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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1162711, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238393

ABSTRACT

Background: Testing was the cornerstone of the COVID-19 epidemic response in most countries until vaccination became available for the general population. Social inequalities generally affect access to healthcare and health behaviors, and COVID-19 was rapidly shown to impact deprived population more drastically. In support of the regional health agency in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) in South-Eastern France, we analyzed the relationship between testing rate and socio-demographic characteristics of the population, to identify gaps in testing coverage and improve targeting of response strategies. Methods: We conducted an ecological analysis of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 testing rate in the PACA region, based on data aggregated at the finest spatial resolution available in France (IRIS) and by periods defined by public health implemented measures and major epidemiological changes. Using general census data, population density, and specific deprivation indices, we used principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering to define profiles describing local socio-demographic characteristics. We analyzed the association between these profiles and testing rates in a generalized additive multilevel model, adjusting for access to healthcare, presence of a retirement home, and the age profile of the population. Results: We identified 6 socio-demographic profiles across the 2,306 analyzed IRIS spatial units: privileged, remote, intermediate, downtown, deprived, and very deprived (ordered by increasing social deprivation index). Profiles also ranged from rural (remote) to high density urban areas (downtown, very deprived). From July 2020 to December 2021, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 testing rate over 10 periods. Testing rates fluctuated strongly but were highest in privileged and downtown areas, and lowest in very deprived ones. The lowest adjusted testing rate ratios (aTRR) between privileged (reference) and other profiles occurred after implementation of a mandatory healthpass for many leisure activities in July 2021. Periods of contextual testing near Christmas displayed the largest aTRR, especially during the last periods of 2021 after the end of free convenience testing for unvaccinated individuals. Conclusion: We characterized in-depth local heterogeneity and temporal trends in testing rates and identified areas and circumstances associated with low testing rates, which the regional health agency targeted specifically for the deployment of health mediation activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Deprivation , France/epidemiology
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 1051-1054, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242064

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis of undetermined origin can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens, sometimes emerging pathogens. We report the discovery, by means of routine shotgun metagenomics, of a new virus belonging to the family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus, in a patient in France who had acute hepatitis of unknown origin.


Subject(s)
Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Viruses , Humans , Circoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Circovirus/genetics , France/epidemiology , Metagenome , Immunocompromised Host
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286700, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an overall drop in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalizations. Additionally, there is a well-known association between ACS and socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the COVID-19 effect on ACS admissions in France during the first national lockdown and investigate the factors associated with its spatial heterogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used the French hospital discharge database (PMSI) to estimate ACS admission rates in all public and private hospitals in 2019 and 2020. A negative binomial regression explored the nationwide change in ACS admissions during lockdown compared with 2019. A multivariate analysis explored the factors associated with the ACS admission incidence rate ratio (IRR, 2020 incidence rate/2019 incidence rate) variation at the county level. RESULTS: We found a significant but geographically heterogeneous nationwide reduction in ACS admissions during lockdown (IRR 0·70 [0·64-0·76]). After adjustment for cumulative COVID-19 admissions and the ageing index, a higher share of people on short-term working arrangements during lockdown at the county level was associated with a lower IRR, while a higher share of individuals with a high school degree and a higher density of acute care beds were associated with a higher ratio. CONCLUSIONS: During the first national lockdown, there was an overall decrease in ACS admissions. Local provision of inpatient care and socioeconomic determinants linked to occupation were independently associated with the variation in hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , France/epidemiology
5.
Euro Surveill ; 28(22)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241314

