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1.
Mar Drugs ; 20(5)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875691

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the logarithmic production of existing well-known food materials is unable to keep up with the demand caused by the exponential growth of the human population in terms of the equality of access to food materials. Famous local food materials with treasury properties such as mangrove fruits are an excellent source to be listed as emerging food candidates with ethnomedicinal properties. Thus, this study reviews the nutrition content of several edible mangrove fruits and the innovation to improve the fruit into a highly economic food product. Within the mangrove fruit, the levels of primary metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, and fat are acceptable for daily intake. The mangrove fruits, seeds, and endophytic fungi are rich in phenolic compounds, limonoids, and their derivatives as the compounds present a multitude of bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant. In the intermediary process, the flour of mangrove fruit stands as a supplementation for the existing flour with antidiabetic or antioxidant properties. The mangrove fruit is successfully transformed into many processed food products. However, limited fruits from species such as Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Avicennia marina are commonly upgraded into traditional food, though many more species demonstrate ethnomedicinal properties. In the Middle East, A. marina is the dominant species, and the study of the phytochemicals and fruit development is limited. Therefore, studies on the development of mangrove fruits to functional for other mangrove species are demanding. The locally accepted mangrove fruit is coveted as an alternate food material to support the sustainable development goal of eliminating world hunger in sustainable ways.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Rhizophoraceae , Antioxidants/metabolism , Functional Food , Humans , Phytochemicals/analysis , Rhizophoraceae/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875645

ABSTRACT

Actinidia latifolia is one of the very few kiwifruit genotypes with extremely high ascorbic acid (AsA) content. However, a transcriptome atlas of this species is lacking. The accumulation of AsA during fruit development and ripening and the associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Herein, dynamic changes in AsA content at six different stages of A. latifolia fruit development and ripening were determined. AsA content of A. latifolia fruit reached 1108.76 ± 35.26 mg 100 g-1 FW at full maturity. A high-quality, full-length (FL) transcriptome of A. latifolia was successfully constructed for the first time using third-generation sequencing technology. The transcriptome comprises 326,926 FL non-chimeric reads, 15,505 coding sequences, 2882 transcription factors, 18,797 simple sequence repeats, 3328 long noncoding RNAs, and 231 alternative splicing events. The genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were identified and compared with those in different kiwifruit genotypes. The correlation between the AsA content and expression levels of key genes in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways was revealed. LncRNAs that participate in AsA-related gene expression regulation were also identified. Gene expression patterns in AsA biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited a trend similar to that of AsA accumulation. Overall, this study paves the way for genetic engineering to develop kiwifruits with super-high AsA content.


Subject(s)
Actinidia , Actinidia/genetics , Actinidia/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Transcriptome
3.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869726

ABSTRACT

Women with low household income and from racial/ethnic minority groups are at elevated risk of food insecurity. Food insecurity during pregnancy is associated with overall less healthy diets, lower intake of the pregnancy-supportive nutrients iron and folate, and significant variations in diet across the course of a month. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of an ongoing $40/month supplement for fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) provided to pregnant people enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Children (WIC). Our primary outcome was food insecurity using the USDA 6-item survey, and our secondary outcome was dietary intake of F&Vs based on the 10-item Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Participants in intervention and comparison counties completed surveys at enrollment and approximately three months later (n = 609). Mean ± SD food insecurity at baseline was 3.67 ± 2.79 and 3.47 ± 2.73 in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, and the adjusted between-group change from baseline to follow-up in food insecurity was 0.05 [95% CI: -0.35, 0.44] (p > 0.05). F&V intake (in cup equivalents) was 2.56 ± 0.95 and 2.51 ± 0.89 at baseline in the two groups, and the adjusted mean between-group difference in changes from baseline was -0.06 [-0.23, 0.11] (p > 0.05). Recruitment and data collection for this study coincided with the most intensive of America's COVID relief efforts. Our results may indicate that small increases in highly targeted food resources make less of a difference in the context of larger, more general resources being provided to individuals and households in need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Child , Diet , Female , Food Security , Food Supply , Fruit , Humans , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Vegetables
4.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869723

