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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1831-1833, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835131

ABSTRACT

A 36-year-old female presented with blurring of vision in one eye for 10 days after 1 month of an episode of COVID-19 infection. Her fundus showed disc edema with blurring of margins along with exudation around the fovea. Her C-reactive protein levels were raised. She responded well to oral steroids. A likely association with COVID-19 infection and its associated immune response was suspected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinitis , Adult , Edema , Female , Fundus Oculi , Humans
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(2): 670-672, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810688

ABSTRACT

A 23-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of bilateral (OU) diminution of vision 3 weeks after COVID-19 infection. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/30 in right eye and 20/40 in left eye. Anterior segment showed OU 1+ cells in anterior chamber and anterior vitreous face. Fundus OU showed disc hyperemia and multiple pockets of subretinal fluid (SRF), confirmed on optical coherence tomography. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed multiple pin point leaks suggestive of Vogt Koyanagi Harada disease. Oral corticosteroids 1 mg/kg/day were started. At 2-months' follow-up, her BCVA improved to 20/25 OU with complete resolution of SRF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome , Adult , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/diagnosis , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(2): 673-676, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810682

ABSTRACT

A 41-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of decrease of vision in his left eye. Initial examination was consistent with retrobulbar optic neuritis, and an intravenous drip of methylprednisolone was started. On the third day, the fundus examination revealed the appearance of multiple Purtscher-like cotton-wool spots in the posterior pole and nasally to the optic disc, slight retinal whitening around the fovea, and cherry-red spot. The patient reported flu-like symptoms, and he tested positive at PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test for 2019-nCoV (2019 novel coronavirus) infection. Assuming possible 2019-nCoV-related vascular damage, we prescribed low-molecular-weight heparin. The lesions were regressing at follow-up, and we registered a complete visual recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Diseases , Adult , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Retina , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 858327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776086

ABSTRACT

Early detection of vessels from fundus images can effectively prevent the permanent retinal damages caused by retinopathies such as glaucoma, hyperextension, and diabetes. Concerning the red color of both retinal vessels and background and the vessel's morphological variations, the current vessel detection methodologies fail to segment thin vessels and discriminate them in the regions where permanent retinopathies mainly occur. This research aims to suggest a novel approach to take the benefit of both traditional template-matching methods with recent deep learning (DL) solutions. These two methods are combined in which the response of a Cauchy matched filter is used to replace the noisy red channel of the fundus images. Consequently, a U-shaped fully connected convolutional neural network (U-net) is employed to train end-to-end segmentation of pixels into vessel and background classes. Each preprocessed image is divided into several patches to provide enough training images and speed up the training per each instance. The DRIVE public database has been analyzed to test the proposed method, and metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity and Specificity have been measured for evaluation. The evaluation indicates that the average extraction accuracy of the proposed model is 0.9640 on the employed dataset.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Retinal Vessels/anatomy & histology
5.
Retina ; 42(4): 628-633, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764685

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe ophthalmological fundoscopic findings in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit of the largest third-level referral center for COVID-19 in Mexico City. METHODS: In this cross-sectional single-center study, consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of COVID-19 underwent fundus examination with an indirect ophthalmoscope. Clinical photographs were taken using a posterior-pole camera. We explored the association between ocular manifestations and demographic characteristics, inflammatory markers, hemodynamic factors, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 117 patients examined, 74 were men; the median age was 54 years (range: 45-63 years). Forty-two patients had ophthalmological manifestations (unilateral in 23 and bilateral in 19), and 10 of these patients had more than one ophthalmological manifestation. Ocular findings were papillitis (n = 13), cotton wool spots (n = 12), retinal hemorrhages (n = 5), retinal nerve fiber layer edema (n = 8), macular whitening (n = 5), retinal vascular tortuosity (n = 4), papillophlebitis (n = 3), central retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), and branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1). Ocular fundus manifestations were not associated with demographic characteristics, inflammatory markers, hemodynamic factors, or comorbidities. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of patients with severe COVID-19 had ophthalmological manifestations. The most frequent fundoscopic findings were optic nerve inflammation, microvasculature occlusion, and major vascular occlusions. We recommend long-term follow-up to prevent permanent ocular sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vein Occlusion , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis
6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 236: 241-248, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and accuracy of nonmydriatic ultra-widefield (UWF) fundus photographs taken in a hematology clinic setting for screening of sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: This single-site study took place at the Johns Hopkins Sickle Cell Center for Adults and the Wilmer Eye Institute. The study population was 90 eyes of 46 consecutive adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Bilateral nonmydriatic fundus photos taken by clinic personnel during the participants' routine hematology appointment were graded by 2 masked retina specialists at the Wilmer Eye Institute for the presence of nonproliferative SCR (NPSR) and proliferative sickle retinopathy (PSR). A third retina specialist adjudicated in cases of grader disagreement. All participants underwent the standard dilated fundus examination (DFE) within 2 years of acquisition of UWF photographs. The main outcome measure was the sensitivity and specificity of nonmydriatic UWF images for the detection of NPSR and PSR RESULTS: PSR was noted in 19 of 90 eyes that underwent DFE and in 9 of 67 gradable UWF images. Interrater agreement between the 2 graders was moderate, with κ = 0.65 (range 0.43-0.87) for PSR. For gradable UWF photos, the sensitivity and specificity of detecting SCR using the nonmydriatic photos compared with the DFE were 85.2% and 62.5% for NPSR, respectively, and 69.2% and 100% for detection of PSR, respectively. One participant required ophthalmic therapy in both eyes for active sea-fan neovascularization. CONCLUSIONS: UWF imaging shows utility in screening for SCR and may help identify patients with PSR who require a DFE and who may benefit from treatment.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Diabetic Retinopathy , Hematology , Retinal Diseases , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Photography/methods , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/etiology
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3812865, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528593