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSuccessive epidemic waves of COVID-19 illustrated the potential of SARS-CoV-2 variants to reshape the pandemic. Detecting and characterising emerging variants is essential to evaluate their public health impact and guide implementation of adapted control measures.AimTo describe the detection of emerging variant, B.1.640, in France through genomic surveillance and present investigations performed to inform public health decisions.MethodsIdentification and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.640 was achieved through the French genomic surveillance system, producing 1,009 sequences. Additional investigation of 272 B.1.640-infected cases was performed between October 2021 and January 2022 using a standardised questionnaire and comparing with Omicron variant-infected cases.ResultsB.1.640 was identified in early October 2021 in a school cluster in Bretagne, later spreading throughout France. B.1.640 was detected at low levels at the end of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant's dominance and progressively disappeared after the emergence of the Omicron (BA.1) variant. A high proportion of investigated B.1.640 cases were children aged under 14 (14%) and people over 60 (27%) years, because of large clusters in these age groups. B.1.640 cases reported previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (4%), anosmia (32%) and ageusia (34%), consistent with data on pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants. Eight percent of investigated B.1.640 cases were hospitalised, with an overrepresentation of individuals aged over 60 years and with risk factors.ConclusionEven though B.1.640 did not outcompete the Delta variant, its importation and continuous low-level spread raised concerns regarding its public health impact. The investigations informed public health decisions during the time that B.1.640 was circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Pandemics
6.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 150(2): 114-120, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In areas of low physician density, especially as regards dermatologists in France, there is an increasing interest in tele-expertise. This is particularly the case in the Sarthe department, where the number of physicians continues to decline and access to care was further limited by the COVID 19 epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively collected data from tele-expertise requests submitted to Le Mans General Hospital by general practitioners via a dedicated platform between May 6, 2019, and April 9, 2021. RESULTS: Six hundred and forty three requests relating to 90 different diagnoses were recorded during this period. One hundred and thirty four patients (20% of requests) were invited to attend a face-to-face consultation within an average of 29 days. DISCUSSION: Through the use of tele-expertise at Le Mans Genreal Hospital it was possible to introduce a means of tackling the problem of the lack of dermatologists in the Sarthe department. Rapid responses enabled the number of consultation requests to be reduced, leading to fewer population displacements in the context of the present pandemic. CONCLUSION: These initial results are encouraging and confirm that tele-expertise seems a satisfactory option to optimize access to care for populations in areas of low physician density.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Telemedicine , Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, General , COVID-19/epidemiology , France
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(805): 2233-2235, 2022 11 23.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323261
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 279, 2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the use of diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 in France until December 2021, the characteristics of people infected, and places of contamination. METHODS: Data were collected from the national 2021 Health Barometer cross-sectional study, which was conducted between February and December 2021 and included French-speaking individuals aged 18-85 years old selected through randomly generated landline and mobile phone numbers. Participants were interviewed about COVID-19-like symptoms in the previous 12 months, diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2, positive diagnosis for SARS-CoV-2, and the place(s) of contamination. Determinants of diagnostic testing and of infection were studied using univariate and multivariate Poisson regressions. RESULTS: A total of 24,514 persons participated in the study. We estimated that 66.4% [65.0-67.7] of persons had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 the last time they experienced COVID-19-like symptoms, and that 9.8% [9.3-10.3] of the population in France - with or without symptoms - had been tested positive. Diagnostic testing was less frequent in men, unemployed persons, and people living alone; it was also less frequent during the first months of the pandemic. The estimated proportion of the population infected was higher in healthcare professionals (PRa: 1.5 [1.3-1.7]), those living in large cities ( > = 200 000 inhabitants, and Paris area) (1.4 [1.2-1.6]), and in households comprising > 3 persons (1.7 [1.5-2.0]). It was lower in retired persons (0.8 [0.6-0.97]) and those over 65 years old (0.6 [0.4-0.9]). Almost two-thirds (65.7%) of infected persons declared they knew where they were contaminated; 5.8% [4.5-7.4] reported being contaminated outdoors, 47.9% [44.8-51.0] in unventilated indoor environments, and 43.4% [40.3-46.6] in ventilated indoor environments. Specifically, 51.1% [48.0-54.2] declared they were contaminated at home or in a family of friend's house, 29.1% [26.4-31.9] at their workplace, 13.9% [11.9-16.1] in a healthcare structure, and 9.0% [7.4-10.8] in a public eating place (e.g., cafeteria, bar, restaurant). CONCLUSIONS: To limit viral spread, preventive actions should preferentially target persons tested least frequently and those at a higher risk of infection. They should also target contamination in households, healthcare structures, and public eating places. Importantly, contamination is most frequent in places where prevention measures are most difficult to implement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Testing , France/epidemiology
9.
Euro Surveill ; 28(18)2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319661

