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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613513

ABSTRACT

Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% reduction in transmission rates might further reduce it by 41%, indicating that even small increases in protective behaviours may be critical to mitigate the wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3279-3288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalization rates, patient characteristics and 30-day case fatality rates. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke from January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020 were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes I60 to I64 in the national hospital discharge database. Patient characteristics and management were described according to three time periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. Weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed to compare time trends in the rates of patients hospitalized for stroke as well as in-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates between the years 2017-2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, between weeks 1 and 24, 55,308 patients were hospitalized for stroke in France. IRRs decreased by up to 30% for all age groups, sex, and stroke types during the lockdown compared to the period 2017-2019. Patients hospitalized during the second and third weeks of the lockdown had higher in-hospital case fatality rates compared to 2017-2019. In-hospital case fatality rates increased by almost 60% in patients aged under 65 years. Out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates increased between weeks 11 and 15 among patients who returned home after their hospitalization. Important changes in care management were found, including fewer stroke patients admitted to resuscitation units, more admitted to stroke care units, and a shorter mean length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: During the first weeks of the lockdown, rates of patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 30% and there were substantial increases of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24326, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585785

ABSTRACT

We develop a site-bond percolation model, called PERCOVID, in order to describe the time evolution of all epidemics propagating through respiratory tract or by skin contacts in human populations. This model is based on a network of social relationships representing interconnected households experiencing governmental non-pharmaceutical interventions. As a very first testing ground, we apply our model to the understanding of the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in France from December 2019 up to December 2021. Our model shows the impact of lockdowns and curfews, as well as the influence of the progressive vaccination campaign in order to keep COVID-19 pandemic under the percolation threshold. We illustrate the role played by social interactions by comparing two typical scenarios with low or high strengths of social relationships as compared to France during the first wave in March 2020. We investigate finally the role played by the α and δ variants in the evolution of the epidemic in France till autumn 2021, paying particular attention to the essential role played by the vaccination. Our model predicts that the rise of the epidemic observed in July and August 2021 would not result in a new major epidemic wave in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interpersonal Relations , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 265, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic has sent students around the world in to lockdown. This study sought to assess the prevalence of impaired self-perceived mental health and identify associated factors among French post-secondary students during the lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among French students living in the Grand Est area in France from May 7 to 17, 2020 during the first lockdown. An online survey was used to collect sociodemographic data, learning and teaching conditions, living conditions, and exposure to COVID-19, and self-perceived mental health was assessed with mental composite score (MCS) of the SF-12. RESULTS: Overall, 4018 were analyzed. Most participants were female (70.7%), and the mean age was 21.7 years (SD 4.0). The mean MCS score was 44.5 (SD 17.3). Impaired mental health, defined by a MCS < 1st Quartile, was mainly associated with female sex; decreased time for learning; not having access to the outside with a garden, a terrace or a balcony; difficulties with the living situation and having someone in the home affected by the SARS-COV2 requiring hospitalization or not. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that living conditions during lockdown had a clear impact on the mental health of French post-secondary students. There is a need to improve prevention and to access distance education as well as an urgent need for measures to develop healthy coping strategies for students. This is significant challenge and will assist in moderating the risk for the development of further distress and mental health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our project aims to provide: an overview of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of mental health professionals in 23 countries;a model of recommendations for good practice and proposals for methods and digital tools to improve the well-being at work of mental health professionals and the quality of services offered during crisis and post-crisis periods;an in-depth ethics review of the assessment of the use of numerical tools for psychiatry professionals and patient support, including teleconsulting. METHODS: This is a large international survey conducted among 2,000 mental health professionals in 23 countries over a 12-month period. This survey will be based on 30 individual interviews and 20 focus group sessions, and a digital questionnaire will be sent online to 2,000 professionals based on the criteria of gender, age, professional experience, psychiatric specialty, context of work in psychiatry, and geographical location. Regarding the development of telepsychiatry during the COVID-19 pandemic, a pilot study on the use of digital tools will be carried out on 100 clients of psychiatry professionals in France and Belgium. DISCUSSION-CONCLUSION: This study will contribute to the co-construction of an international organization and monitoring system that takes into account psychiatric health professionals as major resources to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and to develop efficient processes for preparing and anticipating crises by reducing psychosocial risks as much as possible. This project also aims to design tools for remote medicine and to develop the use of numerical tools for monitoring and supporting professionals and helping professionals to build the conditions for satisfactory operational work during crises and post-crisis situations, using adapted organizational methods. Our ongoing research should support professionals in the search for existing concrete solutions to cope with emergency work situations while maintaining an optimal quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health , Pandemics , Professional Practice , Psychotherapists/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-8, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574179