ABSTRACT

Berry consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure. Intestinal microbiota transform berry phytochemicals into more bioactive forms. Thus, we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials to determine whether berry polyphenols in foods, extracts or supplements have effects on both the profile of gut microbiota and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in humans. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched for randomized clinical trials in humans published from 1 January 2011 to 29 October 2021. Search results were imported into Covidence for screening and data extraction by two blinded reviewers, who also performed bias assessment independently. The literature search identified 216 publications; after duplicates were removed, 168 publications were screened with 12 full-text publications assessed for eligibility. Ultimately three randomized clinical trials in humans met the eligibility criteria. One randomized clinical trial showed a low risk of bias while the other two randomized clinical trials included low, high or unclear risk of bias. Together the randomized clinical trials showed that berry consumption (Aronia berry, strawberries, raspberries, cloudberries and bilberries) for 8-12 weeks had no significant effect on both blood pressure and the gut microbiota. More randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of berry consumption on the profile of gut microbiota and blood pressure in humans.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Polyphenols , Blood Pressure , Fruit , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809865

ABSTRACT

Vegetables constitute a major component of human food security. They are the main sources of essential nutrients including antioxidants, natural dyes, minerals, and vitamins. Eating habit issues related to the consumption of vegetables are gaining importance within the context of a healthy lifestyle, longevity, and physical fitness. Additionally, food quality is of primary importance, and so-called eco-food (defined as food as natural as possible, without fertilizers, pesticides, or preservatives) seems to be the most popular world-trend in healthy nutrition. Keeping these ideas in focus, research on vegetable consumption in Poland in the context of conventional or organic production was performed using online questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that the rate of vegetable consumption depended primarily on economic status, except for the potato, which was a staple cutting across all economic strata. Among the 108 analyzed respondents, 74% bought vegetables from certified organic farms. However, 59% bought organic vegetables "rarely" or "sometimes", and only 15% "often". Next, respondents chose to buy vegetables from fresh food markets (45%) and in local shops (41%). About 20% of the respondents acquired vegetables from their own farms. Among the reasons for choosing vegetables from certified organic farms, respondents mentioned in decreasing order: "desire for proper nutrition" (30%), "thinking that organic vegetables are healthier" (28%), and "organic vegetables are generally better" (7%).


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Vegetables , Diet , Food Security , Fruit , Humans , Organic Agriculture , Poland
6.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785849

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has acted as a reset on global economies, providing us with the opportunity to build back greener and ensure global warming does not surpass 1.5 °C. It is time for developed nations to commit to red meat reduction targets and shift to plant-based dietary patterns. Transitioning to plant-based diets (PBDs) has the potential to reduce diet-related land use by 76%, diet-related greenhouse gas emissions by 49%, eutrophication by 49%, and green and blue water use by 21% and 14%, respectively, whilst garnering substantial health co-benefits. An extensive body of data from prospective cohort studies and controlled trials supports the implementation of PBDs for obesity and chronic disease prevention. The consumption of diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, and unsaturated vegetable oils, and low in animal products, refined grains, and added sugars are associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Meat appreciation, health concerns, convenience, and expense are prominent barriers to PBDs. Strategic policy action is required to overcome these barriers and promote the implementation of healthy and sustainable PBDs.


Subject(s)
Diet , Vegetables , Animals , Fruit , Humans , Prospective Studies , Whole Grains
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785662

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this communication is to describe the preliminary evaluation of the Virginia Fresh Match (VFM) financial incentive program for fresh fruits and vegetables for Virginia Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program shoppers and to determine if there were differences in incentive outcomes by race. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was administered to shoppers using Virginia Fresh Match incentives at participating farmers markets and community-based food retail outlets. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to detect differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between demographic groups over time. Chi-square tests were used to determine if there were associations between race and perceived impact of VFM incentives on making food last and the attribution of VFM incentives to changes in fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was significantly higher during VFM incentive use, with a difference of 1.17 ± 0.07 and 1.07 ± 0.07 on a Likert scale measure, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). There were racial differences in assertions that VFM incentives helped food to last. VFM incentives were effective at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but racial differences should be considered in the administration of VFM to avoid reinforcing systems or approaches that may contribute to disparities in food access and food security.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Vegetables , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Motivation , Virginia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5914, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784027

