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1.
Nurs Ethics ; 29(6): 1321-1322, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053659

Subject(s)
Culture , Friends , Humans , Trust
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 949438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022972

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to test whether two SARS-CoV-2 experiences, knowing someone who had died of SARS-CoV-2 infection and having received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, were associated with shorter sleep duration among undergraduate students. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted at a large public Midwestern university in September 2020 (fall semester). Self-reported average sleep duration and the exposures of interest, knowing someone who died from a SARS-CoV-2 infection and their own SARS-CoV-2 test result, were collected from 1,058 undergraduate study participants. Results: Respondents who knew someone who had died of a SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to report having a short sleep duration, compared to respondents who did not know someone who had died of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.79). However, those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result were less likely to report a short sleep duration, compared to respondents without a positive test history (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.91). Conclusions: These findings suggest that college students' knowing someone who had died of SARS-CoV-2 infection and having received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result are associated with sleep duration. However, different experiences may impact sleep differently, so further research is warranted to better understand how unusual events impact the sleep of college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Friends , Humans , Sleep , Students
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010077

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affected child/adolescent activities (e.g., extra-curricular, screen time), along with physical health (PH) and mental health (MH); however, less is known about the relationship between changes in activities and PH and MH in the United States and how these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. To address this gap, data were used from a national survey (Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Survey) administered May-June 2021 (n = 853). Multinomial logistic regression explored changes in outdoor, school, extracurricular, friend, and screen time activities with changes in PH and MH; interactions explored moderation by race/ethnicity. Results showed increases in outdoor (RRR 2.36, p = 0.003), school (RRR 3.07, p < 0.001), and extracurricular activities (RRR 3.05, p < 0.001), which were associated with increases in chances of better PH. Better MH was more likely for children/adolescents where friend activities (RRR 3.34, p < 0.001) and extracurriculars (RRR 4.48, p < 0.001) increased. Except for extracurriculars, heterogeneous relationships were observed (e.g., increases and decreases in activities were simultaneously related to better and worse health). The relationship between outdoor activities and screen time with health were moderated by race/ethnicity. Findings support facilitating outdoor, school, extracurricular, and friend activities, which were positively related to health. Given heterogeneity and variation by race/ethnicity, more research is needed to understand the complex relationship between activities and health during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends , Humans , Pandemics , Schools , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979321

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether dining with companions is correlated with the alleviation of depression and differs by sex among Korean adults. We used 4-year data from the 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We surveyed 11,055 participants (4699 men, 6356 women) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure their depression scores. We evaluated participants' meal companionship status by asking whether they had usually dined with companions for breakfast, lunch, or dinner during the past year. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square tests and multivariate/multinomial logistic regression. We found depression to be less prevalent among participants who dined with companions at least once a day (adjusted OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.15-0.45, men; adjusted OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.74, women). In the moderate depression subgroup, participants who dined with companions at least once a day showed lower OR (adjusted OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.16-0.50, men; adjusted OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32-0.76, women). Among participants who dined together, men's severe depression dramatically decreased (adjusted OR: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.31). Thus, we found an association between dining with companions and the prevalence of depression among Korean adults. Dining with companions compared with dining alone signified a lower depression rate, especially among men. This study can provide an initiative to further analyze psychological and physiological effects of dining together and be applied to practical fields as education and societal campaigns.


Subject(s)
Depression , Friends , Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Meals , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand which factors affect how willing people are to share their personal information to combat the Covid-19 pandemic, and compare them to factors that affect other public health behaviors. METHOD: We analyze data from three pre-registered online experiments conducted over eight months during the Covid-19 pandemic in the United States (April 3 2020 -November 25, 2020). Our primary analysis tests whether support for data sharing and intention to practice protective behavior increase in response to relationship-centered messages about prosociality, disease spread, and financial hardship. We then conduct a secondary correlational analysis to compare the demographic and attitudinal factors associated with willingness to share data, protective behavior, and intent to get vaccinated. Our sample (N = 650) is representative to socio-demographic characteristics of the U.S. population. RESULTS: We find the altruistic condition increased respondents' willingness to share data. In our correlational analysis, we find interactive effects of political ID and socio-demographic traits on likelihood to share data. In contrast, we found health behavior was most strongly associated with political ID, and intent to vaccinate was more associated with socio-demographic traits. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that some public health messaging, even when it is not about data sharing or privacy, may increase public willingness to share data. We also find the role of socio-demographic factors in moderating the effect of political party ID varies by public health behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Privacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Friends , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 67: 101016, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937319

