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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our project aims to provide: an overview of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of mental health professionals in 23 countries;a model of recommendations for good practice and proposals for methods and digital tools to improve the well-being at work of mental health professionals and the quality of services offered during crisis and post-crisis periods;an in-depth ethics review of the assessment of the use of numerical tools for psychiatry professionals and patient support, including teleconsulting. METHODS: This is a large international survey conducted among 2,000 mental health professionals in 23 countries over a 12-month period. This survey will be based on 30 individual interviews and 20 focus group sessions, and a digital questionnaire will be sent online to 2,000 professionals based on the criteria of gender, age, professional experience, psychiatric specialty, context of work in psychiatry, and geographical location. Regarding the development of telepsychiatry during the COVID-19 pandemic, a pilot study on the use of digital tools will be carried out on 100 clients of psychiatry professionals in France and Belgium. DISCUSSION-CONCLUSION: This study will contribute to the co-construction of an international organization and monitoring system that takes into account psychiatric health professionals as major resources to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and to develop efficient processes for preparing and anticipating crises by reducing psychosocial risks as much as possible. This project also aims to design tools for remote medicine and to develop the use of numerical tools for monitoring and supporting professionals and helping professionals to build the conditions for satisfactory operational work during crises and post-crisis situations, using adapted organizational methods. Our ongoing research should support professionals in the search for existing concrete solutions to cope with emergency work situations while maintaining an optimal quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health , Pandemics , Professional Practice , Psychotherapists/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613513

ABSTRACT

Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% reduction in transmission rates might further reduce it by 41%, indicating that even small increases in protective behaviours may be critical to mitigate the wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261756, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes have often been sudden and massive. The study investigated the role SARS-CoV-2 virus spread in nearby population plays in introducing the disease in nursing homes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was carried out through modelling the occurrences of first cases in each of 943 nursing homes of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes French Region over the first epidemic wave (March-July, 2020). The cumulative probabilities of COVID-19 outbreak in the nursing homes and those of hospitalization for the disease in the population were modelled in each of the twelve Départements of the Region over period March-July 2020. This allowed estimating the duration of the active outbreak period, the dates and heights of the peaks of outbreak probabilities in nursing homes, and the dates and heights of the peaks of hospitalization probabilities in the population. Spearman coefficient estimated the correlation between the two peak series. RESULTS: The cumulative proportion of nursing homes with COVID-19 outbreaks was 52% (490/943; range: 22-70% acc. Département). The active outbreak period in the nursing homes lasted 11 to 21 days (acc. Département) and ended before lockdown end. Spearman correlation between outbreak probability peaks in nursing homes and hospitalization probability peaks in the population (surrogate of the incidence peaks) was estimated at 0.71 (95% CI: [0.66; 0.78]). CONCLUSION: The modelling highlighted a strong correlation between the outbreak in nursing homes and the external pressure of the disease. It indicated that avoiding disease outbreaks in nursing homes requires a tight control of virus spread in the surrounding populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Nursing Homes/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Delay between symptom onset and access to care is essential to prevent clinical worsening for different infectious diseases. For COVID-19, this delay might be associated with the clinical prognosis, but also with the different characteristics of patients. The objective was to describe characteristics and symptoms of community-acquired (CA) COVID-19 patients at hospital admission according to the delay between symptom onset and hospital admission, and to identify determinants associated with delay of admission. METHODS: The present work was based on prospective NOSO-COR cohort data, and restricted to patients with laboratory confirmed CA SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to Lyon hospitals between February 8 and June 30, 2020. Long delay of hospital admission was defined as ≥6 days between symptom onset and hospital admission. Determinants of the delay between symptom onset and hospital admission were identified by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Data from 827 patients were analysed. Patients with a long delay between symptom onset and hospital admission were younger (p<0.01), had higher body mass index (p<0.01), and were more frequently admitted to intensive care unit (p<0.01). Their plasma levels of C-reactive protein were also significantly higher (p<0.01). The crude in-hospital fatality rate was lower in this group (13.3% versus 27.6%), p<0.01. Multiple analysis with correction for multiple testing showed that age ≥75 years was associated with a short delay between symptom onset and hospital admission (≤5 days) (aOR: 0.47 95% CI (0.34-0.66)) and CRP>100 mg/L at admission was associated with a long delay (aOR: 1.84 95% CI (1.32-2.55)). DISCUSSION: Delay between symptom onset and hospital admission is a major issue regarding prognosis of COVID-19 but can be related to multiple factors such as individual characteristics, organization of care and severe pathogenic processes. Age seems to play a key role in the delay of access to care and the disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hospitalization/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3279-3288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalization rates, patient characteristics and 30-day case fatality rates. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke from January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020 were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes I60 to I64 in the national hospital discharge database. Patient characteristics and management were described according to three time periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. Weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed to compare time trends in the rates of patients hospitalized for stroke as well as in-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates between the years 2017-2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, between weeks 1 and 24, 55,308 patients were hospitalized for stroke in France. IRRs decreased by up to 30% for all age groups, sex, and stroke types during the lockdown compared to the period 2017-2019. Patients hospitalized during the second and third weeks of the lockdown had higher in-hospital case fatality rates compared to 2017-2019. In-hospital case fatality rates increased by almost 60% in patients aged under 65 years. Out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates increased between weeks 11 and 15 among patients who returned home after their hospitalization. Important changes in care management were found, including fewer stroke patients admitted to resuscitation units, more admitted to stroke care units, and a shorter mean length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: During the first weeks of the lockdown, rates of patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 30% and there were substantial increases of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603690

