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1.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(5): 1356-1364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835076

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the main characteristics of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) patients suffering from acute kidney injury (AKI) assisted at a high complexity clinic in Barranquilla, Colombia. The patients included in this study (n = 48) were those with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who had developed AKI during their hospital stay. Serum and urine parameters, as well as patient's viral load and clinical frailty scale (CFS) were recorded. A statistical analysis of the recorded parameters, such as comparisons, and correlations between variables of interest, were explored. The prevalence of COVID-19 induced AKI was 41%, being the majority of them classified as AKI network classification 3, with a renal replacement therapy requirement of 29%, and an associated mortality of 73%. AKI patients' mortality showed a significant positive correlation (33%) with patients' CFS score but not with their viral load. COVID-19 induced AKI significantly correlated with patients' frailty status but not to their viral load.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is increasingly used for clinical decision making in acute care but little is known about frailty after COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate frailty and the CFS for post-COVID-19 follow-up. METHODS: This prospective multicentre cohort study included COVID-19 survivors aged ≥50 years presenting for a follow-up visit ≥3 months after the acute illness. Nine centres retrospectively collected pre-COVID-19 CFS and prospectively CFS at follow-up. Three centres completed the Frailty Index (FI), the short physical performance battery (SPPB), 30 s sit-to-stand test and handgrip strength measurements. Mixed effect logistic regression models accounting for repeated measurements and potential confounders were used to investigate factors associated with post-COVID-19 CFS. Criterion and construct validity were determined by correlating the CFS to other concurrently assessed frailty measurements and measures of respiratory impairment, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 288 participants 65% were men, mean (SD) age was 65.1 (9) years. Median (IQR) CFS at follow-up was 3 (2-3), 21% were vulnerable or frail (CFS ≥4). The CFS was responsive to change, correlated with the FI (r=0.69, p<0.001), the SPPB score (r=-0.48, p<0.001) (criterion validity) and with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (r=0.59, p<0.001), forced vital capacity %-predicted (r=-0.25, p<0.001), 6 min walk distance (r=-0.39, p<0.001) and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) (r=0.59, p<0.001). Dyspnoea was significantly associated with a higher odds for vulnerability/frailty (per one mMRC adjusted OR 2.01 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.58), p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The CFS significantly increases with COVID-19, and dyspnoea is an important risk factor for post-COVID-19 frailty and should be addressed thoroughly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 99: 89-92, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is common in older adults and its incidence increases with age. We investigated the correlation between physical and cognitive impairment in older adults with frailty and hypertension. METHODS: We recruited frail hypertensive older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 2021 and December 2021. Global cognitive function was assessed through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), physical frailty assessment was performed following the Fried criteria, and all patients underwent physical evaluation through 5-meter gait speed test. RESULTS: We enrolled 203 frail hypertensive older adults and we found a significant correlation between MoCA score and gait speed test (r: 0.495; p<0.001) in our population. To evaluate the impact of comorbidities and other factors on our results, we applied a linear regression analysis with MoCA score as a dependent variable, observing a significant association with age, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and gait speed test. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed for the first time a significant correlation between physical and cognitive impairment in frail hypertensive elderly subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Hypertension , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 847533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776061

