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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 285-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238469

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. A literature review was conducted to examine current research regarding frailty and COVID-19. Frailty can inform holistic care of COVID-19 patients, and further investigation is needed to elucidate how measuring frailty should guide treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Frailty/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 60(2): 113-118, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232446
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e067786, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Older people were at particular risk of morbidity and mortality during COVID-19. Consequently, they experienced formal (externally imposed) and informal (self-imposed) periods of social isolation and quarantine. This is hypothesised to have led to physical deconditioning, new-onset disability and frailty. Disability and frailty are not routinely collated at population level but are associated with increased risk of falls and fractures, which result in hospital admissions. First, we will examine incidence of falls and fractures during COVID-19 (January 2020-March 2022), focusing on differences between incidence over time against expected rates based on historical data, to determine whether there is evidence of new-onset disability and frailty. Second, we will examine whether those with reported SARS-CoV-2 were at higher risk of falls and fractures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study uses the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Public Health Data Asset, a linked population-level dataset combining administrative health records with sociodemographic data of the 2011 Census and National Immunisation Management System COVID-19 vaccination data for England. Administrative hospital records will be extracted based on specific fracture-centric International Classification of Diseases-10 codes in years preceding COVID-19 (2011-2020). Historical episode frequency will be used to predict expected admissions during pandemic years using time series modelling, if COVID-19 had not occurred. Those predicted admission figures will be compared with actual admissions to assess changes in hospital admissions due to public health measures comprising the pandemic response. Hospital admissions in prepandemic years will be stratified by age and geographical characteristics and averaged, then compared with pandemic year admissions to assess more granular changes. Risk modelling will assess risk of experiencing a fall, fracture or frail fall and fracture, if they have reported a positive case of COVID-19. The combination of these techniques will provide insight into changes in hospital admissions from the COVID-19 pandemic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has approval from the National Statistician's Data Ethics Advisory Committee (NSDEC(20)12). Results will be made available to other researchers via academic publication and shared via the ONS website.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Frailty , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , COVID-19 Vaccines , Electronic Health Records , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Hospitals
6.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 7(1): 46, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 put older individuals at high risk for morbidity and mortality, isolation, reduced coping, and lower satisfaction with life. Many older adults experienced social isolation, fear, and anxiety. We hypothesized that successful coping with these stressors would maintain or improve satisfaction with life, a crucial psychological outcome during the pandemic. Our study investigated relationships between older people's coping and life satisfaction during the pandemic and their optimism, sense of mastery, closeness with spouse, family, and friends, and vulnerabilities from frailty, comorbid diseases, memory problems, and dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). METHODS: The study was based on a special COVID-19 sample of 1351 community-dwelling older adults who participated in the 2020 Health and Retirement Survey. A comprehensive structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects, with life satisfaction as the main outcome and coping as a mediator between the other variables and coping. RESULTS: Most survey respondents were female and between the ages of 65-74 years. They averaged 1.7 chronic conditions, one in seven was frail, about one-third rated their memory as fair or poor, and about one in seven reported one or more difficulties in IADL. As hypothesized-older people with increased sense of mastery and optimism were better able to cope and had greater life satisfaction. In addition, close relationships with friends and with other family members besides the spouse/partner or children contributed to more successful coping, while the interpersonal closeness of all types contributed directly to greater life satisfaction. Finally, older people with more IADL limitations reported greater difficulty coping and lower life satisfaction, and those older people who were frail or had multiple comorbid diseases reported lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism, sense of mastery and closeness with family/friends promotes coping and life satisfaction, whereas frailty and comorbidities make coping more challenging and lead to lower life satisfaction particularly during a pandemic. Our study improves on prior research because of its nationally representative sample and formal specification and testing of a comprehensive theoretical framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Child , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Independent Living , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Personal Satisfaction
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32343, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309500