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease COVID-19 has killed over 2 million people as of 22 January 2021. We have used a modified susceptible, infected, recovered epidemiological model to predict how the spread of the virus in France will vary depending on the public health strategies adopted, including anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Our prediction model indicates that the French authorities' adoption of a gradual release from lockdown could lead in March 2021 to a virus prevalence similar to that before lockdown. However, a massive vaccination campaign initiated in January 2021 and the continuation of public health measures over several months could curb the spread of virus and thus relieve the load on hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
7.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(4): 535-543, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525634

ABSTRACT

On 13 May 2020, a COVID-19 cluster was detected in a French processing plant. Infected workers were described. The associations between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics were assessed in order to implement risk management measures targeting workers at increased risk of contamination. Workers were tested by RT-PCR from samples taken during screening campaigns. Workers who tested positive were isolated and their contacts were quarantined. Workers were described and associations with the SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed through risk ratios using multivariable Poisson regression. Of the 1347 workers, 87.5% were tested: 140 cases were identified; 4 were hospitalised, including 2 admitted to intensive care. In the company, the cluster remained limited to deboning and cutting activities. The attack rate was 11.9% in the company, reaching 16.6% in the cutting department. Being an employee of a subcontractor significantly increased the risk of infection by 2.98 [1.81-4.99]. In the cutting department, an association with virus infection was found for a group of non-French speaking workers from the same Eastern European country (RR = 2.67 [1.76-4.05]). They shared accommodation or carpooled more frequently than the other cases. The outbreak investigation revealed a significantly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for workers of subcontractors and some foreign-born workers. There are many such populations in meat processing plants; the observed associations and the ways in which these workers are contaminated need to be confirmed by further work. Prevention campaigns should now target these workers. Environmental risk factors in the workplace setting remain to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Humans , Meat , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Elife ; 102021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518778

ABSTRACT

Simulating nationwide realistic individual movements with a detailed geographical structure can help optimise public health policies. However, existing tools have limited resolution or can only account for a limited number of agents. We introduce Epidemap, a new framework that can capture the daily movement of more than 60 million people in a country at a building-level resolution in a realistic and computationally efficient way. By applying it to the case of an infectious disease spreading in France, we uncover hitherto neglected effects, such as the emergence of two distinct peaks in the daily number of cases or the importance of local density in the timing of arrival of the epidemic. Finally, we show that the importance of super-spreading events strongly varies over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Geography/methods , Public Health/methods , France/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health/instrumentation , Spatial Analysis
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e052888, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although social inequalities in COVID-19 mortality by race, gender and socioeconomic status are well documented, less is known about social disparities in infection rates and their shift over time. We aim to study the evolution of social disparities in infection at the early stage of the epidemic in France with regard to the policies implemented. DESIGN: Random population-based prospective cohort. SETTING: From May to June 2020 in France. PARTICIPANTS: Adults included in the Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie cohort (n=77 588). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported anosmia and/or ageusia in three categories: no symptom, during the first epidemic peak (in March 2020) or thereafter (during lockdown). RESULTS: In all, 2052 participants (1.53%) reported anosmia/ageusia. The social distribution of exposure factors (density of place of residence, overcrowded housing and working outside the home) was described. Multinomial regressions were used to identify changes in social variables (gender, class and race) associated with symptoms of anosmia/ageusia. Women were more likely to report symptoms during the peak and after. Racialised minorities accumulated more exposure risk factors than the mainstream population and were at higher risk of anosmia/ageusia during the peak and after. By contrast, senior executive professionals were the least exposed to the virus with the lower rate of working outside the home during lockdown. They were more affected than lower social classes at the peak of the epidemic, but this effect disappeared after the peak. CONCLUSION: The shift in the social profile of the epidemic was related to a shift in exposure factors under the implementation of a stringent stay-at-home order. Our study shows the importance to consider in a dynamic way the gender, socioeconomic and race direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, notably to implement policies that do not widen health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21812, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505841

ABSTRACT

An estimation of the impact of climatic conditions-measured with an index that combines temperature and humidity, the IPTCC-on the hospitalizations and deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 is proposed. The present paper uses weekly data from 54 French administrative regions between March 23, 2020 and January 10, 2021. Firstly, a Granger causal analysis is developed and reveals that past values of the IPTCC contain information that allow for a better prediction of hospitalizations or deaths than that obtained without the IPTCC. Finally, a vector autoregressive model is estimated to evaluate the dynamic response of hospitalizations and deaths after an increase in the IPTCC. It is estimated that a 10-point increase in the IPTCC causes hospitalizations to rise by 2.9% (90% CI 0.7-5.0) one week after the increase, and by 4.1% (90% CI 2.1-6.4) and 4.4% (90% CI 2.5-6.3) in the two following weeks. Over ten weeks, the cumulative effect is estimated to reach 20.1%. Two weeks after the increase in the IPTCC, deaths are estimated to rise by 3.7% (90% CI 1.6-5.8). The cumulative effect from the second to the tenth weeks reaches 15.8%. The results are robust to the inclusion of air pollution indicators.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Climate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , Decision Making , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Humidity , Infectious Disease Medicine , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration Disorders , Seasons , Temperature
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21650, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504883