ABSTRACT

Equal Access to the COVID-19 vaccine for all remains a major public health issue. The current study compared the prevalence of vaccination reluctance in general and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and social and health factors associated with intentions to receive the vaccine. A random socio-epidemiological population-based survey was conducted in France in November 2020, in which 85,855 adults participants were included in this study. We used logistic regressions to study being "not at all in favor" to vaccination in general, and being "certainly not" willing to get vaccinated against Covid-19. Our analysis highlighted a gendered reluctance toward vaccination in general but even more so regarding vaccination against COVID-19 (OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.79-1.97)). We also found that people at the bottom of the social hierarchy, in terms of level of education, financial resources, were more likely to refuse the COVID-19 vaccine (from OR = 1.22 (95% CI:1.10-1.35) for respondents without diploma to OR = 0.52 (95% CI:0.47-0.57) for High school +5 or more years level). People from the French overseas departments, immigrants and descendants of immigrants, were all more reluctant to the Covid-19 vaccine (first-generation Africa/Asia immigrants OR = 1.16 (95% CI:1.04-1.30)) versus OR = 2.19 (95% CI:1.96-2.43) for the majority population). Finally, our analysis showed that those who reported not trusting the government were more likely to be Covid-19 vaccine-reluctant (OR = 3.29 (95% CI: 3.13-3.45)). Specific campaigns should be thought beforehand to reach women and people at the bottom of the social hierarchy to avoid furthering social inequalities in terms of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hostility , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602770

ABSTRACT

With more than 1400 chiropteran species identified to date, bats comprise one-fifth of all mammalian species worldwide. Many studies have associated viral zoonoses with 45 different species of bats in the EU, which cluster within 5 families of bats. For example, the Serotine bats are infected by European Bat 1 Lyssavirus throughout Europe while Myotis bats are shown infected by coronavirus, herpesvirus and paramyxovirus. Correct host species identification is important to increase our knowledge of the ecology and evolutionary pattern of bat viruses in the EU. Bat species identification is commonly determined using morphological keys. Morphological determination of bat species from bat carcasses can be limited in some cases, due to the state of decomposition or nearly indistinguishable morphological features in juvenile bats and can lead to misidentifications. The overall objective of our study was to identify insectivorous bat species using molecular biology tools with the amplification of the partial cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Two types of samples were tested in this study, bat wing punches and bat faeces. A total of 163 bat wing punches representing 22 species, and 31 faecal pellets representing 7 species were included in the study. From the 163 bat wing punches tested, a total of 159 were genetically identified from amplification of the partial cyt b gene. All 31 faecal pellets were genetically identified based on the cyt b gene. A comparison between morphological and genetic determination showed 21 misidentifications from the 163 wing punches, representing ~12.5% of misidentifications of morphological determination compared with the genetic method, across 11 species. In addition, genetic determination allowed the identification of 24 out of 25 morphologically non-determined bat samples. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a genetic approach as an efficient and reliable method to identify bat species precisely.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Animals , Epidemiological Monitoring , Feces/chemistry , France , Rabies/veterinary , Wings, Animal/chemistry , Zoonoses
8.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 79(6): 535-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599850