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a diabetic complication affecting the eyes, which is the main cause of blindness in young and middle-aged people. In order to speed up the diagnosis of DR, a mass of deep learning methods have been used for the detection of this disease, but they failed to attain excellent results due to unbalanced training data, i.e., the lack of DR fundus images. To address the problem of data imbalance, this paper proposes a method dubbed retinal fundus images generative adversarial networks (RF-GANs), which is based on generative adversarial network, to synthesize retinal fundus images. RF-GANs is composed of two generation models, RF-GAN1 and RF-GAN2. Firstly, RF-GAN1 is employed to translate retinal fundus images from source domain (the domain of semantic segmentation datasets) to target domain (the domain of EyePACS dataset connected to Kaggle (EyePACS)). Then, we train the semantic segmentation models with the translated images, and employ the trained models to extract the structural and lesion masks (hereafter, we refer to it as Masks) of EyePACS. Finally, we employ RF-GAN2 to synthesize retinal fundus images using the Masks and DR grading labels. This paper verifies the effectiveness of the method: RF-GAN1 can narrow down the domain gap between different datasets to improve the performance of the segmentation models. RF-GAN2 can synthesize realistic retinal fundus images. Adopting the synthesized images for data augmentation, the accuracy and quadratic weighted kappa of the state-of-the-art DR grading model on the testing set of EyePACS increase by 1.53% and 1.70%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Middle Aged
10.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(10): 1484-1490, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509999