ABSTRACT

BackgroundFollowing the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant spread, the use of unsupervised antigenic rapid diagnostic tests (self-tests) increased.AimThis study aimed to measure self-test uptake and factors associated with self-testing.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study from 20 January to 2 May 2022, the case series from a case-control study on factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were used to analyse self-testing habits in France. A multivariable quasi-Poisson regression was used to explore the variables associated with self-testing among symptomatic cases who were not contacts of another infected individual. The control series from the same study was used as a proxy for the self-test background rate in the non-infected population of France.ResultsDuring the study period, 179,165 cases who tested positive through supervised tests were recruited. Of these, 64.7% had performed a self-test in the 3 days preceding this supervised test, of which 79,038 (68.2%) were positive. The most frequently reported reason for self-testing was the presence of symptoms (64.6%). Among symptomatic cases who were not aware of being contacts of another case, self-testing was positively associated with being female, higher education, household size, being a teacher and negatively associated with older age, not French by birth, healthcare-related work and immunosuppression. Among the control series, 12% self-tested during the 8 days preceding questionnaire filling, with temporal heterogeneity.ConclusionThe analysis showed high self-test uptake in France with some inequalities which must be addressed through education and facilitated access (cost and availability) for making it a more efficient epidemic control tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self-Testing , France/epidemiology
10.
Elife ; 122023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313805

ABSTRACT

Although France was one of the most affected European countries by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) movement within France, but also involving France in Europe and in the world, remain only partially characterized in this timeframe. Here, we analyzed GISAID deposited sequences from January 1 to December 31, 2020 (n = 638,706 sequences at the time of writing). To tackle the challenging number of sequences without the bias of analyzing a single subsample of sequences, we produced 100 subsamples of sequences and related phylogenetic trees from the whole dataset for different geographic scales (worldwide, European countries, and French administrative regions) and time periods (from January 1 to July 25, 2020, and from July 26 to December 31, 2020). We applied a maximum likelihood discrete trait phylogeographic method to date exchange events (i.e., a transition from one location to another one), to estimate the geographic spread of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and lineages into, from and within France, Europe, and the world. The results unraveled two different patterns of exchange events between the first and second half of 2020. Throughout the year, Europe was systematically associated with most of the intercontinental exchanges. SARS-CoV-2 was mainly introduced into France from North America and Europe (mostly by Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Germany) during the first European epidemic wave. During the second wave, exchange events were limited to neighboring countries without strong intercontinental movement, but Russia widely exported the virus into Europe during the summer of 2020. France mostly exported B.1 and B.1.160 lineages, respectively, during the first and second European epidemic waves. At the level of French administrative regions, the Paris area was the main exporter during the first wave. But, for the second epidemic wave, it equally contributed to virus spread with Lyon area, the second most populated urban area after Paris in France. The main circulating lineages were similarly distributed among the French regions. To conclude, by enabling the inclusion of tens of thousands of viral sequences, this original phylodynamic method enabled us to robustly describe SARS-CoV-2 geographic spread through France, Europe, and worldwide in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Pandemics , Europe/epidemiology , France/epidemiology
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 133: 89-96, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify how the vaccine efficacy of BNT162b2, messenger RNA-1273, AD26.COV2-S, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against detected infection by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants varied by time since the last dose, vaccine scheme, age, and geographic areas. METHODS: We analyzed 3,261,749 community polymerase chain reaction tests conducted by private laboratories in France from December 2021 to March 2022 with a test-negative design comparing vaccinated to unvaccinated individuals. RESULTS: Efficacy against detected infection by Delta was 89% (95% confidence interval, 86-91%) at 2 weeks, down to 59% (56-61%) at 26 weeks and more after the second dose. Efficacy against Omicron was 48% (45-51%) at 2 weeks, down to 4% (2-5%) at 16 weeks after the second dose. A third dose temporarily restored efficacy. Efficacy against Omicron was lower in children and the elderly. Geographical variability in efficacy may reflect variability in the ratio of the number of contacts of vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. This ratio ranged from 0 to +50% across departments and correlated with the number of restaurants and bars per inhabitant (beta = 15.0 [0.75-29], P-value = 0.04), places that only vaccinated individuals could access in the study period. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines conferred low and transient protection against Omicron infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine Efficacy , Child , Aged , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , France/epidemiology
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(9): 1306, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311883
13.
14.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(4): e135-e136, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a complete panel of actions of the Service de Santé des Armées (SSA) (ie, French Military Health Service) that together contributed to prevent French health system saturation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study. METHODS: Actions taken by military practitioners in the Parisian military hospitals, which contained 500 beds, to fight COVID-19 were listed and described. RESULTS: The Parisian military hospitals were fully reorganized to offer 147% more intensive care unit beds and took care of 665 inpatients with COVID-19 while continuing their core mission of war-wounded military care. A strategy to prioritize the use of medicine and medical devices was designed to avoid shortages. Field intensive care unit deployment and airborne collective medical evacuation by the SSA's MoRPHEE system avoided hospital saturation. CONCLUSIONS: Key facets of this achievement were interunit collaboration, esprit de corps, and health workers' adaptability. Small hospitals can provide a coherent answer to the COVID-19 pandemic, as long as they organize and prioritize the patients' care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Military/organization & administration , France/epidemiology , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Euro Surveill ; 28(15)2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295895