ABSTRACT

Frailty is a commonly occurring geriatric condition that increases the risk of adverse health outcomes. The factors and predictors behind frailty are not yet well understood. A better understanding of these factors can enable prevention of frailty in elderly patients. The objective of this study was to determine the association between proteinuria and frailty in US individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III, 1988-1994) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This is a cross-sectional study, and proteinuria and frailty were measured only once at enrollment. The study included 2,272 participants with MetS aged 40-90 years from the NHANES III. The participants underwent assessments to evaluate frailty and frailty components (low body weight, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow walking). Proteinuria was represented as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (mg/g) and divided into tertiles: T1-normal range (ACR <30 mg/g), T2-microalbuminuria (ACR 30-299 mg/g), and T3-macroalbuminuria (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g). We applied multiple logistic regression to determine the odds ratios (ORs) of frailty for T2 vs. T1 and T3 vs. T1 in both sexes. In the adjusted analysis for male participants, the ORs of frailty for T2 and T3 vs. T1 were 3.106 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.078-8.948, P = 0.036) and 14.428 (95% CI = 4.231-49.193, P < 0.001), respectively. For female participants, the ORs of frailty for T2 and T3 vs. T1 were 1.811 (95% CI = 1.071-3.063, P = 0.027) and 2.926 (95% CI = 1.202-7.124, P = 0.018), respectively. The positive association between T2 and T3 vs. T1, and frailty were statistically significant. The trends of higher likelihood of every frailty component were also statistically significant across increasing tertiles of proteinuria after multiple levels of adjustment for covariates (P < 0.05). Increased proteinuria levels were positively associated with frailty and each frailty component. Proteinuria might be a useful maker for frailty in individuals with MetS.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Metabolic Syndrome , Proteinuria , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Proteinuria/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760607

ABSTRACT

Restrictive measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic may cause problems in the physical, social, and psychological functioning of older people, resulting in increased frailty. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of frailty, to examine differences in perceived COVID-19-related concerns and threats between frail and non-frail people and to identify variables associated with frailty in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in Dutch older people aged ≥ 65 years. We used data from the Lifelines COVID-19 Cohort Study. The Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) was used, with a score ≥ 4 indicating frailty. Frailty was described per domain (i.e., physical, cognitive, social, and psychological). The association between demographic, health and lifestyle variables and frailty was determined with logistic regression analyses. Frailty was present in 13% of the 11,145 participants that completed the GFI. Most items contributing to a positive frailty score were found within the social domain, in the frail (51%) and the non-frail (59%) persons. For items related to concerns and threats, a significantly higher proportion of frail people reported being worried or feeling threatened. In conclusion, during Corona restrictions, prevalence of frailty was considerable in older people from the Northern Netherlands, with one in eight being frail. Frailty was characterized by social problems and frail people were more often worried and felt threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/psychology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 251, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic with poorly understood long-term consequences. Determining the trajectory of recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization is critical for prioritizing care, allocating resources, facilitating prognosis, and informing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Participants age 18 years or older who were hospitalized for ≥24 h due to COVID-19 completed phone/video call virtual assessments (including the 10-time chair rise test) and survey forms at three time points (2-6, 12, and 18 weeks) after hospital discharge. Univariate logistic and linear regression models assessed the associations of the outcomes with primary predictors (categorical age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and categorical pre-hospitalization frailty) at baseline; the same were used to assess differences in change from week 2-6 (continuous outcomes) or outcome persistence/worsening (categorical) at last contact. RESULTS: One hundred nine adults (age 53.0 [standard deviation 13.1]; 53% female) participated including 43 (39%) age 60 or greater; 59% identified as an ethnic and/or racial minority. Over 18 weeks, the mean time to complete the 10-time chair rise test decreased (i.e., improved) by 6.0 s (95% CI: 4.1, 7.9 s; p < 0.001); this change did not differ by pre-hospital frailty, race/ethnicity group, or sex, but those age ≥ 60 had greater improvement. At weeks 2-6, 67% of participants reported a worse Clinical Frailty Scale category compared to their pre-hospitalization level, whereas 42% reported a worse frailty score at 18 weeks. Participants who did not return to pre-hospitalization levels were more likely to be female, younger, and report a pre-hospitalization category of 'very fit' or 'well'. CONCLUSIONS: We found that functional performance improved from weeks 2-6 to 18 weeks of follow-up; that incident clinical frailty developed in some individuals following COVID-19; and that age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pre-hospitalization frailty status may impact recovery from COVID-19. Notably, individuals age 60 and older were more likely than those under age 45 years to return to their pre-hospitalization status and to make greater improvements in functional performance. The results of the present study provide insight into the trajectory of recovery among a representative cohort of individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Telemedicine , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(4): 945-949, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploring the association between frailty and mortality in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency treated with continuous positive airway pressure. METHODS: Frailty was measured using a Frailty Index (FI) created by using the baseline assessment data on comorbidities and body mass index and baseline blood test results (including pH, lactate dehydrogenase, renal and liver function, inflammatory indexes and anemia). FI > 0.25 identified frail individuals. RESULTS: Among the 159 included individuals (81% men, median age of 68) frailty was detected in 69% of the patients (median FI score 0.3 ± 0.08). Frailty was associated to an increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.02-3.88, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is highly prevalent among patients with COVID-19, predicts poorer outcomes independently of age. A personalization of care balancing the risk and benefit of treatments (especially the invasive ones) in such complex patients is pivotal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
9.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(12): 1147-1153, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The demographic characteristics, performance status, frequency of comorbidities and survival rate of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show variability geographically and different risk scoring systems have been used to assess this population. Here, we present data from a Turkish cohort, focusing on identifying similarities and differences, relative to other reports in the literature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 310 patients diagnosed with MM were enrolled. Their demographic characteristics were investigated retrospectively. For performance assessment; the ECOG-IMWG Myeloma Frailty Score, R-MCI and HCT-SCI scoring indexes were used. PFS and OS periods, as well as the causes of deaths, were determined. RESULTS: The mean age of all study participants was 65 ± 10 years. The mean PFS and OS periods were 24.14± 26.11 and 65.3 ± 4.4 months, respectively. The median R-MCI, CCI and HCT-CI scores were five, four and three points, respectively. Myeloma-related complications were the leading cause of death, with a frequency of 51%. CONCLUSION: Among the scoring systems utilised, R-MCI was more convenient to apply due to its ease of use and practicality. Our study supports the heterogeneous course of myeloma and highlights geographic differences including comorbidities, causes of death and overall survival.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Multiple Myeloma , Aged , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
10.
Age Ageing ; 51(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722192