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can result in many ocular manifestations. We report a rare case of bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy post-infection with COVID-19 in a 38-year-old woman who presented with bilateral blurred vision 1 month after infection with COVID-19. She reported fever, cough, and shortness of breath and was COVID-PCR positive. During her 10-day hospital stay, she received oxygen, antibiotics, heparin and corticosteroids intravenously and then orally. After her recovery from COVID-19, the patient developed progressive visual loss in both eyes: her corrected visual acuity was 3/10 in both eyes, the anterior segment was normal, and the vitreous was clear. Fundus examination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral serous retinal detachments. Her course was characterized by improvement in visual acuity and regression of the retinal detachments. Central serous chorioretinopathy can occur after COVID-19 infection due to the administration of corticosteroids; thus, ophthalmologic examination is essential to detect ocular involvement as early as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy , Adult , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/diagnosis , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/etiology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
11.
Eye (Lond) ; 36(5): 994-1004, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the diagnostic accuracy of current machine learning classifiers for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Artificial intelligence diagnostic algorithms can automatically detect and diagnose AMD through training data from large sets of fundus or OCT images. The use of AI algorithms is a powerful tool, and it is a method of obtaining a cost-effective, simple, and fast diagnosis of AMD. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched systematically and thoroughly. Conferences held through Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology, and Canadian Society of Ophthalmology were searched. Studies were screened using Covidence software and data on sensitivity, specificity and area under curve were extracted from the included studies. STATA 15.0 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our search strategy identified 307 records from online databases and 174 records from gray literature. Total of 13 records, 64,798 subjects (and 612,429 images), were used for the quantitative analysis. The pooled estimate for sensitivity was 0.918 [95% CI: 0.678, 0.98] and specificity was 0.888 [95% CI: 0.578, 0.98] for AMD screening using machine learning classifiers. The relative odds of a positive screen test in AMD cases were 89.74 [95% CI: 3.05-2641.59] times more likely than a negative screen test in non-AMD cases. The positive likelihood ratio was 8.22 [95% CI: 1.52-44.48] and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.09 [95% CI: 0.02-0.52]. CONCLUSION: The included studies show promising results for the diagnostic accuracy of the machine learning classifiers for AMD and its implementation in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Macular Degeneration , Canada , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Machine Learning , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , United States
12.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(12): 1305-1311, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess retinal microcirculation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and compare the results with those obtained in healthy controls. METHODS: The study enrolled 39 patients who had fully recovered from COVID-19 and 40 healthy controls. OCT-A image acquisitions were obtained using AngioVue software (version 2017.1.0.151) and the RTVue XR Avanti imaging system (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Nonflow area in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the whole retinal vasculature, FAZ perimeter, acircularity index of FAZ, and foveal density were automatically obtained with the FAZ assessment tool. Vessel density (VD) at the SCP and deep capillary plexus were also measured. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the nonflow area and the FAZ area in the whole retina was greater in the COVID-19 group; however no statistically significant difference was observed (p > 0.05 respectively). As for vessel densities, all superficial parafoveal VD parameters were considerably higher in the COVID-19 group compared to the control group (p < 0.05 respectively). Despite the fact that the vessel densities in the remaining zones were lower in the COVID-19 group, those differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 respectively). CONCLUSION: VD at the parafoveal area of the SCP was significantly higher among patients in the late post-recovery period of COVID-19 disease compared to healthy controls. These findings show the impact of COVID-19 on the retinal microvasculature and its possible role as a risk factor for the development of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorescein Angiography , Fovea Centralis , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Microcirculation , Research Subjects , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19373, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442809

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 primarily affecting the respiratory system which can damage vessels walls virtually in any body district. Changes affecting retinal vessels are a good marker for systemic vascular alterations. This study investigated retinal vessels during the acute phase of COVID-19 and after patients recovery. Fifty-nine eyes from 32 COVID-19 patients and 80 eyes from 53 unexposed subjects were included. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were assessed through semi-automatic analysis on fundus color photos at baseline and 6 months later in patients and subjects unexposed to the virus. At baseline MAD and MVD were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (p < 0.0001). Both MAD and MVD significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients at follow-up (from 97.5 ± 10.9 to 92.2 ± 11.4 µm, p < 0.0001 and from 133.1 ± 19.3 to 124.6 ± 16.1 µm, p < 0.0001, respectively). Despite this reduction vessels diameter remained significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects. Transient retinal vessels dilation could serve a biomarker for systemic inflammation while long-lasting alterations seen in severe COVID-19 likely reflect irreversible structural damage to the vessels walls and should be further investigated for their possible effects on tissues perfusion and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retina/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 235: 98-110, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the occurrence of retinal microvasculopathy in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and who developed coronavirus disease (COVID-19). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Pubmed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched to identify studies that reported retina vascular changes in eyes with COVID-19. Two independent reviewers selected papers and extracted data for analysis. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed in RevMan Web versions 3.3. Quality of evidence was assessed using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool for a case-control study. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies reporting on 1373 subjects (972 COVID-19 and 401 controls) were included. Only case-control studies were included in the pooled analysis. There was a significantly higher likelihood of retinal microvasculopathy in subjects with COVID-19 compared to controls (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.86 [2.54-27.53], P < .01). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) revealed reduced vessel density and enlarged foveal avascular zone in subjects with COVID-19 compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that COVID-19-related retinal microvasculopathy is a significant ocular manifestation of COVID-19 and may herald future retinal complications. These microvascular impairments might have occurred antecedent to clinically visible changes and could be detected earlier by OCTA. These findings are significant, due to the large numbers with COVID-19, and need to be recognized by ophthalmologists as a potential long-term sequalae of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2867-2868, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441257

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old male presented with history of blurring of vision in the left eye for two months. He was seen by the local ophthalmologist and diagnosed as nongranulomatous anterior uveitis in the left eye with normal fundus. He had history of fever 20 days back and was diagnosed positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. He presented with acute anterior uveitis in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed a cotton wool spot close to the fovea, which was confirmed by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) of the macula. The patient after two months' follow-up showed resolution of the cotton wool spot, which was confirmed by SS-OCT. Our case indicates that cotton wool spot can be an ocular manifestation of COVID-19 infection, and swept-source optical coherence tomography can precisely document the resolution of the lesion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Adult , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(9): 3332-3339, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406537