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTo cope with the persistence of the COVID-19 epidemic and the decrease in antibody levels following vaccination, a third dose of vaccine has been recommended in the general population. However, several vaccine regimens had been used initially for the primary vaccination course, and the heterologous Vaxzevria/Comirnaty regimen had shown better efficacy and immunogenicity than the homologous Comirnaty/Comirnaty regimen.AimWe wanted to determine if this benefit was retained after a third dose of an mRNA vaccine.MethodsWe combined an observational epidemiological study of SARS-CoV-2 infections among vaccinated healthcare workers at the University Hospital of Lyon, France, with a prospective cohort study to analyse immunological parameters before and after the third mRNA vaccine dose.ResultsFollowing the second vaccine dose, heterologous vaccination regimens were more protective against infection than homologous regimens (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-3.00; p = 0.008), but this was no longer the case after the third dose (adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72-1.02; p = 0.082). Receptor-binding domain-specific IgG levels and serum neutralisation capacity against different SARS-CoV-2 variants were higher after the third dose than after the second dose in the homologous regimen group, but not in the heterologous group.ConclusionThe advantage conferred by heterologous vaccination was lost after the third dose in terms of both protection and immunogenicity. Immunological measurements 1 month after vaccination suggest that heterologous vaccination induces maximal immunity after the second dose, whereas the third dose is required to reach the same level in individuals with a homologous regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , France/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(6): e409-e417, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 has been estimated for the known variants of concern. However, differences in study designs and settings make comparing variants difficult. We aimed to estimate the incubation period for each variant of concern compared with the historical strain within a unique and large study to identify individual factors and circumstances associated with its duration. METHODS: In this case series analysis, we included participants (aged ≥18 years) of the ComCor case-control study in France who had a SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis between Oct 27, 2020, and Feb 4, 2022. Eligible participants were those who had the historical strain or a variant of concern during a single encounter with a known index case who was symptomatic and for whom the incubation period could be established, those who reported doing a reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) test, and those who were symptomatic by study completion. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, exposure information, circumstances of infection, and COVID-19 vaccination details were obtained via an online questionnaire, and variants were established through variant typing after RT-PCR testing or by matching the time that a positive test was reported with the predominance of a specific variant. We used multivariable linear regression to identify factors associated with the duration of the incubation period (defined as the number of days from contact with the index case to symptom onset). FINDINGS: 20 413 participants were eligible for inclusion in this study. Mean incubation period varied across variants: 4·96 days (95% CI 4·90-5·02) for alpha (B.1.1.7), 5·18 days (4·93-5·43) for beta (B.1.351) and gamma (P.1), 4·43 days (4·36-4·49) for delta (B.1.617.2), and 3·61 days (3·55-3·68) for omicron (B.1.1.529) compared with 4·61 days (4·56-4·66) for the historical strain. Participants with omicron had a shorter incubation period than participants with the historical strain (-0·9 days, 95% CI -1·0 to -0·7). The incubation period increased with age (participants aged ≥70 years had an incubation period 0·4 days [0·2 to 0·6] longer than participants aged 18-29 years), in female participants (by 0·1 days, 0·0 to 0·2), and in those who wore a mask during contact with the index case (by 0·2 days, 0·1 to 0·4), and was reduced in those for whom the index case was symptomatic (-0·1 days, -0·2 to -0·1). These data were robust to sensitivity analyses correcting for an over-reporting of incubation periods of 7 days. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 incubation period is notably reduced in omicron cases compared with all other variants of concern, in young people, after transmission from a symptomatic index case, after transmission to a maskless secondary case, and (to a lesser extent) in men. These findings can inform future COVID-19 contact-tracing strategies and modelling. FUNDING: Institut Pasteur, the French National Agency for AIDS Research-Emerging Infectious Diseases, Fondation de France, the INCEPTION project, and the Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases project.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Research Design , France/epidemiology
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 32: e20, 2023 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295142