ABSTRACT

Prior research has identified frailty, comorbidity, and age as predictors of outcomes for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including mortality. However, it remains unclear how these factors play different roles in COVID-19 prognosis. This study focused on correlations between frailty, comorbidity and age, and their correlations to discharge outcome and length-of-stay in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Clinical data was collected from 56 patients who were ≥50 years old and admitted from March 2020 to June 2020 primarily for COVID-19. Frailty Risk Score (FRS) and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used for assessment of frailty and comorbidity burden, respectively. Age had significant positive correlation with FRS and CCI (P < .001, P < .001, respectively). There was also significant positive correlation between FRS and CCI (P < .001). For mortality, patients who died during their hospitalization had significantly higher FRS and CCI (P = .01 and P < .001, respectively) but were not significantly older than patients who did not. FRS, CCI, and age were all significantly associated when looking at overall adverse discharge outcome (transfer to other facility or death) (P < .001, P = .005, and P = .009, respectively). However, none of the 3 variables were significantly correlated with length-of-stay. Multivariate analysis showed FRS (P = .007) but not patient age (P = .967) was significantly associated with death. We find that frailty is associated with adverse outcomes from COVID-19 and supplants age in multivariable analysis. Frailty should be part of risk assessment of older adults with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prognosis , Hospitalization
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 284, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Lebanon has witnessed its worst economic crisis, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a massive explosion of its capital. Amidst these stressors, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing hemodialysis in an academic hospital destroyed by the explosion. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted 6 months after the blast included adults on hemodialysis, with no previous diagnoses of dementia or intellectual disability. It explores prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, in addition to other medical and psychosocial variables such as frailty, malnutrition, sarcopenia, quality of life and religiosity. RESULTS: Forty two patients (mean age 66.1; SD: 11.2 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 6.12 years (SD:7.22 years) were included. Anxiety and depression rates reached 54.8% and 57.1% using cut-offs of 6 and 7 respectively on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale. 9.5% of the patients reported being in the hospital at the time of the blast and 7.1% reported being injured. 33.3% screened positively for PTSD using a cut-off of 23 on the PCL-5. 26.2% had passive death wishes and 7.1% had suicide plans, however no one had attempted it. 23.8% were found cognitively impaired as shown by the Mini-Cog (<3). Around two-third of participants were moderately to severely malnourished per the GLIM criteria. One third suffered from frailty, according to the FRAIL screening tool. Around 60% suffered from sarcopenia, based on handgrip strength measures. These findings contrast with "acceptable to good" quality of life subjectively reported by participants on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. While one-third of participants participated in organizational religious activities, 88% reported significant subjective meaning of religion in their heart. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality, and cognitive impairment were found to be alarming in the setting of an urban dialysis unit following a major explosion. Psychiatric disorders were found to be compounded with increased prevalence of malnutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. These findings urge healthcare providers to implement early diagnostic and intervention strategies to improve both mental and physical wellbeing of this vulnerable population, in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
13.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence and co-existence of frailty and malnutrition and 2) to identify factors related to frailty (including malnutrition) according to the level of frailty. METHODS: Data collection was conducted from July 11, 2021, to January 23, 2022, in 558 older adults residing in 16 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Korea. The FRAIL-NH and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form were used to measure frailty and nutrition, respectively. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 83.68 (± 7.39) years. Among 558 participants, 37 (6.6%), 274 (49.1%), and 247 (44.3%) were robust, prefrail, and frail, respectively. At the same time, 75.8% were categorized as having malnutrition status (malnourished: 18.1%; risk of malnutrition: 57.7%), and 40.9% had co-existing malnutrition and frailty. In the multivariate analysis, malnutrition was identified as the major frailty-related factor. Compared with a normal nutritional status, the incidence of frailty in the malnutrition group was 10.35 times (95% CI: 3.78-28.36) higher than the incidence of robustness and 4.80 times (95% CI: 2.69-8.59) higher than the incidence of prefrail. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty and malnutrition, and their co-existence, among older adults residing in LTCFs was high. Malnutrition is a major factor that increases the incidence of frailty. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the nutritional status of this population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Assessment , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Frail Elderly
14.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 483-500, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278107

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 clinical presentation is extremely heterogenous, especially in older patients due to the possible presence of atypical symptoms, such as delirium, hyporexia and falls. The clinical characteristics at onset are influenced by the presence of common health-related conditions in older people, such as comorbidity, disability and frailty, and not simply by chronological age. Few studies investigated the tendency of Covid-19 symptoms to aggregate in cluster and the use of cluster approach might better describe the clinical complexity of the acute disease. Concerning the prognostic significance of Covid-19 clinical presentation in older people, the available literature still provides discordant results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 55(7): 564-568, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266924