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV2 has now spread worldwide causing over four million deaths. Testing strategies are highly variable between countries and their impact on mortality is a major issue. Retrospective multicenter study with a prospective database on all inpatients throughout mainland France. Using fixed effects models, we exploit policy discontinuities at region borders in France to estimate the effect of testing on the case fatality rate. In France, testing policies are determined at a regional level, generating exogenous variation in testing rates between departments on each side of a region border. We compared all contiguous department pairs located on the opposite sides of a region border. The increase of one percentage point in the test rate is associated with a decrease of 0.0015 percentage point in the death rate, that is, for each additional 2000 tests, we could observe three fewer deaths. Our study suggests that COVID-19 population testing could have a significant impact on the mortality rate which should be considered in decision-making. As concern grows over the current second wave of COVID-19, our findings support the implementation of large-scale screening strategies in such epidemic contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , France/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/trends , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258320, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a global crisis and authorities have encouraged the population to promote preventive health behaviors to slow the spread of the virus. While the literature on psychological factors influencing health behaviors during the COVID-19 is flourishing, there is a lack of cross-national research focusing on multiple health behaviors. The present study overcomes this limitation and affords a validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a conceptual framework for explaining the adoption of handwashing and limitation of social contacts, two health behaviors that highly differ in their nature. Specifically, we compare TPB model on these two protective behaviors among people living in Belgium (N = 3744) and France (N = 1060) during the COVID-19 sanitary crisis. Data were collected from March 18 until April 19, 2020, which corresponds to the spring lockdown and the first peak of the pandemic in these countries. Results indicated that more positive attitudes, greater social norms, increased perceived control and higher intentions were related to higher adherence to handwashing and limitation of social contacts, for both Belgian and French residents. Ultimately, we argued that the TPB model tends to manifest similarly across countries in explaining health behaviors, when comparing handwashing and limitation of social contacts among individuals living in different national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Social Behavior , Adult , Belgium/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Health Communication , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Psychological Theory , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496379

ABSTRACT

An acceleration index is proposed as a novel indicator to track the dynamics of COVID-19 in real-time. Using data on cases and tests in France for the period between the first and second lock-downs-May 13 to October 25, 2020-our acceleration index shows that the pandemic resurgence can be dated to begin around July 7. It uncovers that the pandemic acceleration was stronger than national average for the [59-68] and especially the 69 and older age groups since early September, the latter being associated with the strongest acceleration index, as of October 25. In contrast, acceleration among the [19-28] age group was the lowest and is about half that of the [69-78]. In addition, we propose an algorithm to allocate tests among French "départements" (roughly counties), based on both the acceleration index and the feedback effect of testing. Our acceleration-based allocation differs from the actual distribution over French territories, which is population-based. We argue that both our acceleration index and our allocation algorithm are useful tools to guide public health policies as France might possibly enter a third lock-down period with indeterminate duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21233, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493229

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a key tool to diagnose Covid-19. Yet it may not be the most efficient test in all patients. In this paper, we develop a clinical strategy for prescribing RT-PCR to patients based on data from COVIDOM, a French cohort of 54,000 patients with clinically suspected Covid-19, including 12,810 patients tested by RT-PCR. We use a machine-learning algorithm (decision tree) in order to predict RT-PCR results based on the clinical presentation. We show that symptoms alone are sufficient to predict RT-PCR outcome with a mean average precision of 86%. We identify combinations of symptoms that are predictive of RT-PCR positivity (90% for anosmia/ageusia) or negativity (only 30% of RT-PCR+ for a subgroup with cardiopulmonary symptoms): in both cases, RT-PCR provides little added diagnostic value. We propose a prescribing strategy based on clinical presentation that can improve the global efficiency of RT-PCR testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 812, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of lockdown in containing the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported in different studies. However, the impact on sociodemographic characteristics of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in sociodemographic characteristics of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to compare the transmission risk factors of COVID-19 before and during lockdown in France. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted in a University Hospital in Paris, France. Data from patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the Infectious Diseases Department between February 26 and May 11, 2020 were collected. The study population was divided into 2 groups: group A of patients infected before lockdown, and group B of patients infected during lockdown, considering a maximum incubation period of 14 days. Sociodemographic characteristics and transmission risk factors were compared between the 2 groups using Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-2 test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-three patients were included in the study, 305 (79.6%) in group A and 78 (20.4%) in group B. Patients in group A were significantly younger (60.0 versus (vs) 66.5 years (p = 0.03)). The professionally active population was larger in group A (44.3% vs 24.4%). There were significantly more non-French-speaking people in group B (16.7% vs 6.6%, p <  0.01). Most patients from group A had individual accommodation (92.8% vs 74.4%, p <  0.01). Contact with a relative was the main transmission risk factor in both groups (24.6% vs 33.3%, p = 0.16). Recent travel and large gathering were found only in group A. The proportion of people living in disadvantaged conditions, such as homeless people or people living in social housing, was significantly higher in group B (11.5% vs 4.3%, p = 0.03) as was the proportion of institutionalized individuals (14.1% vs 3.0%, p <  0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study conducted in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Paris, France, the likelihood of being infected despite the lockdown was higher for people who do not speak French, live in social housing, are homeless or institutionalized. Targeted measures have to be implemented to protect these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0113821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476402