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Mitigation actions during the COVID-19 pandemic may impact mental health and suicide in general populations. We aimed to analyse the evolution in suicide deaths from 2020 to March 2022 in France. METHODS: Using free-text medical causes in death certificates, we built an algorithm, which aimed to identify suicide deaths. We measured its retrospective performances by comparing suicide deaths identified using the algorithm with deaths which had either a Tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) code for 'intentional self-harm' or for 'external cause of undetermined intent' as the underlying cause. The number of suicide deaths from January 2020 to March 2022 was then compared with the expected number estimated using a generalized additive model. The difference and the ratio between the observed and expected number of suicide deaths were calculated on the three lockdown periods and for periods between lockdowns and after the third one. The analysis was stratified by age group and gender. RESULTS: The free-text algorithm demonstrated high performances. From January 2020 to mid-2021, suicide mortality declined during France's three lockdowns, particularly in men. During the periods between and after the two first lockdowns, suicide mortality remained comparable to the expected values, except for men over 85 years old and in 65-84 year-old age group, where a small number of excess deaths was observed in the weeks following the end of first lockdown, and for men aged 45-64 years old, where the decline continued after the second lockdown ended. After the third lockdown until March 2022, an increase in suicide mortality was observed in 18-24 year-old age group for both genders and in men aged 65-84 years old, while a decrease was observed in the 25-44 year-old age group. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the absence of an increase in suicide mortality during France's COVID-19 pandemic and a substantial decline during lockdown periods, something already observed in other countries. The increase in suicide mortality observed in 18-24 year-old age group and in men aged 65-84 years old from mid-2021 to March 2022 suggests a prolonged impact of COVID-19 on mental health, also described on self-harm hospitalizations and emergency department's attendances in France. Further studies are required to explain the factors for this change. Reactive monitoring of suicide mortality needs to be continued since mental health consequences and the increase in suicide mortality may be continued in the future with the international context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Suicide/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Cause of Death , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology
18.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294487