ABSTRACT

Incidents of strokes are increased in young women relative to young men, suggesting that oral contraceptive (OC) use is one of the causes of stroke among young women. Long-term exposures to the varying combinations of estrogen and progestogen found in OCs affect blood clotting, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, endothelial function, and de novo synthesis of neurosteroids, especially brain-derived 17ß-estradiol. The latter is essential for neuroprotection, memory, sexual differentiation, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Deleterious effects of OCs may be exacerbated due to comorbidities like polycystic ovary syndrome, sickle cell anemia, COVID-19, exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and conventional or electronic cigarette smoking. The goal of the current review is to revisit the available literature regarding the impact of OC use on stroke, to explain possible underlying mechanisms, and to identify gaps in our understanding to promote future research to reduce and cure stroke in OC users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Stroke , Male , Female , Humans , Contraceptives, Oral/pharmacology , Friends , Stroke/etiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917444

ABSTRACT

Loneliness and social isolation are well known to have detrimental effects on mental and physical health, and the perception of social support is frequently viewed as a protective factor. Yet, the beneficial effect varies when perceived support is considered with respect to gender and personality. We examined the mechanism of loneliness as a mediator of personality on health and moderation of this relationship by perceived social support and gender. Five hundred and thirty young adults (325 women) aged 18-32 years (Mage = 25.42, SD = 4.13) provided self-report assessments of personality, loneliness, perceived social support, general health and psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being. Using a series of regression-based mediation and moderated mediation models, we found higher scores on extraversion to be associated with lower loneliness and better general health and well-being; higher neuroticism with greater loneliness and poorer general health. Being male and perceiving greater friend support moderated the neuroticism-loneliness-well-being relationship. Men higher on neuroticism were less able to benefit from lower loneliness when the perception of support from friends was greater, yet were less sensitive to the negative impact on the well-being of perceiving low levels of friend support. Effects suggest important gender differences with the potential to inform health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Friends , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Neuroticism , Pandemics , Social Support , Young Adult
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 889227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903230

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of COVID-19 among staff in China-Guinea Friendship Hospital, and to confirm the effect of nosocomial infection management. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2021. Information on socio demographic data, knowledge, attitude and practices related to COVID-19 was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 143 employees participated in the survey, with a response rate of 99.31% and a vaccination rate of 95.10%. The average knowledge score of COVID-19 was 8.39 ± 1.3 points (10 points in total), without significant differences between subgroups with different demographic variables (P > 0.05); more than 80% of the participants had a positive attitude, and 72.03-93.01% of the participants could take appropriate preventive practices in different environments such as hospital, outdoor or home. Conclusion: The staff of the China-Guinea Friendship Hospital has good knowledge of COVID-19, a positive attitude and appropriate preventive practices. It can be concluded that the current nosocomial infection management is active and effective. Therefore, this study suggests that comprehensive activities such as training, promotion and supervision of COVID-19-related knowledge and countermeasures should be widely and continuously implemented in healthcare facilities, which will continuously improve the overall KAP level of hospital staff and play an important role in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Friends , Guinea , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7458, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900637

ABSTRACT

Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents' prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10-25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint). Results from the first timepoint showed that emotional support directed to friends peaked in mid-adolescence, whereas emotional support towards family members showed a gradual increase from childhood to young adulthood. Furthermore, daily emotional support increased between the first and second timepoint. Daily emotional support to friends predicted giving behavior to all targets, whereas emotional support to family was specifically associated with giving to COVID-19 targets. These findings elucidate the relation between daily actions and prosocial giving to societally-relevant targets in times of crisis, underlying the importance of prosocial experiences during adolescence.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends , Humans , Pandemics , Peer Group , Young Adult
11.
ChemMedChem ; 17(16): e202200278, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898630

ABSTRACT

The search of antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 in available libraries of compounds was initiated as soon as WHO announced that the coronavirus outbreak became a pandemic. That pivotal task has been conducted by both experimental groups in wet-labs as well as by theoretical chemists in supercomputing centers. The combination of biochemical and clinical intuitions yields first to remdesivir, a broad-spectrum antiviral that remains as the standard solution for the treatment of severe cases, while paxlovid, molnupiravir and fluvoxamine have been recently proposed as oral alternatives. Unfortunately, the intensive publication of standard virtual screening (VS) simulations might be not the best strategy to increase that short list of antivirals. This contribution joins theory and biological assays to rescore massive VS. Our goal is to critically assess pros and cons of using molecular models for drug repurposing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Drug Repositioning , Friends , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884169