ABSTRACT

Populations in Asian developed economies are rapidly ageing, such that, currently, Hong Kong and Japan have the longest life expectancy at birth for both men and women. However, extended lifespan is not necessarily accompanied by prolongation of health span, such that there is increasing prevalence of frailty and dependency, which translates into increase in complex health and social needs as well as increase in absolute numbers of older adults that require such needs. Consideration of social determinants of healthy ageing would be important in the design of equitable health and social care systems. There is a trend towards development of integrated medical social care in the community in Asian countries. Long-term care insurance and also philanthropic support play a role in the financing of such care models.


Subject(s)
Aging , Frailty , Aged , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/therapy , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Life Expectancy , Male
11.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 98, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty, determined by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging-Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), is strongly associated with clinical outcomes including mortality in patients with COVID-19. However, the relationship between frailty and other recognised prognostic factors including age, nutritional status, obesity, sarcopenia and systemic inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frailty and other prognostic domains, in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients who presented to our institutions between 1st April 2020-6th July 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 were assessed for inclusion. Data collected included general demographic details, clinicopathological variables, CFS admission assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), CT-BC measurements and markers of systemic inflammation. RESULTS: 106 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were aged ≥ 70 years (67%), male (53%) and frail (scoring > 3 on the CFS, 72%). The majority of patients were not malnourished (MUST 0, 58%), had ≥ 1 co-morbidity (87%), were sarcopenic (low SMI, 80%) and had systemic inflammation (mGPS ≥ 1, 81%, NLR > 5, 55%). On multivariate binary logistics regression analysis, age (p < 0.01), COPD (p < 0.05) and NLR (p < 0.05) remained independently associated with frailty. On univariate binary logistics regression, NLR (p < 0.05) was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Frailty was independently associated with age, co-morbidity, and systemic inflammation. The basis of the relationship between frailty and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 requires further study. Trial registration Registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04484545).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnostic imaging , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnostic imaging , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699306