ABSTRACT

Secondary plant metabolites remain one of the key sources of therapeutic agents despite the development of new approaches for the discovery of medicinal drugs. In the current study, chemical analysis, and biological activities of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) methanolic extract were evaluated. Chemical analysis was performed using HPLC and GC-MS. Antiviral and anticancer effect were assessed using the crystal violet technique and activity against human liver cells (HepG2), respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested with the disc diffusion method. The obtained results showed that chlorogenic acid (2107.96 ± 0.07 µg/g), catechin (168 ± 0.58 µg/g), and gallic acid (15.66 ± 0.02 µg/g) were the main bioactive compounds identified by HPLC techniques. While, compounds containing furan moieties, as well as levoglucosenone, isochiapin B, dotriacontane, 7-nonynoic acid and tert-hexadecanethiol, with different biological activities were identified by GC-MS. Additionally, inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging was 79.25% at 2000 µg/mL, indicating its antioxidant activity with IC50 of 728.20 ± 1.04 µg/mL. The tested extract exhibited potential anticancer activity (58.90% toxicity) against HepG2 cells at 1000 µg/mL. Potential bacterial inhibition was observed mainly against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of growth inhibition ranging from 13 to 24 mm. While weak activities were recorded for fungi Candida albicans (10 mm). The extract showed mild antiviral activity against human coronavirus 229E with a selective index (SI) of 10.4, but not against human H3N2 (SI of 0.67). The molecular docking study's energy ratings were in good promise with the experiment documents of antibacterial and antiviral activities. The findings suggest that D. caffra juice extract is a potential candidate for further experiments to assess its use as potential alternative therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Salicaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 147, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the UK implemented the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (furlough) to minimise job losses. Our aim was to investigate associations between furlough and diet, physical activity, and sleep during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on 25,092 participants aged 16-66 years from eight UK longitudinal studies. Changes in employment, including being furloughed, were based on employment status before and during the first lockdown. Health behaviours included fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Study-specific estimates obtained using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and pre-pandemic health and health behaviours, were statistically pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Associations were also stratified by sex, age, and education. RESULTS: Across studies, between 8 and 25% of participants were furloughed. Compared to those who remained working, furloughed workers were slightly less likely to be physically inactive (RR = 0.85; [95% CI 0.75-0.97]; I 2 = 59%) and did not differ overall with respect to low fruit and vegetable consumption or atypical sleep, although findings for sleep were heterogenous (I 2 = 85%). In stratified analyses, furlough was associated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption among males (RR = 1.11; [1.01-1.22]; I 2 = 0%) but not females (RR = 0.84; [0.68-1.04]; I 2 = 65%). Considering changes in quantity, furloughed workers were more likely than those who remained working to report increases in fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, and hours of sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Those furloughed exhibited similar health behaviours to those who remained in employment during the initial stages of the pandemic. There was little evidence to suggest that adoption of such social protection policies in the post-pandemic recovery period and during future economic crises had adverse effects on population health behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Exercise , Fruit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vegetables , Young Adult
10.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105502, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778063

ABSTRACT

The fundamental role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has long been associated with regulation of gene expression during transcription and post transcription of mRNA's 3'UTR by the RNA interference mechanism. Also, the process of how miRNAs tend to induce mRNA degradation has been predominantly studied in many infectious diseases. In this article, we would like to discuss the interaction of dietary plant miRNAs derived from fresh fruits against the viral genome of the causative agent of COVID-19, specifically targeting the 3'UTR of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) genome. Expanding the analysis, we have also identified plant miRNAs that interact against the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 across 37 countries/territories throughout the world. This cross-species virus-plant interaction led us to identify the alignment of dietary plant miRNAs found in fruits like Citrus sinensis (Orange), Prunus persica (Peaches), Vitis vinifera (Grapes) and Malus domestica (Apple) onto the viral genomes. In particular, the interaction of C. sinensis miRNA - csi-miR169-3p and SARS-CoV-2 is noteworthy, as the targeted 3'UTR region "CTGCCT" is found conserved amongst all curated 772 Omicron variants across the globe. Hence this site "CTGCCT" and miRNA csi-miR169-3p may become promising therapeutic candidates to induce viral genome silencing. Thereby, this study reveals the mechanistic way of how fruits tend to enact a fight against viruses like SARS-CoV-2 and aid in maintaining a strong immune system of an individual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citrus sinensis , Malus , MicroRNAs , 3' Untranslated Regions , COVID-19/genetics , Citrus sinensis/genetics , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775820