ABSTRACT

During the first wave of Covid-19 in France, in spring 2020, healthcare institution's laboratory had to adapt itself quickly to the growing demand for emergency biology, in particular by reorganizing their POCT analyzers: redeployment of analyzers and/or new installations. In order to analyze this management, a subgroup of 15 hospital biologists from the SFBC Working Group "Biochemical markers of Covid-19" sent, in fall 2020, an on-line survey to French hospital laboratories using POCT. Answers analysis (n = 86) shows a territorial disparity related to the severity of the first wave: increased activity essentially in red zones, management of unexpected situations, training of additional nursing staff for 40 % of the laboratories... The survey also showed simplification of aspects related to accreditation those periods of health crisis. An additional survey, carried out in the spring of 2021, showed good overall satisfaction of the healthcare services (n = 139) concerning the services provided by biology in the POCT sector. Because of their great adaptation capacity, the laboratories and their POCT-teams have played a key role in the management of the first wave of Covid-19 in France. However, the success of these organizations requires an essential collaboration between laboratories and healthcare services. The results of this survey are fundamental in the context of the prolongation of the pandemia throughout the world with a POCT sector appearing to be growing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratories, Hospital , Accreditation , France , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596574

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of alternative care modalities (eg, teleconsultations and task shifting) that will continue to be implemented in parallel to traditional care after the pandemic. An ideal balance between alternative and traditional care modalities is unknown. Objectives: To quantify the ideal postpandemic balance between alternative and traditional care modalities among patients with chronic illness and to qualify the circumstances in which patients consider it appropriate to replace traditional care with alternative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study invited 5999 adults with chronic illness in ComPaRe, a French nationwide e-cohort of adults with chronic conditions who volunteer their time to participate in research projects, to participate in this study, which was performed from January 27 to February 23, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants rated the ideal proportion at which they would use 3 alternative care modalities instead of the traditional care equivalent on a 0% to 100% scale (with 0% indicating using alternative care modalities for none of one's future care and 100% indicating using alternative care modalities for all of one's future care) of their overall future care: (1) teleconsultations, (2) online symptom-checkers to react to new symptoms, and (3) remote monitoring to adapt treatment outside consultations. The median ideal proportion of alternative care use was calculated. Perceived appropriate circumstances in which each alternative modality could replace traditional care were collected with open-ended questions. Analyses were performed on a weighted data set representative of patients with chronic illness in France. Results: Of the 5999 invited individuals, 1529 (mean [SD] age, 50.3 [14.7] years; 1072 [70.1%] female) agreed to participate (participation rate, 25.5%). Participants would choose teleconsultations for 50.0% of their future consultations (IQR, 11.0%-52.0%), online symptom-checkers over contacting their physician for 22.0% of new symptoms (IQR, 2.0%-50.0%), and remote monitoring instead of consultations for 52.3% of their treatment adaptations (IQR, 25.4%-85.4%). Participants reported 67 circumstances for which replacing traditional with alternative care modalities was considered appropriate, including 31 care activities (eg, prescription renewal and addressing acute or minor complaints), 25 patient characteristics (eg, stable chronic condition and established patient-physician relationship), and 11 required characteristics of the alternative care modalities (eg, quality assurance). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this survey study suggest that after the pandemic, patients would choose alternative over traditional care for 22% to 52% of the time across different care needs. Participants proposed 67 criteria to guide clinicians in replacing traditional care with alternative care. These findings provide a guide for redesigning care in collaboration with patients after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Preference , Adult , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 265, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic has sent students around the world in to lockdown. This study sought to assess the prevalence of impaired self-perceived mental health and identify associated factors among French post-secondary students during the lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among French students living in the Grand Est area in France from May 7 to 17, 2020 during the first lockdown. An online survey was used to collect sociodemographic data, learning and teaching conditions, living conditions, and exposure to COVID-19, and self-perceived mental health was assessed with mental composite score (MCS) of the SF-12. RESULTS: Overall, 4018 were analyzed. Most participants were female (70.7%), and the mean age was 21.7 years (SD 4.0). The mean MCS score was 44.5 (SD 17.3). Impaired mental health, defined by a MCS < 1st Quartile, was mainly associated with female sex; decreased time for learning; not having access to the outside with a garden, a terrace or a balcony; difficulties with the living situation and having someone in the home affected by the SARS-COV2 requiring hospitalization or not. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that living conditions during lockdown had a clear impact on the mental health of French post-secondary students. There is a need to improve prevention and to access distance education as well as an urgent need for measures to develop healthy coping strategies for students. This is significant challenge and will assist in moderating the risk for the development of further distress and mental health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24326, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585785