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 poses an immense global threat. Visitors to hospitalized patients during a pandemic might themselves be carriers, and so hospitals strictly control patients and inpatient companions. However, it is not easy for cancer patients to adjust the times of their medical treatment or to suspend treatment, and the impact of the pandemic on cancer inpatients and inpatient companions is relatively high. The objectives for this investigation are to study the correlations among emotional stress, pain, and the presence of inpatient companions in cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was a retrospective descriptive study. The participants were cancer inpatients and inpatient companions in a medical center in Taiwan. The data for this study were extracted from cross-platform structured and normalized electronic medical record databases. Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 22.0 were used for analysis of the data. In all, 75.15% of the cancer inpatients were accompanied by family, and the number of hospitalization days were 7.87 ± 10.77 days, decreasing year by year, with statistical significance of p < 0.001. The daily nursing hours were 12.94 ± 10.76, and the nursing hours decreased year by year, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in gender among those who accompanied the patients, but there were statistical differences in the length of hospitalization, nursing hours, and pain scores between those with and without inpatient companions, with p < 0.001. The inpatient companions were mostly family members (78%). The findings of this study on cancer patient care and inpatient companions should serve as an important basis for the transformation and reform of the inpatient companion culture and for epidemic prevention care in hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Friends , Humans , Inpatients , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267790, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted many different facets of life. The infectious nature of the disease has led to significant changes in social interactions in everyday life. The present study examined how older adults' patterns of everyday momentary social interactions (i.e., with no one, partner, family, and friends) and their affect varied across the early stages of the pandemic and whether the magnitude of affective benefits associated with social interactions changed across time. A total of 188 adults aged 50 or above (Mage = 62.05) completed momentary assessments in early March, late March, May, and July 2020. Overall, older adults spent more time in solitude and less time interacting with their friends after the declaration of the pandemic. Further, negative affect (NA) spiked after the pandemic declaration and then returned to pre-pandemic level. Finally, momentary interactions with close social ties were consistently associated with higher positive affect (PA) and lower NA whereas momentary solitude was associated with lower PA, but not related to NA. The magnitude of associations between specific social interactions (or solitude) and affect varied across time, and the onset of the pandemic appeared associated with this variation. During the presumably most stressful period, solitude was not associated with lower PA and family interaction was not associated with higher PA as they were at other times. Further, interactions with friends seemed to have diminished affective benefits following the onset of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Interaction , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Friends , Humans , Pandemics
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264614, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Novel infectious diseases have the potential to both strengthen or weaken interpersonal relationships within a society. In a collectivist setting such as Thailand amplification of relationships may be particularly marked, but may be associated with individual factors, including personal values and perceived control over the virus. METHODS: A national on-street survey in Thailand (April 2020, N = 1,000), collected data from five regions across the country (response rate 82.6%). Participants reported demographics, anxiety, perceived control, and personal values of security and universalism, and indicated changes, from negative to positive, across four relationship types (relationship partners, family, friendships and neighbourhood). RESULTS: While relationship changes were small overall, there was an improvement in close relations (partners, family members) but not amongst friends and neighbours. Respondents who were married without children recorded less enhancement of partnerships, friendships and neighbourhood relations. Those with less perceived control over the infection reported relationship decline, while single people reported fewer positive changes in their partnership or family relations. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the prioritisation of security was associated with a decline in each of the relationships, while universalism was positively associated with change in the family, in friendships and neighbourly relations. CONCLUSIONS: Personal values and marital status may impact on relationship functioning during a national health crisis. These issues should be considered by clinicians and health practitioners when trying to assist those struggling with interpersonal relations during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Thailand/epidemiology
15.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1161): 485-486, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832546
16.
Immunol Rev ; 303(1): 83-102, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816563

ABSTRACT

Most antibodies produced in the body are of the IgA class. The dominant cell population producing them are plasma cells within the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, but many IgA-producing cells are also found in the airways, within mammary tissues, the urogenital tract and inside the bone marrow. Most IgA antibodies are transported into the lumen by epithelial cells as part of the mucosal secretions, but they are also present in serum and other body fluids. A large part of the commensal microbiota in the gut is covered with IgA antibodies, and it has been demonstrated that this plays a role in maintaining a healthy balance between the host and the bacteria. However, IgA antibodies also play important roles in neutralizing pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract and the upper airways. The distinction between the two roles of IgA - protective and balance-maintaining - not only has implications on function but also on how the production is regulated. Here, we discuss these issues with a special focus on gut and airways.