ABSTRACT

With the popularization of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) technologies, more and more deep learning methods are developed to facilitate the detection of ophthalmic diseases. In this article, the deep learning-based detections for some common eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are analyzed. Generally speaking, morphological change in retina reveals the presence of eye disease. Then, while using some existing deep learning methods to achieve this analysis task, the satisfactory performance may not be given, since fundus images usually suffer from the impact of data imbalance and outliers. It is, therefore, expected that with the exploration of effective and robust deep learning algorithms, the detection performance could be further improved. Here, we propose a deep learning model combined with a novel mixture loss function to automatically detect eye diseases, through the analysis of retinal fundus color images. Specifically, given the good generalization and robustness of focal loss and correntropy-induced loss functions in addressing complex dataset with class imbalance and outliers, we present a mixture of those two losses in deep neural network model to improve the recognition performance of classifier for biomedical data. The proposed model is evaluated on a real-life ophthalmic dataset. Meanwhile, the performance of deep learning model with our proposed loss function is compared with the baseline models, while adopting accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as the evaluation metrics. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Glaucoma , Algorithms , Fundus Oculi , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , ROC Curve
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(9): 2321-2325, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371019

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the novel and innovative method of Safe Eye Examination (SEE) technique using the model eye for the purpose of teaching, training, and resident examination. METHODS: A questionnaire-based study (Descriptive Data) with 53 participants, including ophthalmology residents, fellows in various subspecialties, and trainee optometrists was used. In our study, we used the Reti Eye model, but instead of the usual retina template sheet, we used prominent pathological fundus photographs loaded into the model eye. The study participants were asked to view prominent pathological fundus images printed on a matte finish paper. A circular image was cut and was placed in the Reti Eye model. The candidates were made to perform indirect ophthalmoscopy with a + 20D lens and to fill up a Google image assessment scale questionnaire with characteristics, including pixelation, sharpness, contrast, reflexes, blotchy appearance, and diagnostic confidence, which were then analyzed and depicted. Association between categorical variables was analyzed using Fisher exact test and Chi-square test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All data were analyzed with a statistical software package (SPSS, Version 16.0 for Windows). RESULTS: The number of positive responses (>90%) obtained for the pixelation, sharpness, contrast, reflexes, blotchy appearance, and diagnostic confidence of the image viewed were statistically more significant than the negative responses (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The SEE technique of using the model eye can be incorporated for teaching, training, and skill assessment in the examinations in these difficult times of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Ophthalmoscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 642-644, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369009

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause conjunctivitis in up to 31.6% of patients. Additionally, retinal findings compatible with retinal microvascular ischemia have also been associated with coronavirus disease in asymptomatic patients. We describe a case of bilateral retinal changes compatible with microangiopathy occurring during the late phase of COVID-19.Case report: A 50-year-old man with bilateral pneumonia and positive polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 developed an arcuate visual field defect in his left eye. Funduscopy revealed multiple, bilateral cotton-wool spots without haemorraghes. OCT-angiography revealed multifocal areas of retinal microvascular ischemia in the superficial plexus, the largest of which corresponded to the arcuate scotoma observed in the automated perimetry.Conclusion: Visual field defects due to retinal microangiopathy can occur during the late phase of COVID-19. Vascular changes observed in the retina may mimic what may be happening in other, less-accessible organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capillaries/pathology , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmoscopy , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
20.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 753-757, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341060

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report a case of bilateral choroiditis following COVID-19 vaccination.Study Design: Case report.Results: A 34-year old male presented with visual loss one week after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Examination showed large serous detachment of the macula in the right eye and severe choroidal thickening noted on ultrasonography in both eyes. The patient's condition improved rapidly with oral corticosteroids with significant resolution of the serous detachments within two weeks of initiating treatment and complete visual recovery subsequently.Conclusions: The onset of ocular symptoms starting within one week following vaccination suggests an inflammatory or autoimmune response to the vaccine. Ophthalmologists should consider the option of autoimmune and other inflammatory ocular problems, which may manifest as uveitis, following COVID-19 vaccination. Timely diagnosis and treatment with corticosteroids can result in good visual and structural outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multifocal Choroiditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Visual Acuity , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Choroid/pathology , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Multifocal Choroiditis/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence
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