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neighborhood environment factors are relevant for dietary behaviors, but associations between home neighborhood context and disease prevention behaviors vary depending on the definition of neighborhood. The present study uses a publicly available dataset to examine whether associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and fruit/vegetable (FV) consumption vary when NSES is defined by different neighborhood sizes and shapes. Methods: We analyzed data from 1,736 adults with data in GeoFLASHE, a geospatial extension of the National Cancer Institute's Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study (FLASHE). We examined correlations of NSES values across neighborhood buffer shapes (circular or street network) and sizes (ranging from 400 to 1,200 m) and ran weighted simple and multivariable regressions modeling frequency of FV consumption by NSES for each neighborhood definition. Regressions were also stratified by gender. Results: NSES measures were highly correlated across various neighborhood buffer definitions. In models adjusted for socio-demographics, circular buffers of all sizes and street buffers 750 m and larger were significantly associated with FV consumption frequency for women only. Conclusion: NSES may be particularly relevant for women's FV consumption, and further research can examine whether these associations are explained by access to food stores, food shopping behavior, and/or psychosocial variables. Although different NSES buffers are highly correlated, researchers should conceptually determine spatial areas a priori.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Residence Characteristics , Adult , Female , Fruit , Humans , Social Class , Vegetables
12.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1013-1026, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the dietary quality of Canadian children and adults and household food insecurity status. DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed with one 24-h recall. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately or severely food insecure based on their responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module. We applied multivariable analyses of variance to determine whether % energy from ultra-processed foods, fruit and vegetable intake, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores, macronutrient composition and micronutrient intakes per 1000 kcal differed by food insecurity status after accounting for income, education and region. Analyses were run separately for children 1-8 years and 9-18 years and men and women 19-64 years of age. SETTING: Ten provinces in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Respondents to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, aged 1-64 years, with complete food insecurity data and non-zero energy intakes, N 15 909. RESULTS: Among adults and children, % energy from ultra-processed foods was strongly related to severity of food insecurity, but no significant trend was observed for fruit and vegetable intake or HEI score. Carbohydrate, total sugar, fat and saturated fat intake/1000 kcal did not differ by food insecurity status, but there was a significant negative trend in protein/1000 kcal among older children, a positive trend in Na/1000 kcal among younger children and inverse associations between food insecurity severity and several micronutrients/1000 kcal among adults and older children. CONCLUSIONS: With more severe household food insecurity, ultra-processed food consumption was higher, and diet quality was generally lower among both adults and children.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Supply , Adolescent , Adult , Canada , Child , Female , Food Insecurity , Fruit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686812

ABSTRACT

Flavonols are a subclass of natural flavonoids characterized by a remarkable number of biotechnological applications and health-promoting properties. They attract researchers' attention due to many epidemiological studies supporting their usage. They are phytochemicals commonly present in our diet, being ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and, in particular, relatively very abundant in fruits and vegetables. All these aspects make flavonols candidates of choice for the valorization of products, based on the presence of a remarkable number of different chemical structures, each one characterized by specific chemical features capable of influencing biological targets inside the living organisms in very different manners. In this review, we analyzed the biochemical and physiological characteristics of flavonols focalizing our attention on the most promising compounds to shed some light on their increasing utilization in biotechnological applications in processing industries, as well as their suitable employment to improve the overall wellness of the humankind.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Flavonols/metabolism , Flavonols/pharmacology , Food Industry , Fruit/chemistry , Functional Food , Humans , Vegetables/chemistry
14.
Food Chem ; 382: 132251, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654433

ABSTRACT

Ascorbic acid (AA) and eugenol (EUG) are well-known antioxidants found in several fruits, spices and herbs. In particular, the EUG, one of the major phytocompounds present in clove, acts as pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant depending on its concentration. Considering the medical importance of AA and EUG and its extensive usage in the form of food and medicine, we have developed a voltammetric sensor based on hydroxyapatite-TiO2 composite modified GCE for their selective and simultaneous determination over very wide linear range of 2.78-2490 µM for AA and 1.4-78 µM for EUG with the LODs of 63.3 nM and 94 nM respectively. Practical applicability of the prepared electrode has been demonstrated by detecting AA and EUG in lemon juice, vitamin tablet, clove oil and Kabasura Kudineer, an herbal decoction used as an immunity booster against number of diseases including Covid-19. The proposed HAP-TiO2/GCE shall be useful for food and pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Plants, Medicinal , Ascorbic Acid , Dopamine/analysis , Durapatite , Electrodes , Eugenol , Fruit/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Titanium
15.
J Food Biochem ; 46(5): e14062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627170

