55-13.27) where 75% of residents had dementia compared to no residents with dementia) and frailty (OR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.05-1.59) for severe frailty compared with no frailty). Analysis suggested 76% of the variation was due to setting rather than individual factors. Additional analysis suggested severe frailty and proportion of residents with dementia was associated with all-cause mortality, as was dementia diagnosis. Mortality analyses were challenging to interpret. DISCUSSION: whilst individual frailty increased the risk of COVID-19 infection, dementia was a risk factor at care home but not individual level. These findings suggest whole-setting interventions, particularly in homes with high proportions of residents with dementia and including those with low/no individual risk factors may reduce the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Frailty , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(12): 1726-1735, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158015

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The biological and functional heterogeneity in very old patients constitutes a major challenge to prognostication and patient management in intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to the characteristics of acute diseases, geriatric conditions such as frailty, multimorbidity, cognitive impairment and functional disabilities were shown to influence outcome in that population. The goal of this study was to identify new and robust phenotypes based on the combination of these features to facilitate early outcome prediction. METHODS: Patients aged 80 years old or older with and without limitations of life-sustaining treatment and with complete data were recruited from the VIP2 study for phenotyping and from the COVIP study for external validation. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and its sub-scores taken on admission to ICU as well as demographic and geriatric patient characteristics were subjected to clustering analysis. Phenotypes were identified after repeated bootstrapping and clustering runs. RESULTS: In patients from the VIP2 study without limitations of life-sustaining treatment (n = 1977), ICU mortality was 12% and 30-day mortality 19%. Seven phenotypes with distinct profiles of acute and geriatric characteristics were identified in that cohort. Phenotype-specific mortality within 30 days ranged from 3 to 57%. Among the patients assigned to a phenotype with pronounced geriatric features and high SOFA scores, 50% died in ICU and 57% within 30 days. Mortality differences between phenotypes were confirmed in the COVIP study cohort (n = 280). CONCLUSIONS: Phenotyping of very old patients on admission to ICU revealed new phenotypes with different mortality and potential need for anticipatory intervention.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Cohort Studies , Frailty/diagnosis , Cluster Analysis , Hospital Mortality
17.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e75, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older and frail individuals are at high risk of dying from COVID-19, and residents in nursing homes (NHs) are overrepresented in death rates. We explored four different periods during the COVID-19 pandemic to analyze the effects of improved preventive routines and vaccinations, respectively, on mortality in NHs. METHODS: We undertook a population-based systematic retrospective chart review comprising 136 NH facilities in southeast Sweden. All residents, among these facilities, who died within 30 days after a laboratory-verified COVID-19 diagnosis during four separate 92-day periods representing early pandemic (second quarter 2020), middle of the pandemic (fourth quarter 2020), early post-vaccination phase (first quarter 2021), and the following post-vaccination phase (second quarter 2021). Mortality together with electronic chart data on demographic variables, comorbidity, frailty, and cause of death was collected. RESULTS: The number of deaths during the four periods was 104, 120, 34 and 4, respectively, with a significant reduction in the two post-vaccination periods (P < 0.001). COVID-19 was assessed as the dominant cause of death in 20 (19%), 19 (16%), 4 (12%) and 1 (3%) residents in each period (P < 0.01). The respective median age in the four studied periods varied between 87and 89 years, and three or more diagnoses besides COVID-19 were present in 70-90% of the respective periods' study population. Considerable or severe frailty was found in all residents. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against COVID-19 seems associated with a reduced number of deaths in NHs. We could not demonstrate an effect on mortality merely from the protective routines that were undertaken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Frailty/prevention & control , Frailty/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Vaccination , Nursing Homes
18.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 301, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the impact of frailty on mortality differs between patients with viral pneumonitis due to COVID-19 or other causes. We aimed to determine if a difference exists between patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database included patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to 153 ICUs between 01/012020 and 12/31/2021 with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4620 patients were studied, and 3077 (66.6%) had COVID-19. The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median [IQR] 57.0 [44.7-68.3] vs. 66.1 [52.0-76.2]; p < 0.001) and less frail (median [IQR] CFS 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 patients. The overall hospital mortality was similar between the patients with and without COVID-19 (14.7% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.82). Frailty alone as a predictor of mortality showed only moderate discrimination in differentiating survivors from those who died but was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (AUROC 0.68 vs. 0.66; p = 0.42). Increasing frailty scores were associated with hospital mortality, after adjusting for Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death score and sex. However, the effect of frailty was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19-1.41 vs. OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37). CONCLUSION: The presence of frailty was an independent risk factor for mortality. However, the impact of frailty on outcomes was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to other causes of viral pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 143-151, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia, frailty, and COVID-19 appear to be intertwined. Preventive and intervention measures are required to break this link and mitigate the consequences of rising morbidity and mortality among older adults. This study aimed to identify and synthesize important factors related to the interaction of the devastating trio and their impact on the health and mortality of older adults. METHODS: Data were gathered via searches of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Elsevier Mendeley Website. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by the two authors independently. The primary outcome was mortality, secondary outcomes included hospitalization and risk of development of severe disease among older Covid-19 patients. The study results are presented as adjusted odds and hazard ratios with 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 1725 studies were identified through our electronic databases searches. After screening and assessing for eligibility, 39 studies were included in this review, a total of 51,796 patients were included in the systematic review. Our results indicated that frail patients recorded a higher mean age compared to non-frail patients (p < 0.00001), and COVID-19 frail patients had significantly increased mortality rate compared to non-frail patients, the log adjusted OR was 2.10 (1.63, 2.71); I2 = 78%; p < 0.00001. CONCLUSION: Age and frailty are important risk factors for mortality among older adults COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with sarcopenia had a higher risk of developing severe conditions, including hospitalization and ICU admission. Findings that support the use of frailty and sarcopenia indicators to help in the decision-making process for medical care in older adults COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
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