ABSTRACT

We develop a site-bond percolation model, called PERCOVID, in order to describe the time evolution of all epidemics propagating through respiratory tract or by skin contacts in human populations. This model is based on a network of social relationships representing interconnected households experiencing governmental non-pharmaceutical interventions. As a very first testing ground, we apply our model to the understanding of the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in France from December 2019 up to December 2021. Our model shows the impact of lockdowns and curfews, as well as the influence of the progressive vaccination campaign in order to keep COVID-19 pandemic under the percolation threshold. We illustrate the role played by social interactions by comparing two typical scenarios with low or high strengths of social relationships as compared to France during the first wave in March 2020. We investigate finally the role played by the α and δ variants in the evolution of the epidemic in France till autumn 2021, paying particular attention to the essential role played by the vaccination. Our model predicts that the rise of the epidemic observed in July and August 2021 would not result in a new major epidemic wave in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interpersonal Relations , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination
12.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-8, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574179

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease COVID-19 has killed over 2 million people as of 22 January 2021. We have used a modified susceptible, infected, recovered epidemiological model to predict how the spread of the virus in France will vary depending on the public health strategies adopted, including anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Our prediction model indicates that the French authorities' adoption of a gradual release from lockdown could lead in March 2021 to a virus prevalence similar to that before lockdown. However, a massive vaccination campaign initiated in January 2021 and the continuation of public health measures over several months could curb the spread of virus and thus relieve the load on hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6822-6827, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544313

ABSTRACT

Information gathered so far from published studies attest the existence of a complex relationship between tobacco smoking and the severity of COVID-19. We investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in university-affiliated hospitals in Lyon, France. Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and biological characteristics of adult COVID-19 hospitalized patients presenting from the community were prospectively collected and analyzed. Tobacco exposure was documented at admission. Characteristics of patients hospitalized in medical wards to those admitted or transferred to intensive care units (ICUs) were compared using Mann-Whitney and Χ2 or Fisher's exact test. A composite endpoint including admission or transfer to ICU or death was created as a proxy for severe outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to identify variables independently associated with a severe outcome. Of the 645 patients with documented information on smoking habits, 62.6% were never-smokers, 32.1% ex-smokers, and 5.3% active smokers. Past tobacco use was independently associated with an increased risk of severe outcome (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12-2.63), whereas a nonsignificant protective trend was found for active smoking. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with enhanced risk of progressing toward severe COVID-19 disease in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies
14.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(4): 535-543, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525634

ABSTRACT

On 13 May 2020, a COVID-19 cluster was detected in a French processing plant. Infected workers were described. The associations between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics were assessed in order to implement risk management measures targeting workers at increased risk of contamination. Workers were tested by RT-PCR from samples taken during screening campaigns. Workers who tested positive were isolated and their contacts were quarantined. Workers were described and associations with the SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed through risk ratios using multivariable Poisson regression. Of the 1347 workers, 87.5% were tested: 140 cases were identified; 4 were hospitalised, including 2 admitted to intensive care. In the company, the cluster remained limited to deboning and cutting activities. The attack rate was 11.9% in the company, reaching 16.6% in the cutting department. Being an employee of a subcontractor significantly increased the risk of infection by 2.98 [1.81-4.99]. In the cutting department, an association with virus infection was found for a group of non-French speaking workers from the same Eastern European country (RR = 2.67 [1.76-4.05]). They shared accommodation or carpooled more frequently than the other cases. The outbreak investigation revealed a significantly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for workers of subcontractors and some foreign-born workers. There are many such populations in meat processing plants; the observed associations and the ways in which these workers are contaminated need to be confirmed by further work. Prevention campaigns should now target these workers. Environmental risk factors in the workplace setting remain to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Humans , Meat , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134972, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520146