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic means, host factors, delay of occurrence, and outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and fungal coinfections in the intensive care unit (ICU). From 1 February to 31 May 2020, we anonymously recorded COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), fungemia (CA-fungemia), and pneumocystosis (CA-PCP) from 36 centers, including results on fungal biomarkers in respiratory specimens and serum. We collected data from 154 episodes of CAPA, 81 of CA-fungemia, 17 of CA-PCP, and 5 of other mold infections from 244 patients (male/female [M/F] ratio = 3.5; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.8 years). CA-PCP occurred first after ICU admission (median, 1 day; interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 3 days), followed by CAPA (9 days; IQR, 5 to 13 days), and then CA-fungemia (16 days; IQR, 12 to 23 days) (P < 10-4). For CAPA, the presence of several mycological criteria was associated with death (P < 10-4). Serum galactomannan was rarely positive (<20%). The mortality rates were 76.7% (23/30) in patients with host factors for invasive fungal disease, 45.2% (14/31) in those with a preexisting pulmonary condition, and 36.6% (34/93) in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Antimold treatment did not alter prognosis (P = 0.370). Candida albicans was responsible for 59.3% of CA-fungemias, with a global mortality of 45.7%. For CA-PCP, 58.8% of the episodes occurred in patients with known host factors of PCP, and the mortality rate was 29.5%. CAPA may be in part hospital acquired and could benefit from antifungal prescription at the first positive biomarker result. CA-fungemia appeared linked to ICU stay without COVID-19 specificity, while CA-PCP may not really be a concern in the ICU. Improved diagnostic strategy for fungal markers in ICU patients with COVID-19 should support these hypotheses. IMPORTANCE To diagnose fungal coinfections in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, it is necessary to implement the correct treatment and to prevent them if possible. For COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), respiratory specimens remain the best approach since serum biomarkers are rarely positive. Timing of occurrence suggests that CAPA could be hospital acquired. The associated mortality varies from 36.6% to 76.7% when no host factors or host factors of invasive fungal diseases are present, respectively. Fungemias occurred after 2 weeks in ICUs and are associated with a mortality rate of 45.7%. Candida albicans is the first yeast species recovered, with no specificity linked to COVID-19. Pneumocystosis was mainly found in patients with known immunodepression. The diagnosis occurred at the entry in ICUs and not afterwards, suggesting that if Pneumocystis jirovecii plays a role, it is upstream of the hospitalization in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Fungemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/mortality , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Galactose/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/mortality , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
Euro Surveill ; 26(41)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470739

ABSTRACT

We investigated a COVID-19 outbreak at a fire station in Marseille, France. Confirmed cases were defined as individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and/or neutralising antibodies. All 85 firefighters at work during the outbreak period were included after questioning and sampled for RT-PCR and viral neutralisation assay. Twenty-three firefighters were confirmed positive, 19 of them were symptomatic, and four asymptomatic cases were confirmed by virus neutralisation. A total of 22 firefighters had specific neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Neutralising antibodies were found in four asymptomatic and 18 symptomatic cases. Eleven symptomatic cases had high titres (≥ 1:80). The earliest detection of neutralising antibodies was 7 days after symptom onset, and 80% had neutralising antibodies 15 days after onset. One viral culture was positive 13 days after onset. The attack rate was 27%. We identified two introductions of the virus in this outbreak, through a presymptomatic and a paucisymptomatic case. Asymptomatic cases were not the source of a third generation of cases, although they worked without wearing a mask, indicating that asymptomatic cases did not play a significant role in this outbreak. Management and strategy based on early research of clinical signs associated with self-quarantine was effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firefighters , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails , Public Health , Adult , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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