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic drugs based on natural products for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 are currently unavailable. This study was conducted to develop an anti-SARS-CoV-2 herbal medicine to face the urgent need for COVID-19 treatment. The bioactive components from ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera fruits (MOFs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Molecular-docking analyses elucidated the binding effects of identified phytocomponents against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYB) and human ACE2 receptor (PDB ID: 1R42) through the Glide module of Maestro software. GC-MS analysis unveiled the presence of 33 phytocomponents. Eighteen phytocomponents exhibited good binding affinity toward ACE2 receptor, and thirteen phytocomponents had a high affinity with spike glycoprotein. This finding suggests that the top 11 hits (Docking score ≥ -3.0 kcal/mol) could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 propagation. Intriguingly, most of the phytoconstituents displayed drug-likeness with no predicted toxicity. However, further studies are needed to validate their effects and mechanisms of action. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Moringa oleifera (MO) also called "drumstick tree" has been used as an alternative food source to combat malnutrition and may act as an immune booster. GC-MS analysis unveiled that ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera fruits (MOFs) possessed 33 active components of pyridine, aromatic fatty acid, oleic acid, tocopherol, methyl ester, diterpene alcohol, triterpene and fatty acid ester and their derivatives, which have various pharmacological and medicinal values. Virtual screening study of phytocomponents of MOF with human ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein exhibited good binding affinity. Based on molecular docking, the top 11 hits (Docking score ≥-3.0 kcal/mol) might serve as potential lead molecules in antiviral drug development. Intriguingly, most of the phytoconstituents displayed drug-likeness with no predicted toxicity. Thus, MOF might be used as a valuable source for antiviral drug development to combat COVID-19, an ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Moringa oleifera , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Esters/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fruit/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
16.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 385-387, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624918

ABSTRACT

Both global and US data show associations between COVID-19 death rates and overweight or obesity, which are also risk factors for several other outcomes. Evidence suggests that among the strategies to reduce overweight and obesity are the simple actions of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Potential benefits include saving thousands of lives and billions of dollars in a future pandemic and reduced risk of other chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fruit , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622609

ABSTRACT

Kiwifruit is moderately sweet and sour and quite popular among consumers; it has been widely planted in some areas of the world. In 2019, the crown gall disease of kiwifruit was discovered in the main kiwifruit-producing area of Guizhou Province, China. This disease can weaken and eventually cause the death of the tree. The phylogeny, morphological and biological characteristics of the bacteria were described, and were related to diseases. The pathogenicity of this species follows the Koch hypothesis, confirming that A. fabacearum is the pathogen of crown gall disease of kiwifruit in China. In this study, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) analysis for genome-specific gene sequences was developed for the specific detection of A. fabacearum. The detection limit of the LAMP method is 5 × 10-7 ng/µL, which has high sensitivity. At the same time, the amplified product is stained with SYBR Green I after the reaction is completed, so that the amplification can be detected with the naked eye. LAMP analysis detected the presence of A. fabacearum in the roots and soil samples of the infected kiwifruit plant. The proposed LAMP detection technology in this study offers the advantages of ease of operation, visibility of results, rapidity, accuracy and high sensitivity, making it suitable for the early diagnosis of crown gall disease of kiwifruit.


Subject(s)
Actinidia/microbiology , Agrobacterium/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Plant Tumors/microbiology , Agrobacterium/pathogenicity , Base Sequence , China , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Species Specificity
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 1-9, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606062

ABSTRACT

The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans* advise incorporating more fruits and vegetables into U.S. residents' diets as part of healthy dietary patterns. Adults should consume 1.5-2 cup-equivalents of fruits and 2-3 cup-equivalents of vegetables daily.† A healthy diet supports healthy immune function (1) and helps to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers (2); having some of these conditions can predispose persons to more severe illness and death from COVID-19 (3). CDC used the most recent 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system (BRFSS) data to estimate the percentage of states' adult population who met intake recommendations overall and by sociodemographic characteristics for 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC). Overall, 12.3% of adults met fruit recommendations, ranging from 8.4% in West Virginia to 16.1% in Connecticut, and 10.0% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.6% in Kentucky to 16.0% in Vermont. The prevalence of meeting fruit intake recommendations was highest among Hispanic adults (16.4%) and lowest among males (10.1%); meeting vegetable intake recommendations was highest among adults aged ≥51 years (12.5%) and lowest among those living below or close to the poverty level (income to poverty ratio [IPR] <1.25) (6.8%). Additional policies§ and programs that will increase access to fruits and vegetables in places where U.S. residents live, learn, work, and play, might increase consumption and improve health.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Fruit , Nutrition Policy , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Vegetables , Adult , Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597256

ABSTRACT

Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
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