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a number of unprecedented challenges to the health care system in France, where hip fractures in the elderly population are a major public health concern. Objective: To explore the association of the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in France with the absolute number of hip fractures among patients 50 years or older. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the French national hospitals database to identify patients 50 years or older who were hospitalized for hip fracture in France from January to July 2019 and January to July 2020. Exposures: The first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in France from March 16 to May 10, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the number of hospitalizations for hip fracture from January to July 2020 (study period) compared with the number of hospitalizations for hip fracture during the same period in 2019 (control period). Hospitalization rate ratios (HRRs) comparing the study period with the control period were calculated for 3 intervals (before lockdown [January 1 to March 15], during lockdown [March 16 to May 10], and after lockdown [May 11 to July 31]) and were stratified by gender, age and hospital type. Results: The study included 46 393 patients hospitalized for hip fracture during January to July 2019 (34 589 [74.4%] women; mean [SD] age, 82.8 [10.5] years) and 44 767 patients hospitalized for hip fracture from January to July 2020 (33 160 [74.1%] women; mean [SD] age, 82.9 [10.5] years). During the lockdown in 2020, 10 429 patients (23.30%) were hospitalized for hip fracture compared with 11 782 patients (25.40%) during the same period in 2019 (HRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91; P < .001). The lockdown period was associated with a decrease in the number of hip fractures of 11% among women (from 8756 in 2019 to 7788 in 2020) and 13% among men (from 3026 in 2019 to 2641 in 2020). When the absolute number of hip fractures was stratified by age group, the lockdown period was associated with a decrease in the number of hip fractures in all age groups except in patients older than 89 years (HRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.92-1.01; P = .17). In the group of patients aged 80 to 89 years, the number of hip fractures decreased from 4925 to 4370 (HRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.92; P < .001). During the lockdown, hospitalizations decreased by 33% (HRR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71; P < .001) in public university hospitals and by 24% (HRR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.79; P < .001) in public general hospitals but increased by 46% (HRR, 1.46; 95% CI,1.38-1.54; P < .001) in private for-profit hospitals. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, hospitalizations for hip fractures in France decreased by 11% during the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-lasting consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of osteoporotic fractures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France , Hip Fractures/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , Osteoporotic Fractures/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Elife ; 102021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518778

ABSTRACT

Simulating nationwide realistic individual movements with a detailed geographical structure can help optimise public health policies. However, existing tools have limited resolution or can only account for a limited number of agents. We introduce Epidemap, a new framework that can capture the daily movement of more than 60 million people in a country at a building-level resolution in a realistic and computationally efficient way. By applying it to the case of an infectious disease spreading in France, we uncover hitherto neglected effects, such as the emergence of two distinct peaks in the daily number of cases or the importance of local density in the timing of arrival of the epidemic. Finally, we show that the importance of super-spreading events strongly varies over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Geography/methods , Public Health/methods , France/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health/instrumentation , Spatial Analysis
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e052888, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although social inequalities in COVID-19 mortality by race, gender and socioeconomic status are well documented, less is known about social disparities in infection rates and their shift over time. We aim to study the evolution of social disparities in infection at the early stage of the epidemic in France with regard to the policies implemented. DESIGN: Random population-based prospective cohort. SETTING: From May to June 2020 in France. PARTICIPANTS: Adults included in the Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie cohort (n=77 588). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported anosmia and/or ageusia in three categories: no symptom, during the first epidemic peak (in March 2020) or thereafter (during lockdown). RESULTS: In all, 2052 participants (1.53%) reported anosmia/ageusia. The social distribution of exposure factors (density of place of residence, overcrowded housing and working outside the home) was described. Multinomial regressions were used to identify changes in social variables (gender, class and race) associated with symptoms of anosmia/ageusia. Women were more likely to report symptoms during the peak and after. Racialised minorities accumulated more exposure risk factors than the mainstream population and were at higher risk of anosmia/ageusia during the peak and after. By contrast, senior executive professionals were the least exposed to the virus with the lower rate of working outside the home during lockdown. They were more affected than lower social classes at the peak of the epidemic, but this effect disappeared after the peak. CONCLUSION: The shift in the social profile of the epidemic was related to a shift in exposure factors under the implementation of a stringent stay-at-home order. Our study shows the importance to consider in a dynamic way the gender, socioeconomic and race direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, notably to implement policies that do not widen health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211057635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511685