ABSTRACT

By the end of spring (31 May), the COVID-19 death rate was remarkably unevenly distributed across the countries in Europe. While the risk of COVID-19 mortality is known to increase with age, age-specific COVID-19 death rates across Europe were similarly unevenly distributed. To explain these mortality distributions, we present a simple model where more favorable survival environments promote longevity and the accumulation of health frailty among the elderly while less favorable survival environments induce a mortality selection process that results in lower health frailty. Because the age-related conditions of frailty render the elderly less resistant to SARS-CoV-2, pre-existing survival environments may be non-obviously positively related to the COVID-19 death rate. To quantify the survival environment parameter of our model, we leveraged historic cohort- and period-based age-specific probabilities of death and life expectancies at age 65 across Europe. All variables are significantly correlated with indicators of frailty like elderly dependence on others for personal and household care for a subset of European countries. With respect to COVID-19 death rates, we find significant positive relationships between our survival indicators and COVID-19 death rates across Europe, a result that is robust to statistical control for the capacity of a healthcare system to treat and survive infected persons, the timing and stringency of non-pharmaceutical interventions, population density, age structure, case rates and the volume of inbound international travelers, among other factors. To address possible concerns over reporting heterogeneity across countries, we show that results are robust to the substitution of our response variable for a measure of cumulative excess mortality. Also consistent with the intuition of our model, we also show a strong negative association between age-specific COVID-19 death rates and pre-existing all-cause age-specific mortality rates for a subset of European countries. Overall, results support the notion that variation in pre-existing frailty, resulting from heterogeneous survival environments, partially accounts for striking differences in COVID-19 death during the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Longevity , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674614

ABSTRACT

The "surprise question" (SQ) predicts the need for palliative care. Its predictive validity for adverse healthcare outcomes and its association with frailty among older people attending the emergency department (ED) are unknown. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective study of consecutive patients aged ≥70 attending a university hospital's ED. The SQ was scored by doctors before an independent comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Outcomes included length of stay (LOS), frailty determined by CGA and one-year mortality. The SQ was available for 191 patients, whose median age was 79 ± 9. In all, 56/191 (29%) screened SQ positive. SQ positive patients were frailer; the median clinical frailty score was 6/9 (compared to 4/9, p < 0.001); they had longer LOS (p = 0.008); and they had higher mortality (p < 0.001). Being SQ positive was associated with 2.6 times greater odds of admission and 8.9 times odds of frailty. After adjustment for age, sex, frailty, co-morbidity and presenting complaint, patients who were SQ positive had significantly reduced survival times (hazard ratio 5.6; 95% CI: 1.39-22.3, p = 0.015). Almost one-third of older patients attending ED were identified as SQ positive. These were frailer and more likely to be admitted, have reduced survival times and have prolonged LOS. The SQ is useful to quickly stratify older patients likely to experience poor outcomes in ED.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Prospective Studies
14.
Intern Med J ; 52(5): 724-739, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational data during the pandemic have demonstrated mixed associations between frailty and mortality. AIM: To examine associations between frailty and short-term mortality in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase and the COVID-19 living systematic review from 1 December 2019 to 15 July 2021. Studies reporting mortality and frailty scores in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 (age ≥18 years) were included. Data on patient demographics, short-term mortality (in hospital or within 30 days), intensive care unit (ICU) admission and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were extracted. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies reporting 34 628 patients were included. Overall, 26.2% (n = 9061) died. Patients who died were older (76.7 ± 9.6 vs 69.2 ± 13.4), more likely male (risk ratio (RR) = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.11) and had more comorbidities. Fifty-eight percent of patients were frail. Adjusting for age, there was no difference in short-term mortality between frail and non-frail patients (RR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.84-1.28). The non-frail patients were commonly admitted to ICU (27.2% (4256/15639) vs 29.1% (3567/12274); P = 0.011) and had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.30-2.03) than frail patients. Among patients receiving IMV, there was no difference in mortality between frail and non-frail (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 0.93-2.77). CONCLUSION: This systematic review did not demonstrate an independent association between frailty status and short-term mortality in patients with COVID-19. Patients with frailty were less commonly admitted to ICU and non-frail patients were more likely to receive IMV and had higher mortality risk. This finding may be related to allocation decisions for patients with frailty amidst the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adolescent , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 58, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has reminded how older adults with frailty are particularly exposed to adverse outcomes. In the acute care setting, consideration of evidence-based practice related to frailty screening and management is needed to improve the care provided to aging populations. It is important to assess for frailty in acute care so as to establish treatment priorities and goals for the individual. Our study explored understanding on frailty and practice of frailty screening among different acute care professionals in Singapore, and identify barriers and facilitators concerning frailty screening and its implementation. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussion among nurses and individual interviews among physicians from four departments (Accident & Emergency, Anesthesia, General Surgery, Orthopedics) in three acute hospitals from the three public health clusters in Singapore. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling of specific clinicians seeing a high proportion of older patients at the hospitals. Thematic analysis of the data was performed using NVIVO 12.0. RESULTS: Frailty was mainly but inadequately understood as a physical and age-related concept. Screening for frailty in acute care was considered important to identify high risk patients, to implement targeted treatment and care, and to support decision making and prognosis estimation. Specific issues related to screening, management and implementation were identified: cooperation from patient/caregivers, acceptance from healthcare workers/hospital managers, need for dedicated resources, guidelines for follow-up management and consensus on the scope of measurement for different specialties. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated the need for 1) frailty-related education program for patients/care givers and stakeholders 2) inter-professional collaboration to develop integrated approach for screening and management of hospital patients with frailty and 3) hospital-wide consensus to adopt a common frailty screening tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262807, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629520