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from individual to individual. People of advanced age with comorbidities have been identified as having a higher risk for severe disease or to die from COVID-19. Frailty is an essential risk factor in this respect. Approximately one fifth of the middle European population are older than 65 years, and of these 10-15% can be categorized as frail. The pandemic brings the healthcare systems in many countries to their limits. Deciding which patients should be transferred to intensive care units (ICU) raises ethical discussions. In some countries the Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is used to support this decision. Patients over 80 years of age suffering from COVID-19 show a 3.6-fold increase in the risk of mortality compared to the group aged 18-49 years. The risk of frail (CFS scores 6-9) patients is three times higher than for robust patients (CFS scores 1-3). A CFS score cut-off ≥ 6 clearly correlates with mortality of COVID-19 patients older than 65 years. Additionally, mid-term and long-term survival is determined by the degree of frailty at the time before COVID-19 rather than by the severity of the disease. Patients over 60 years are particularly at risk to develop a rapid loss of muscle mass during moderate or severe COVID-19. Patients being treated on ICUs lose 20-30% of their thigh extensor muscle mass within 10 days. The extent of sarcopenia associated with COVID-19 is decisive in determining the course of the disease and makes individually tailored rehabilitation programs necessary. Up to 50% of hospitalized patients need further rehabilitation after discharge. Aerobic training of low intensity combined with resistance training as well as a sufficient supply of calories and proteins in the diet are essential in this respect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/epidemiology , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Frail Elderly
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e43762, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating research provides evidence that the psychological health of older people deteriorated from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike robust individuals, coexisting frailty and multimorbidity expose older adults to more complicated and wide-ranging stressors. Community-level social support (CSS) is also an important impetus for age-friendly interventions, and it is 1 of the components of social capital that is seen as an ecological-level property. To date, we have not found research that examines whether CSS buffered the adverse impacts of combined frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress in a rural setting during COVID-19 in China. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the combined effect of frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress in rural Chinese older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and examines whether CSS would buffer the aforementioned association. METHODS: Data used in this study were extracted from 2 waves of the Shandong Rural Elderly Health Cohort (SREHC), and the final analytic sample included 2785 respondents who participated in both baseline and follow-up surveys. Multilevel linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the strength of the longitudinal association between frailty and multimorbidity combinations and psychological distress using 2 waves of data for each participant, and then, cross-level interactions between CSS and combined frailty and multimorbidity were included to test whether CSS would buffer the adverse impact of coexisting frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress. RESULTS: Frail older adults with multimorbidity reported the most psychological distress compared to individuals with only 1 or none of the conditions (ß=.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.77, P<.001), and baseline coexisting frailty and multimorbidity predicted the most psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic (ß=.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.43, P<.001). Further, CSS moderated the aforementioned association (ß=-.16, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.09, P<.001), and increased CSS buffered the adverse effect of coexisting frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic (ß=-.11, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.01, P=.035). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that more public health and clinical attention should be paid to psychological distress among multimorbid older adults with frailty when facing public health emergencies. This research also suggests that community-level interventions prioritizing social support mechanisms, specifically improving the average levels of social support within communities, may be an effective approach to alleviate psychological distress for rural older adults who concurrently manifest frailty and multimorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Psychological Distress , Humans , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , East Asian People , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 35(5): 1139-1143, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only limited studies analyzed a possible relationship between frailty and infections. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between higher multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) values, a tool for evaluating multidimensional frailty, and the prevalence of infectious diseases, including antibiotics' cost and the prevalence of MDR (multidrug resistance) pathogens. METHODS: Older patients, affected by COVID-19, were enrolled in the hospital of Palermo over four months. RESULTS: 112 participants (mean age 77.6, 55.4% males) were included. After adjusting for potential confounders, frailer participants had a higher odds of any positivity to pathogens (prevalence: 61.5%, odds ratio = 15.56, p < 0.0001) compared to a prevalence of 8.6% in more robust, including MDR, and a higher costs in antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MPI values, indicating frailer subjects, were associated with a higher prevalence of infections, particularly of MDR pathogens, and a consequent increase in antibiotics' cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Prognosis , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Geriatric Assessment/methods
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256557