ABSTRACT

Among the plethora of debilitating neurological disorders of COVID-19 syndrome in survivors, the scope of SARS-CoV-2-induced dysautonomia (DNS) is yet to be understood, though the implications are enormous. Herein, we present an inclusive mini-review of SARS-CoV-2-induced DNS and its associated complications. Although, the direct link between Covid-19 and DSN is still speculative, the hypothetical links are thought to be either a direct neuronal injury of the autonomic pathway or a para/post-infectious immune-induced mechanism. SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced stress may activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) leading to neuro-hormonal stimulation and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines with further development of sympathetic storm. Sympathetic over-activation in Covid-19 is correlated with increase in capillary pulmonary leakage, alveolar damage, and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can spread through pulmonary mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors to medullary respiratory center in a retrograde manner resulting in sudden respiratory failure. Taken together, DSN in Covid-19 is developed due to sympathetic storm and inhibition of Parasympathetic nervous system-mediated anti-inflammatory effect with development of cytokine storm. Therefore, sympathetic and cytokine storms together with activation of Renin-Angiotensin-System are the chief final pathway involved in the development of DSN in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21455, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510605

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown the negative impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on students' mental health. It is, however, uncertain whether students are really at higher risk of mental health disturbances than non-students and if they are differentially impacted by lockdown periods over time. The objective of our study was to compare the frequency of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts in students and non-students enrolled in the same study in France and during the same key periods of the COVID-19 epidemic. Using a repeated cross-sectional design, we collected data from a sample of 3783 participants in the CONFINS study during three recruitment waves between March 2020 and January 2021. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounding factors, showed that students were more likely to have high scores of depressive symptoms and anxiety more frequently than non-students. These differences were particularly strong during the first (depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.22-2.08; anxiety: aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.18) and second lockdowns (depressive symptoms: aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.04-3.12; anxiety: aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.24-4.10). These findings suggest that the restrictive measures-lockdown and curfew-have an alarmingly stronger negative impact on students than on non-students and underline the frailty of students' mental health and the need to pay greater attention to this population in this epidemic-related context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemics , Female , France , Humans , Male , Young Adult
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21812, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505841

ABSTRACT

An estimation of the impact of climatic conditions-measured with an index that combines temperature and humidity, the IPTCC-on the hospitalizations and deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 is proposed. The present paper uses weekly data from 54 French administrative regions between March 23, 2020 and January 10, 2021. Firstly, a Granger causal analysis is developed and reveals that past values of the IPTCC contain information that allow for a better prediction of hospitalizations or deaths than that obtained without the IPTCC. Finally, a vector autoregressive model is estimated to evaluate the dynamic response of hospitalizations and deaths after an increase in the IPTCC. It is estimated that a 10-point increase in the IPTCC causes hospitalizations to rise by 2.9% (90% CI 0.7-5.0) one week after the increase, and by 4.1% (90% CI 2.1-6.4) and 4.4% (90% CI 2.5-6.3) in the two following weeks. Over ten weeks, the cumulative effect is estimated to reach 20.1%. Two weeks after the increase in the IPTCC, deaths are estimated to rise by 3.7% (90% CI 1.6-5.8). The cumulative effect from the second to the tenth weeks reaches 15.8%. The results are robust to the inclusion of air pollution indicators.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Climate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , Decision Making , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Humidity , Infectious Disease Medicine , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration Disorders , Seasons , Temperature
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