Subject(s)
Friends , Immunoglobulin A , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa , Mucous Membrane , Plasma Cells
17.
Australas J Ageing ; 41(3): 414-423, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine loneliness experienced by middle-aged and older Chinese immigrants and its association with accepting technology as a companion (apps, Internet and robots) versus owning pets, when social distancing measures were implemented in New Zealand during the first COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This study conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey. Chinese immigrants who were 45-87 years old (n = 173) were invited to answer an online survey in the Chinese language, collecting demographic data, responses to the 6-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and experiences in using technology and pet ownership. Descriptive analyses and inferential statistics tests were utilised in the data analysis. RESULTS: A moderate level of overall loneliness with a mean score of 3.68 (SD 1.84), ranging from 0 to 6, was reported by participants. Emotional and social loneliness ranged from 0 to 3 with mean scores of 1.69 (SD 0.98) and 1.99 (SD 1.24), respectively. Self-reported health, financial status, English language abilities, transportation and experiences of using the Internet and apps were significantly related to experiencing loneliness. Loneliness had a weak association with acceptance of robots and pets, but 67.8% and 58.3% of participants who felt lonely, accepted companionship of robots and pets, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The level of loneliness among older and middle-aged immigrants increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further evidence of the specific dimensions of loneliness and the utility of technology to alleviate loneliness among immigrant groups is needed. Interventions tailored for older people with specific cultural requirements to address loneliness are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Robotics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Friends , Humans , Language , Loneliness/psychology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Support
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(4): 552-556, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774332

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic thrust the field of public health into the spotlight. For many epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other public health professionals, this caused the professional aspects of our lives to collide with the personal, as friends and family reached out with concerns and questions. Learning how to navigate this space was new for many of us and required refining our communication style depending on context, setting, and audience. Some of us took to social media, utilizing our existing personal accounts to share information after sorting through and summarizing the rapidly emerging literature to keep loved ones safe. However, those in our lives sometimes asked unanswerable questions, or began distancing themselves when we suggested more stringent guidance than they had hoped for, causing additional stress during an already traumatic time. We often had to remind ourselves that we were also individuals experiencing this pandemic and that our time-intensive efforts were meaningful, relevant, and impactful. As this pandemic and other public health crises continue, we encourage members of our discipline to consider how we can best use shared lessons from this period and to recognize that our professional knowledge, when used in our personal lives, can promote, protect, and bolster confidence in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Friends , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Child Care Health Dev ; 48(6): 1017-1030, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Good quality friendships and relationships are critical to the development of social competence and are associated with quality of life and mental health in childhood and adolescence. Through social distancing and isolation restrictions, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the way in which youth socialize and communicate with friends, peers, teachers and family on a daily basis. In order to understand children's social functioning during the pandemic, it is essential to gather information on their experiences and perceptions concerning the social changes unique to this period. The objective of this study was to document children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their social life and friendships during the COVID-19 pandemic, through qualitative interviews. METHODS: Participants (N = 67, 5-14 years) were recruited in May and June 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted via a videoconferencing platform. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted based on the transcribed and coded interviews (NVivo). RESULTS: The upheavals related to the pandemic provoked reflection among the participants according to three main themes, each of which included sub-themes: (1) the irreplaceable nature of friendship, (2) the unsuspected benefits of school for socialization and (3) the limits and possibilities of virtual socialization. CONCLUSIONS: The collection of rich, qualitative information on the perspectives of children and adolescents provides a deeper understanding of the consequences of the pandemic on their socialization and psychological health and contributes to our fundamental understanding of social competence in childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Friends , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Socialization
20.
Gerontologist ; 62(8): 1160-1172, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed older adults to increased health risks, yet social distancing precautions also heightened risks to their social well-being. This mixed-methods study explores changes in older adults' satisfaction with social engagement and interpersonal connections throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Midwestern sample of 76 older adults aged 70-97 completed a series of 4 interviews from March 2020 through April 2021 about their experiences with COVID-19 social distancing precautions. Participants reported social engagement satisfaction and frequency of contact with family and friends. Additionally, they responded to open-ended questions about social connection experiences. RESULTS: Satisfaction with social engagement rebounded with significant increases across the year of the pandemic, whereas frequency of contact shifted from high remote contact early in the pandemic to greater in-person contact over time, with nuanced distinctions between family and friends. Qualitative thematic analysis identified themes including: (1) shifts in family support, (2) adaptable and flexible friendships, (3) social isolation fatigue, and (4) communication through technology. Within each theme, perceptions of interpersonal connections shifted over time. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Findings suggest diverse social connection experiences among older adults, yet general patterns of strong social connections and adaptation over time. Future research should build upon these findings to better understand older adults' social needs and seek to explore ways to best foster social connections during instances of forced social isolation or historical crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Friends , Humans , Social Isolation
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