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had devastating consequences worldwide, including a spike in global mortality. Residents of long-term care homes have been disproportionately affected. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the scale of pandemic-related deaths of long-term care residents in the province of Ontario, Canada, and to estimate excess mortality due to a positive COVID-19 test adjusted for demographics and regional variations. Crude mortality rates for 2019 and 2020 were compared, as were predictors of mortality among residents with positive and negative tests from March 2020 to December 2020. We found the crude mortality rates were higher from April 2020 to June 2020 and from November 2020 to December 2020, corresponding to Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the pandemic in Ontario. There were also substantial increases in mortality among residents with a positive COVID-19 test. The significant differences in excess mortality observed in relation to long-term care home ownership category and geographic region may indicate gaps in the healthcare system that warrant attention from policymakers. Further investigation is needed to identify the most relevant factors in explaining these differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Time Factors
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent longitudinal studies have reported proportion of frailty transition in older individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study aimed at clarifying the impact of social frailty in community-dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and at identifying factors that can predict transition to social frailty. METHODS: We performed this study from 2019 (before declaration of the state of emergency over the rising number of COVID-19 cases) to 2020 (after declaration of the emergency). We applied Makizako's social frail index to our study subjects at the baseline and classified into robust, social prefrailty, and social frailty groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using robust, social prefrailty, or social frailty status as dependent variable. RESULTS: Analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences in the score on the GDS-15 among the robust, social prefrailty, and social frailty groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis identified a significant association between the social frailty status and the score on GDS-15 (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-2.13; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increase in the rate of transition of elderly individuals to the social frailty group could have been related to the implementation of the stay-at-home order as part of the countermeasures for COVID-19. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms associated with the stay-at-home order could also have influenced the increase in the prevalence of social frailty during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(12): W1-W4, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541440
20.
Ageing Res Rev ; 73: 101513, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530617

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the culprit of an ongoing pandemic responsible for the loss of over 3 million lives worldwide within a year and a half. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected people develop no or mild symptoms, some become severely ill and may die from COVID-19-related complications. In this review, we compile and comment on a number of biomarkers that have been identified and are expected to enhance the detection, protection and treatment of individuals at high risk of developing severe illnesses, as well as enable the monitoring of COVID-19 prognosis and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Consistent with the emerging notion that the majority of COVID-19 deaths occur in older and frail individuals, we researched the scientific literature and report the identification of a subset of COVID-19 biomarkers indicative of increased vulnerability to developing severe COVID-19 in older and frail patients. Mechanistically, increased frailty results from reduced disease tolerance, a phenomenon aggravated by ageing and comorbidities. While biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity, biomarkers of disease tolerance may predict resistance to COVID-19 with socio-economic factors such as access to adequate health care remaining as major non-biomolecular influencers of COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Aging , Biomarkers , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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