ABSTRACT

This article reports the study protocol of a nationwide multicentric study in seven Italian regions aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a digitally supported approach for the early screening of frailty risk factors in community-dwelling older adults. SUNFRAIL+ is a prospective observational cohort study aimed at carrying out a multidimensional assessment of community-dwelling older adults through an IT platform, which allows to connect the items of the SUNFRAIL frailty assessment tool with a cascading multidimensional in-depth assessment of the bio-psycho-social domains of frailty. Seven centers in seven Italian regions will administer the SUNFRAIL questionnaire to 100 older adults. According to the answers provided by older adults, they will be subjected to one or more validated in-depth scale tests in order to perform further diagnostic or dimensional evaluations. The study aims to contribute to the implementation and validation of a multiprofessional and multistakeholder service model for the screening of frailty in community-dwelling older adult population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Humans , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Independent Living , Prospective Studies , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Health Services , Observational Studies as Topic
19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 482, 2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality risk following COVID-19 diagnosis in men and women with common comorbidities at different ages has been difficult to communicate to the general public. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at which unvaccinated men and women with common comorbidities have a mortality risk which exceeds that of 75- and 65-year-old individuals in the general population (Phases 1b/1c thresholds of the Centre for Disease Control Vaccine Rollout Recommendations) following COVID-19 infection during the first wave. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative datasets in Ontario, Canada. We identified all community-dwelling adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 1 and October 31st, 2020. Exposures of interest were age (modelled using restricted cubic splines) and the following conditions: major cardiovascular disease (recent myocardial infarction or lifetime history of heart failure); 2) diabetes; 3) hypertension; 4) recent cancer; 5) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; 6) Stages 4/5 chronic kidney disease (CKD); 7) frailty. Logistic regression in the full cohort was used to estimate the risk of 30-day mortality for 75- and 65-year-old individuals. Analyses were repeated after stratifying by sex and medical condition to determine the age at which 30-day morality risk in strata exceed that of the general population at ages 65 and 75 years. RESULTS: We studied 52,429 individuals (median age 42 years; 52.5% women) of whom 417 (0.8%) died within 30 days. The 30-day mortality risk increased with age, male sex, and comorbidities. The 65- and 75-year-old mortality risks in the general population were exceeded at the youngest age by people with CKD, cancer, and frailty. Conversely, women aged < 65 years who had diabetes or hypertension did not have higher mortality than 65-year-olds in the general population. Most people with medical conditions (except for Stage 4-5 CKD) aged < 45 years had lower predicted mortality than the general population at age 65 years. CONCLUSION: The mortality risk in COVID-19 increases with age and comorbidity but the prognostic implications varied by sex and condition. These observations can support communication efforts and inform vaccine rollout in jurisdictions with limited vaccine supplies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Frailty , Hypertension , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology
20.
Intern Med J ; 52(9): 1602-1608, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Code Blues allow a rapid, hospital wide response to acutely deteriorating patients. The concept of frailty is being increasingly recognised as an important element in determining outcomes of critically ill patients. We hypothesised that increasing frailty would be associated with worse outcomes following a Code Blue. AIMS: To investigate the association between increasing frailty and outcomes of Code Blues. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective design of patients admitted to Frankston Hospital in Australia between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017 who triggered a Code Blue. Frailty evaluation was made based on electronic medical records as were the details and the outcomes of the Code Blue. The primary outcome measure was a composite of hospital mortality or Cerebral Performance Categories scale ≥3. Secondary outcomes included the immediate outcome of the Code Blue and hospital mortality. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight of 911 screened patients were included in the final analysis. Seventy-three were deemed 'frail' and the remainder deemed 'fit'. Seventy-eight percent of frail patients reached the primary outcome, compared with 41% of fit patients (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated frailty to be associated with primary outcome (odds ratio = 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.44; P = 0.01). A cardiac aetiology for the Code Blue was also associated with an increased odds of primary outcome (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.51-8.05; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is independently associated with the composite outcome of hospital mortality or severe disability following a Code Blue. Frailty is an important tool in prognostication for these patients and might aid in discussions regarding treatment limitations.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Frailty , Aged , Cohort Studies , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
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