ABSTRACT

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, and their oncogenic role has been well demonstrated in genital, anal, and oropharyngeal areas. However, a certain distrust and a lack of knowledge about this vaccine are perceptible among French adolescents and their parents. Thus, health professionals and, more particularly, pharmacists appear to be key persons to promote HPV vaccination and restore confidence in the target population. The present study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HPV vaccination among pharmacists, particularly in boys, following the 2019 recommendation to vaccinate them. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional, quantitative, and descriptive survey that was conducted from March to September 2021 among pharmacists in France. 215 complete questionnaires were collected. Gaps in knowledge were found, only 21.4% and 8.4% obtained a high level of knowledge related to, respectively, HPV and vaccination. Pharmacists were confident in the HPV vaccine (94.4%), found it safe and useful, and felt that the promotion of the vaccine was part of their role (94.0%). However, only a few have already advised it, which they justify due to a lack of opportunity and forgetfulness. Faced with this, training, computerized reminders, or supportive materials could be implemented to improve the advice and thus the vaccination coverage. Finally, 64.2% were in favor of a pharmacy-based vaccination program. In conclusion, pharmacists are interested in this vaccination and the role of promoter. However, they need the means to facilitate this mission: training, computer alerts, supportive materials such as flyers, and the implementation of vaccination in pharmacies.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Pharmacists , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Surveys and Questionnaires , France
19.
J Mycol Med ; 33(2): 101380, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive cerebral aspergillosis (ICA) is a rare but fatal infection affecting neutropenic immunocompromised patients. Recently cases have been reported in non-neutropenic settings also. We hereby present a series of ICA cases in non-neutropenic patients diagnosed at our tertiary care centre in Western India between March to October 2021. METHODS: All patients with clinico-radiological suspicion of CNS infections were analysed. Data regarding Clinico-radiological features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome were collected. After ruling out bacterial, viral and mycobacterial causes, appropriate samples were sent for KOH (potassium hydroxide) wet mount, fungal culture, histopathology and serum/CSF galactomannan. RESULTS: A total of four patients were diagnosed with ICA with a mean age of 43.5 years. Three patients had significant comorbidities; Diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease and COVID-19 pneumonia treated with dexamethasone, respectively. One patient had no known predisposing factor. Radiologically, one patient presented with a frontal brain abscess and two patients had multiple subcortical hyperintensities. Three patients were diagnosed based on CSF galactomannan (Platelia™ Aspergillus antigen, Bio-Rad, France) with OD >1 and one patient had high serum galactomannan (OD >2). CSF culture grew Aspergillus species in two patients. All patients were treated with Voriconazole. One patient recovered, and the remaining three succumbed due to delayed presentation and extensive cerebral involvement. CONCLUSION: Even in non-neutropenic patients, a high index of suspicion is warranted for cerebral aspergillosis. CSF galactomannan can be considered a reliable marker for diagnosing ICA in non-neutropenic settings. Early diagnosis allows timely antifungal therapy, which could be a key to improving the outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , France , Mannans , Galactose
20.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 22(2): 238-245, 2020 03 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in prisons and other preventive detention centers, in order to characterize the response lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 88 publications were identified in databases and digital repositories using key terms. After applying the PRISMA methodology, 18 publications were selected to carry out the qualitative analysis. The chosen publications refer to recommendations from academics, researchers and experts. 6 publications issued by the Governments of Canada, Belgium, France and United States of America were analyzed to make clear the government perspectives. Publications related to underage and psychiatric patients were not considered. RESULTS: Although there isn't enough literature, it was possible to characterize the available recommendations, grouping them into 6 lines of action. Within these lines, the establishment of physical, administrative, legal, hygienic and health measures is considered essential. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the epidemiological management and adaptation of health services based on the burden of disease and susceptibility of the persons under arrest. CONCLUSIONS: The response to COVID-19 in detention centers is complex and challenging. Therefore, the conventional steps like hygienic, sanitary, medical and epidemiological care aren't enough. In fact, the adjustment of criminal and penitentiary policies and the transformation of the justice system are considered essential to reduce and control the residential density.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , France , Jails , Prisons , Public Health , United States
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