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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(8): 663-665, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948550

ABSTRACT

We describe 3 children with new-onset neurocognitive problems after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), that showed, at the brain [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, hypometabolism in the left orbito-frontal region. The voxel-wise analysis confirmed a cluster of hypometabolic voxels in this region with a peak at -18/46/-4mm (179 voxels, T-Score 8.1). These findings may explain neurocognitive symptoms that some children develop after COVID-19 and require further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
2.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 146(2): 194-198, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is common during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathophysiology of the persistence of this symptom and the potential relationship with central nervous system involvement is unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the neural correlates of persistent olfactory dysfunction in a series of patients with post-COVID syndrome. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with post-COVID syndrome were assessed with the Brief Smell Identification Test and a multimodal MRI study including 3D-T1, T2-FLAIR, diffusion-tensor imaging, and arterial spin labeling. Olfactory and neuroimaging examinations were performed 11.18 ± 3.78 months after the acute infection. Voxel-based brain mapping analyses were conducted to correlate the olfactory test with brain volumes, white matter microstructure, and brain perfusion. RESULTS: Olfactory dysfunction was associated with lower tissue perfusion in the orbital and medial frontal regions in the arterial spin labeling sequence. Conversely, no statistically significant findings were detected in brain volumes and diffusion-tensor imaging. Mild changes in paranasal sinuses and nasal cavities were detected in 9.75% of cases, with no association with olfactory deficits. CONCLUSIONS: We provide new insights regarding the pathophysiology of persistent olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19, involving the main brain regions associated with the olfactory system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Perfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(9): e340-e343, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370831

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe a term newborn with acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and multisystem involvement including seizures associated to ischemic lesions in the brain. BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominantly a respiratory infection, but it may affect many other systems. Most pediatric COVID-19 cases range from asymptomatic to mild-moderate disease. There are no specific clinical signs described for neonatal COVID-19 infections. In children, severe central nervous system compromise has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a 17-day-old newborn who acquired a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a family meeting that was admitted for fever, seizures and lethargy and in whom consumption coagulopathy, ischemic lesions in the brain and cardiac involvement were documented. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 neonatal infection can be associated with multi-organic involvement. In our patient, significant central nervous system compromise associated to ischemic lesions and laboratory findings of consumption coagulopathy were found. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections are infrequent, they can be associated with multi-organic involvement. Neonatologists and pediatricians should be aware of this unusual way of presentation of COVID-19 in newborn infants.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Fever , Frontal Lobe/blood supply , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/drug therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/pathology , Lethargy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Seizures
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295522

ABSTRACT

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can influence emotional predictions, constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage), and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which IU affects emotional predictions are unclear. This high-density EEG study investigated if IU predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain sources activity developing along the stages of emotional predictions, as a function of contextual uncertainty. Thirty-six undergraduates underwent a S1-S2 paradigm, with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s, respectively. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks, each with 100%, 75%, or 50% S1-S2 emotional congruency. ERPs, brain sources and their relationship with IU scores were analyzed for each stage. IU did not affect prediction generation. During prediction implementation, higher IU predicted larger Contingent Negative Variation in the 75% block, and lower left anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area activations. During prediction updating, as IU increased P2 to positive S2s decreased, along with P2 and Late Positive Potential in the 75% block, and right orbito-frontal cortex activity to emotional S2s. IU was therefore associated with altered uncertainty assessment and heightened attention deployment during implementation, and to uncertainty avoidance, reduced attention to safety cues and disrupted access to emotion regulation strategies during prediction updating.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions/physiology , Fear/physiology , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Behavior/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping , Contingent Negative Variation/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Face/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Forecasting , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Humans , Male , Uncertainty , Young Adult
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2651-2657, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799153

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and their metabolic correlates using brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. COVID-19-related encephalopathy has seldom been reported and studied. METHODS: We report four cases of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The diagnosis was made in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with new-onset cognitive disturbances, central focal neurological signs, or seizures. All patients underwent cognitive screening, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT). RESULTS: The four patients were aged 60 years or older, and presented with various degrees of cognitive impairment, with predominant frontal lobe impairment. Two patients presented with cerebellar syndrome, one patient had myoclonus, one had psychiatric manifestations, and one had status epilepticus. The delay between first COVID-19 symptoms and onset of neurological symptoms was between 0 and 12 days. None of the patients had MRI features of encephalitis nor significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the CSF was negative for all patients. All patients presented with a consistent brain FDG-PET/CT pattern of abnormalities, namely frontal hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. All patients improved after immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varied clinical presentations, all patients presented with a consistent FDG-PET pattern, which may reflect an immune mechanism.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Brain Diseases/psychology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Treatment Outcome
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